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Native language (L1) processing draws on implicit expectations. An open question is whether non-native learners of a second language (L2) similarly draw on expectations, and whether these expectations are based on learners’ L1 or L2 knowledge. We approach this question by studying inverse preference effects on lexical encoding. L1 and L2 speakers of Spanish described motion events, while they were either primed to express path, manner, or neither. In line with other work, we find that L1 speakers adapted more strongly after primes that are unexpected in their L1. For L2 speakers, adaptation depended on their L2 proficiency: The least proficient speakers exhibited the inverse preference effect on adaptation based on what was unexpected in their L1; but the more proficient speakers were, the more they exhibited inverse preference effects based on what was unexpected in the L2. We discuss implications for L1 transfer and L2 acquisition.
To what extent meditation techniques (which incorporate practices to regulate attention, construct individual values, or deconstruct self-related assumptions), are more or less effective than relaxation therapy in the treatment of anxiety, is not clear. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of meditation compared to relaxation in reducing anxiety. A systematic review from PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo and the Cochrane Central was conducted. A meta-analysis of 14 RCTs (n = 862 participants suffering from anxiety disorders or high trait anxiety) was performed. Effect sizes (ESs) were determined by Hedges’ g. Heterogeneity, risk of publication bias, quality of studies/interventions, and researcher allegiance, were evaluated. Meditation techniques incorporated attentional elements, and five of them also added constructive practices. No studies were found using deconstructive exercises. The overall ES was g = −0.23 [95% confidence interval (CI) −0.40 to −0.07], favouring meditation (number needed to treat = 7.74). Heterogeneity was low (I2 = 2; 95% CI 0 to 56). There was no evidence of publication bias, but few studies and interventions were of high quality, and allegiance might be moderating results. Meditation seems to be a bit more effective than relaxation in the treatment of anxiety, and it might also remain more effective at 12-month follow-up. However, more research using the full spectrum of meditation practices to treat different anxiety disorders, including independent studies to avoid researcher allegiance, is needed if we are to have a precise idea of the potential of these techniques compared to relaxation therapy.
The present study investigated the effects of nutritional programming through parental feeding on offspring performance and expression of selected genes related to stress resistance in a marine teleost. Gilthead seabream broodstock were fed diets containing various fish oil (FO)/vegetable oil ratios to determine their effects on offspring performance along embryogenesis, larval development and juvenile on-growing periods. Increased substitution of dietary FO by linseed oil (LO) up to 80 % LO significantly reduced the total number of eggs produced by kg per female per spawn. Moreover, at 30 d after hatching, parental feeding with increasing LO up to 80 % led to up-regulation of the fatty acyl desaturase 2 gene (fads2) that was correlated with the increase in conversion rates of related PUFA. Besides, cyclo-oxygenase 2 (cox2) and TNF-α (tnf-α) gene expression was also up-regulated by the increase in LO in broodstock diets up to 60 or 80 %, respectively. When 4-month-old offspring were challenged with diets having different levels of FO, the lowest growth was found in juveniles from broodstock fed 100 % FO. An increase in LO levels in the broodstock diet up to 60LO raised LC-PUFA levels in the juveniles, regardless of the juvenile’s diet. The results showed that it is possible to nutritionally programme gilthead seabream offspring through the modification of the fatty acid profiles of parental diets to improve the growth performance of juveniles fed low FO diets, inducing long-term changes in PUFA metabolism with up-regulation of fads2 expression. The present study provided the first pieces of evidence of the up-regulation of immune system-related genes in the offspring of parents fed increased FO replacement by LO.
The dawn of the fourth industrial revolution, mostly known through the German initiative “Industrie 4.0”, builds on a set of technologies emerging from software and information and communication technologies (ICT); paired with the growth of the Internet-of-Things (IoT), the so-called “smart products” are expanding on the market. These smart products integrate data collection and processing capacities. Additionally, the collected data have their own lifecycle, and can be classified as sensitive data. In that sense, companies developing hardware products may need support to step in “smart products” development. Digital transformation strategy is a possible overall support for companies. However, regarding smart product development and IoT data management, no studies to date have addressed formalized guidelines to support companies. This article proposes a set of guidelines focusing on IoT data management to support hardware companies in their transformation towards smart products. The proposed guidelines are exemplified on a fitness industry case which is using wearable devices collecting body metrics, considered as sensitive data.
In the course of the IPD International Summer School, two teams addressed the topic of devel-oping an integrated product, with the constraint of it being joyful for the user. One team has chosen an agile development approach whereas the second team approached it in a plan-driven manner. With the starting conditions for both teams being equal, a direct comparison between the agile and plan-driven development approach can be undertaken. The different courses of action are displayed and the different ways on how to approach the topic of achieving joy for the user are outlined. The results as well as the challenges associated with each approach are dis-cussed and an outlook on the transferability to other fields is given.
Healthcare organizations are required to provide workers with respiratory protection (RP) to mitigate hazardous airborne inhalation exposures. This study sought to better identify gaps that exist between RP guidance and clinical practice to understand issues that would benefit from additional research or clarification.
Restricted growth in utero and accelerated postnatal growth (APG) in the postnatal period have been associated with the development of overweight, obesity and an increased cardiovascular risk in childhood. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of prenatal and perinatal conditions on APG and to evaluate the influence of this APG on different cardiovascular risk factors such as body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (FMI), blood pressure (BP) and arterial wall stiffness [carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV)]. All measurements were performed in 355 children (185 boys and 170 girls; 8–11 years). Data on mother weight before and during pregnancy, gestational age (weeks), birth weight (g) and breastfeeding of children were obtained through interviews with families. Children who presented APG were born of mothers with lower BMIs before pregnancy and who gained less weight during the second trimester of pregnancy. They also have a lower gestational age and birth weight, a shorter duration of breastfeeding and a longer duration of artificial feeding (AF). Later in childhood, they had higher values of cf-PWV, BMI, FMI and higher prevalence of hypertension. Low maternal gestational weight gain, inadequate fetal development (low birth weight, shorter gestational age) and reduced breastfeeding duration favor APG. Infants with such APG had higher values of cf-PWV, BP, BMI and FMI later in childhood, along with a higher risk of hypertension and obesity. The interaction between APG and a longer duration of AF had a negative effect on cf-PWV (arterial stiffness) and FMI.
Popular fusion music in Peru's capital Lima has in recent years grown into a representative genre challenging existing segregation of Limeño society through interethnic and interclass interaction. Focusing on three case studies of Peruvian fusionists performing for the white upper classes, this article documents a shift in racialised notions of Andeanness and marginality among the white upper classes from 1960 to 2014, linking the changes in perception to the political and social context of those years. It examines the trajectories of Miki González (an older white fusion star who hires Andean musicians), La Sarita (an intercultural Andean rock band striving to balance the urban and the Andean) and Magaly Solier (a young Andean campesina (‘peasant’) actress and singer who hires white musicians). These case studies demonstrate how fusion music interactions contribute to re-shaping traditional cultural imaginaries, challenge racism, and project images of empowerment onto 21st century Andeans.
Tourists approaching wild animals can potentially cause disturbance as a result of the perceived predation risk. Risk effects arise when prey alter their behaviour in response to predators. This response may carry costs through its impact on fitness-related activities such as foraging. We recorded behavioural responses of whale sharks Rhincodon typus to experimental vessel and swimmer approaches. We simulated the disturbance caused by ecotourism in the foraging site of this planktivorous fish in Bahia de Los Angeles, Gulf of Baja California, Mexico. Stress-related behaviours (vigilance, change of direction, diving and acceleration) were more common directly after both types of disturbance than before, in particular after approach by a swimmer. Individuals were more likely to be vigilant when they were new to the bay, but we did not find evidence of within-season behavioural habituation. Sharks were 24% more likely to forage before human stimuli than after. Our study highlights negative effects of vessel and swimmer approaches on whale shark behaviour, with a short-term increase in stress-related behaviours potentially carrying energetic costs, combined with a decrease in food intake following the disturbance. Our results indicate concerns about the impact of ecotourism on large fish species. An important next step would be to determine whether these short-term behavioural responses to the perception of predation risk negatively affect fitness. Among other guidelines, we recommend preventing swimmers from approaching if whale sharks stop feeding when a vessel approaches.