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This study examines language mixing in 26 Spanish–English dual language
learners over the course of their first year of preschool. The children's
patterns of language choice while interacting in monolingual language contexts
were analyzed at age 3;6 and 4;5 to examine: (1) whether the frequency of
language mixing changed during the year; (2) whether mixing was related to
proficiency as measured by utterance length and lexical diversity; and (3)
whether there were different subgroups of children, among the participants, with
similar proficiency and language use patterns. The results indicate that
language mixing, which was low at both ages, was related to limited lexical
resources only at 3;6. However, by age 4;5, language choice was more constrained
by sociolinguistic variables – children's awareness of the
language prescribed by the majority culture – than by proficiency. An
exploratory cluster analysis further reveals different profiles of learners
sharing similar proficiency and language mixing characteristics.
Rescue excavations in Bethlehem undertaken by the Sapienza University of Rome and the Palestinian Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities—Department of Archaeology and Cultural Heritage—have revealed four Bronze Age necropolises. These newly discovered sites illuminate the development of pre-Classical Bethlehem.
The aim of this paper is to contribute to deciphering the evolutionary history of the Hellenides by the study of a large sector of the chain located between the front of the ophiolitic units and the external zones classically attributed to the continental margin of Adria. In particular, the tectonic units located in Boeotia – a key area located in Central Greece at the boundary between the Internal and External Hellenides – were studied from structural, stratigraphic and biostratigraphic points of view. Addressing the main debated aspects concerning the origin of the ophiolite nappe(s), the tectonic evolution of the Hellenic orogen was revised with a particular emphasis on the period between obduction and continental collision. New findings were compared with consolidated data concerning the main metamorphic events recorded in the more Internal Hellenides, geochemistry and age of the ophiolites and main stratigraphic constraints obtained in other sectors of the belt. Finally, a new reconstruction of the tectonic evolution of this area was introduced and, in the context of the dispute concerning the origin of the ‘ophiolitic belts’ as a possible record of multiple oceanic basins, we put forward for consideration a ‘single ocean’ tectonic model spanning from Triassic up to Tertiary times, and valid for the whole Hellenic–Albanian sector.
Taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity are different measures of biodiversity that together can describe large-scale evolutionary patterns. Diversity measures are often corrected by extending lineages back in time or adding additional taxa necessitated by a phylogeny, but disparity analyses focus on observed taxa only. This is problematic because some morphologies required by phylogeny are not included, some of which may help fill poorly sampled time bins. Moreover the taxic nature of disparity analyses makes it difficult to compare disparity measures with phylogenetically corrected diversity or morphological evolutionary rate curves. We present a general method for using phylogeny to correct measures of disparity, by including reconstructed ancestors in the disparity analysis. We apply this method to discrete character data sets focusing on Triassic archosaurs, Cenozoic carnivoramorph mammals, and Cretaceous-Cenozoic euarchontogliran mammals. Phylogenetic corrections do not simply mirror the taxic disparity patterns, but affect the three analyses in heterogeneous ways. Adding reconstructed ancestors can inflate morphospace, and the amount and direction of expansion differs depending on the taxonomic group in question. In some cases phylogenetic corrections give a temporal disparity curve indistinguishable from the taxic trend, but in other cases disparity is elevated in earlier time intervals relative to later bins, due to the extension of unsampled morphologies further back in time. The phylogenetic disparity curve for archosaurs differs little from the taxic curve, supporting a previously documented pattern of decoupled disparity and rates of morphological change in dinosaurs and their early contemporaries. Although phylogenetic corrections should not be used blindly, they are helpful when studying clades with major unsampled gaps in their fossil records.
By making the headlines in the major European newspapers in 2013, the horsemeat scandal impaired consumer confidence in the transparency of the European food chain to a significant extent. In spite of its negative economic impact on the European Union (EU) market, the scandal in question has stimulated an unprecedented reflection in the area of food fraud by the EU institutions, national authorities, other stakeholders as well as by members of academia and the legal profession in general.
On an EU level, the European Commission swiftly responded to the scandal with the adoption of a wide-ranging action plan consisting of targeted policy, legislative and enforcement measures.
This paper proposes a formal approach to the design and programming of long running transactions (LRTs). We exploit techniques from process calculi to define cJoin, which is an extension of the Join calculus with few well-disciplined primitives for LRT. Transactions in cJoin are intended to describe the transactional interaction of several partners, under the assumption that any partner executing a transaction may communicate only with other transactional partners. In such case, the transactions run by any party are bound to achieve the same outcome (i.e., all succeed or all fail). Hence, a distinguishing feature of cJoin, called dynamic joinability, is that ongoing transactions can be merged to complete their tasks and when this happens either all succeed or all abort. Additionally, cJoin is based on compensations i.e., partial executions of transactions are recovered by executing user-defined programs instead of providing automatic rollback. The expressiveness and generality of cJoin is demonstrated by many examples addressing common programming patterns. The mathematical foundation is accompanied by a prototype language implementation, which is an extension of the JoCaml compiler.
This paper examines the production of word-initial stops by two simultaneous trilingual sisters, aged 6;8 and 8;1, who receive regular input in Italian and English from multiple speakers, but in Spanish from only one person. The children's productions in each language were analyzed acoustically and compared to those of their main input providers. The results revealed consistent cross-linguistic differences by both children, including between Italian and Spanish stops, although these have identical properties in the speech of Italian- and Spanish-speaking adults. While the children's English stops were largely target-like, their Italian stops exhibited non-target-like realizations in the direction of English, suggesting interactions. Interestingly, their Spanish productions were largely unaffected by cross-linguistic interactions, with target-like voiceless stops, and voiced stops predominantly realized as spirants. These findings raise interesting questions about phonological development in multilingual settings and demonstrate that the number and type of input providers may crucially affect cross-linguistic interactions.
This special issue of Mathematical Structures in Computer Science is dedicated to structure transformation and contains contributions to two main research areas: extending the constructions that have been developed over nearly forty years for graph transformations to more general structures; and employing these transformations to model the operational and abstract semantics of distributed and mobile systems.
This chapter surveys recent work in applying ideas from graphical models and message passing algorithms to solve large-scale regularized regression problems. In particular, the focus is on compressed sensing reconstruction via 11 penalized least-squares (known as LASSO or BPDN). We discuss how to derive fast approximate message passing algorithms to solve this problem. Surprisingly, the analysis of such algorithms allows one to prove exact high-dimensional limit results for the LASSO risk.
The problem of reconstructing a high-dimensional vector x ∈ ℝn from a collection of observations y ∈ ℝm arises in a number of contexts, ranging from statistical learning to signal processing. It is often assumed that the measurement process is approximately linear, i.e. that
where A ∈ ℝm×n is a known measurement matrix, and w is a noise vector.
The graphical models approach to such a reconstruction problem postulates a joint probability distribution on (x, y) which takes, without loss of generality, the form
The conditional distribution p(dy|x) models the noise process, while the prior p(dx) encodes information on the vector x. In particular, within compressed sensing, it can describe its sparsity properties. Within a graphical models approach, either of these distributions (or both) factorizes according to a specific graph structure. The resulting posterior distribution p(dx|y) is used for inferring x given y.
There are many reasons to be skeptical about the idea that the joint probability distribution p(dx, dy) can be determined, and used for reconstructing x.
We present comparative micro-photoluminescence measurements on ensembles and isolated single GaN nanocolumns. The samples were prepared in a top-down approach by etching compact GaN layers grown on Si(111) and sapphire (0001) substrates. The comparison of the spectral energy change of the donor-bound exciton emission of GaN volume material and nanocolumns prepared on different substrates as well as from nanocolumns detached from the substrate gives an insight into the strain induced by the substrate. Experimental evidence for the relaxation effects were found. A common D°X spectral position at 3.473 eV was found for all detached single GaN nanocolumns independent of the substrate used, as expected for a relaxed system. Furthermore the optical properties of structural-defect related emission peaks were investigated for single nanocolumns.
This study examines word order differentiation in early trilingual development through an analysis of the combinations produced by a Tagalog–Spanish–English trilingual child with an MLU of less than 1.5. Same- and mixed-language combinations were tracked down from diary data and weekly recordings to assess (i) whether word order significantly varied cross-linguistically, and (ii) whether mixed utterances originated from vocabulary gaps rather than from an undifferentiated syntax. The results indicate that (a) argument/predicate sequences were differentially ordered depending on their language and following input-dependent preferences, (b) mixed utterances were generally caused by vocabulary gaps, and (c) they displayed the same order as those single-language combinations produced in the same language context. These findings suggest that evidence for early word order differentiation can be found before the appearance of inflectional morphology and even when three – rather than two – languages are being acquired, indicating that trilingual exposure does not slow down the process of differentiation.
This paper presents an analysis of the economic implications of alternative methods to surgical castration without anaesthesia. Detailed research results on the economic implications of four different alternatives are reported: castration with local anaesthesia, castration with general anaesthesia, immunocastration and raising entire males. The first three alternatives have been assessed for their impact on pig production costs in the most important pig-producing Member States of the EU. The findings on castration with anaesthesia show that cost differences among farms increase if the anaesthesia cannot be administered by farmers and when the veterinarian has to be called to perform it. The cost of veterinarian service largely affects the total average costs, making this solution economically less feasible in small-scale pig farms. In all other farms, the impact on production costs of local anaesthesia is however limited and does not exceed 1 €ct per kg. General anaesthesia administered by inhalation or injection of Ketamin in combination with a sedative (Azaperone, Midazolan) is more expensive. These costs depend heavily on farm size, as the inhalation equipment has to be depreciated on the largest number of pigs possible. The overall costs of immunocastration – including the cost of the work load for the farmer – has to be evaluated against the potential benefits derived from higher daily weight gain and feed efficiency in comparison with surgical castrates. The economic feasibility of this practice will finally depend on the price of the vaccine and on consumer acceptance of immunocastration. The improvement in feed efficiency may compensate almost entirely for the cost of vaccination. The main advantages linked to raising entire males are due to the higher efficiency of feed conversion, to the better growth rate and to the higher leanness of carcass. A higher risk of boar taint on the slaughter line has to be accounted for. Raising entire males should not generate more than 2.5% of boar taint among slaughter pigs, in order to maintain the considerable economic benefits of better feed efficiency of entire males with respect to castrates.
This study examines pragmatic differentiation in early trilingual development through a longitudinal analysis of language choice in a developing Tagalog–Spanish–English trilingual child. The child's patterns of language choice with different language users are analyzed at age 1 ; 10 and 2 ; 4 to examine: (1) whether evidence for pragmatic differentiation can be found even before age two and in simultaneous interactions with distinct language users; (2) whether lexical gaps determine the child's choice of one language over another; and (3) whether her patterns of language choice are affected by the interlocutors language use and their responses to mixing. The results indicate that the child was capable of selecting the appropriate language according to the interlocutors' language from the earliest sessions. However, switches to inappropriate languages were common due to vocabulary gaps, the interlocutors' acceptance of mixing and the possibilities determined by the existence of multiple lexical resources and multiple language users.