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Pyrethroid insecticides were intensively used against Cydia pomonella in the Río Negro and Neuquén valley, main production area of pome fruits in Argentina. Therefore, the first objective was to evaluate lambda-cyhalothrin resistance levels in C. pomonella larvae from orchards in this area that are currently under pyrethroids treatments. The second objective was to evaluate the frequency of kdr mutation in C. pomonella across Argentina. High levels of resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin (resistance ratios > 30) were determined in all the populations evaluated. The L1014F (kdr) mutation was evaluated in 355 diapausing larvae collected in 12 orchards from San Juan to Santa Cruz provinces (1690 km away from each other). The highest frequency of kdr mutation was determined in larvae from the Río Negro and Neuquén valley (0.61), followed by those from Mendoza (0.36). The kdr allele was absent or present at very low frequencies in orchards subjected to low pyrethroid pressure. The frequency of detection of kdr mutation in C. pomonella from Argentina is related to the use of pyrethroids against this pest in different areas. Target-site insensitivity is, at least, one of the mechanisms involved in resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin in codling moth from the Río Negro and Neuquén valley.
The terms design and innovation are intuitively related, but the relationship between these two concepts is more complex and subtle than it appears at first sight. Few authors have made rigorous attempts to explore this relationship in depth, and the contributions present in the literature generally suffer the specialist backgrounds on which they are grounded. Consequently, this paper provides a high-level synthesis of the innovation management domain and defines an original framework that allows the positioning of the concepts from Innovation Management that are most relevant for scholars and practitioners operating in the Design domain. Specifically, this framework provides a concise representation of the typologies of innovation activities along the technology lifecycle, and associates them to their business implications and to technical and organizational implications on the design process. This framework allows scholars and practitioners from both fields to identify the typical design challenges that are inherent to each type of innovation activity, and to evaluate the suitability of specific support methods and tools.
We investigate the property of strict coherence in the setting of many-valued logics. Our main results read as follows: (i) a map from an MV-algebra to [0,1] is strictly coherent if and only if it satisfies Carnap’s regularity condition, and (ii) a [0,1]-valued book on a finite set of many-valued events is strictly coherent if and only if it extends to a faithful state of an MV-algebra that contains them. Remarkably this latter result allows us to relax the rather demanding conditions for the Shimony-Kemeny characterisation of strict coherence put forward in the mid 1950s in this Journal.
Pervasive systems are intended to make use of services and components that they encounter in their environment. Such systems are naturally spatial in that they can only be understood in terms of the ways in which components meet and interact in space. Rather than treating spatiality separately from system components, researchers are starting to develop computational models in which the entire structure of a pervasive system is modelled and constructed using an explicit spatial model, supporting multi-level spatial reasoning, and adapting autonomously to spatial interactions. In this paper, we review current and emerging models of spatial computing for pervasive ecosystems, and highlight some of the trends that will guide future research.
Very preterm birth (VPT; <32 weeks of gestation) has been associated with impairments in emotion regulation, social competence and communicative skills. However, the neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying such impairments have not been systematically studied. Here we investigated the functional integrity of the amygdala connectivity network in relation to the ability to recognize emotions from facial expressions in VPT adults.
Thirty-six VPT-born adults and 38 age-matched controls were scanned at rest in a 3-T MRI scanner. Resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fc) was assessed with SPM8. A seed-based analysis focusing on three amygdalar subregions (centro-medial/latero-basal/superficial) was performed. Participants’ ability to recognize emotions was assessed using dynamic stimuli of human faces expressing six emotions at different intensities with the Emotion Recognition Task (ERT).
VPT individuals compared to controls showed reduced rs-fc between the superficial subregion of the left amygdala, and the right posterior cingulate cortex (p = 0.017) and the left precuneus (p = 0.002). The VPT group further showed elevated rs-fc between the left superficial amygdala and the superior temporal sulcus (p = 0.008). Performance on the ERT showed that the VPT group was less able than controls to recognize anger at low levels of intensity. Anger scores were significantly associated with rs-fc between the superficial amygdala and the posterior cingulate cortex in controls but not in VPT individuals.
These findings suggest that alterations in rs-fc between the amygdala, parietal and temporal cortices could represent the mechanism linking VPT birth and deficits in emotion processing.
The first high-resolution time series of pre- and post-bomb radiocarbon measurements is reported for surface waters in the western Mediterranean Sea. The Δ14C record was obtained from the aragonite skeleton of Cladocora caespitosa using a 50-yr-old corallite collected in the Ligurian Sea in 1998. Laser-ablation ICP measurements of trace elements (Li/Mg and Sr/Ca) show a strong seasonal variability, enabling the chronology of the Δ14C record to be determined at annual timescales. The mean Δ14C of pre-bomb surface water is -56 ± 3%, corresponding to a reservoir age of 262 ± 29 yr. The post-bomb maximum occurs in 1972 with a Δ14C value of 90%, significantly lower than the peak of 150% observed in the North Atlantic. The dilution of the peak-amplitude of Δ14C in western Mediterranean surface waters is attributed to mixing of North Atlantic Central Water inflow with relatively depleted underlying Intermediate Mediterranean and Levantine Intermediate waters. Intensification of this mixing is observed in 1963–1964, consistent with the change in atmospheric circulation from a positive to negative NAO phase (1960–1967). The post-peak Δ14C variability is relatively limited, reflecting mainly local vertical mixing forced by wind stress.
In 2012 a US multistate outbreak of listeriosis was linked to ricotta salata imported from Italy, made from pasteurized sheep's milk. Sampling activities were conducted in Italy to trace the source of Listeria monocytogenes contamination. The cheese that caused the outbreak was produced in a plant in Apulia that processed semi-finished cheeses supplied by five plants in Sardinia. During an ‘emergency sampling’, 179 (23·6%) out of 758 end-products tested positive for L. monocytogenes, with concentrations from <10 c.f.u./g to 1·1 × 106 c.f.u./g. Positive processing environment samples were found in two out of four processing plants. A ‘follow-up sampling’ was conducted 8 months later, when environmental samples from three out of six plants tested positive for L. monocytogenes and for Listeria spp. PFGE subtyping showed 100% similarity between US clinical strains and isolates from ricotta salata, confirming the origin of the outbreak. The persistence of strains in environmental niches of processing plants was demonstrated, and is probably the cause of product contamination. Two PFGE profiles from clinical cases of listeriosis in Italy in 2011, stored in the MSS-TESSy database, were found to have 100% similarity to one PFGE profile from a US clinical case associated with the consumption of ricotta salata, according to the US epidemiological investigation (sample C, pulsotype 17). However, they had 87% similarity to the only PFGE profile found both in the US clinical case and in 14 ricotta cheese samples collected during the emergency sampling (sample B, pulsotype 1). Sharing of molecular data and availability of common characterization protocols were key elements that connected the detection of the US outbreak to the investigation of the food source in Italy. Simultaneous surveillance systems at both food and human levels are a necessity for the efficient rapid discovery of the source of an outbreak of L. monocytogenes.
In the present paper we report on time-resolved resonant and non-resonant fluorescence line narrowing measurements on a lead germanate glass doped with Eu3+. Site-selective decay curves were measured at low temperature. The results show that energy transfer processes between Eu3+, ions in different sites are not efficient at the doping level under investigation (I mol% Eu2O3). The homogeneous linewidth of the 5D0→47F0transition was measured at room temperature as a function of the excitation energy within the inhomogeneous profile. The linear dependence of the homogeneous linewidth on the excitation energy is discussed.
This chapter discusses the case of a 27-year-old male who was admitted to the hospital with right arm numbness. It presents the clinical history, examination, follow-up, treatment, diagnosis, and the results of the procedures performed on the patient. His vital signs were normal. There was mild expiratory wheezing at the bases bilaterally related to an upper respiratory infection. There was reduced sensation to light touch, pinprick and vibration in the right upper extremity in C6-C7 distribution. MRI of the brain showed multiple small hyperintense lesions in white matter throughout both cerebral hemispheres and the brainstem. An overnight sleep study followed by a multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) revealed REM sleep without atonia and abundant myoclonic jerks in REM sleep. A diagnosis was made of probable parasomnia overlap disorder in the context of multiple sclerosis. Parasomnia overlap disorder responds favorably to the administration of clonazepam.
This chapter discusses the case of a 43-year-old male having problems with his nocturnal sleep at the age of 23 when he started to present recurrent nocturnal awakenings from sleep associated with involuntary eating. It presents the clinical history, examination, follow-up, treatment, diagnosis, and the results of the procedures performed on the patient. Actigraphic recordings for 2 weeks disclosed persistent muscular activity during the nocturnal period and two to five episodes per night of further enhanced muscular activity that corresponded to the eating episodes noted by the patient in his diary. The sleep medicine specialist established a diagnosis of sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) based on the clinical history and on the results of the video-polysomnography (PSG) recording. Low-dosage dopaminergic agents such as levodopa/carbidopa at bedtime, sometimes combined with codeine and/or clonazepam, bromocriptine and pramipexole, have been shown to reduce the eating episodes.
This chapter presents the clinical history, examination, follow-up, treatment, diagnosis, and the results of the procedures performed on a 24-year-old man who was admitted with the chief concern of abnormal breathing sounds during sleep for the past 5 years. Physical examination and vital signs were normal with a BMI of 28 kg/m2. His Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, for subjective assessment of excessive daytime somnolence, was 9. The patient entered sleep through NREM sleep stages, had recognizable NREM/ REM sleep alternations and physiological muscle atonia during REM sleep, with a total sleep time of 222 minutes. The groaning sounds lasted between 5 and 15 seconds and recurred in clusters, 16 minutes in net duration but spanning across 30 minutes. The overall clinical and polygraphic features in this patient were felt to be consistent with the diagnosis of catathrenia, a syndrome whose etiology remains unclear.
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) was first formally identified in 1986 by Schenck and Mahowald in five elderly subjects presenting similar motor behavioral patterns during REM sleep consisting of violent dream-enacting behaviors. The clinical manifestations of RBD are typically dream-related motor-behavioral manifestations that appear to be the enactment of a fight. Subclinical or preclinical RBD, status dissociatus and parasomnia overlap syndrome are the clinical-pathophysiological subtypes of RBD, according to ICSD-2. The literature contains anecdotal reports of co-existing RBD and narcolepsy in both adults and children, in some cases with the RBD episodes as the presenting symptoms. The parasomnia and non-parasomnia disorders are taken into account in the differential diagnosis of RBD. In humans, RBD has been associated with several etiologies and abnormalities. Anecdotal reports and uncontrolled, retrospective studies of small patient series suggest that levodopa and pramipexole (D3 agonist) reduce RBD manifestations.
Fixed-point and probabilistic sampling designs were compared to investigate which design best detected known contamination gradients in the marine ecosystem adjacent to McMurdo Station, Antarctica. The fixed-point sampling design included transects along historical contamination and physical disturbance gradients. The probabilistic sampling design used randomly selected hexagons spaced at 50 m intervals. In both designs, 15 stations were sampled over a small area (~1 km2) that extended from Winter Quarters Bay to Cape Armitage. Sediment quality triad components (sediment chemical contaminants, sediment toxicity, and a benthic index of biotic integrity) were measured to indicate chemical, toxicological, and biological effects. There were higher correlations between sediment quality triad components for the fixed-point sampling design than for the probabilistic design. The fixed-point design was better at detecting the intensity of alteration because disturbance of the marine ecosystem at McMurdo Station is localized within a small area. Based on these results, a limited fixed-point design with nine stations detected no significant change in macrofaunal community structure over a four year period from 2000–2004. However, the macrofaunal assemblages present in the contaminated portions of Winter Quarters Bay are indicative of a disturbed benthic community that has been subject to organic enrichment and toxic chemical exposure.
Substructural fuzzy logics are substructural logics that are complete with respect to algebras whose lattice reduct is the real unit interval [0, 1]. In this paper, we introduce Uninorm logic UL as Multiplicative additive intuitionistic linear logic MAILL extended with the prelinearity axiom ((A → B) ∧ t) V ((B → A)∧ t). Axiomatic extensions of UL include known fuzzy logics such as Monoidal t-norm logic MIX and Gödel logic G, and new weakening-free logics. Algebraic semantics for these logics are provided by subvarieties of (representable) pointed bounded commutative residuated lattices. Gentzen systems admitting cut-elimination are given in the framework of hypersequents. Completeness with respect to algebras with lattice reduct [0, 1] is established for UL and several extensions using a two-part strategy. First, completeness is proved for the logic extended with Takeuti and Titani's density rule. A syntactic elimination of the rule is then given using a hypersequent calculus. As an algebraic corollary, it follows that certain varieties of residuated lattices are generated by their members with lattice reduct [0, 1].