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The global community needs to be aware of the potential psychosocial consequences that may be experienced by healthcare workers who are actively managing patients with COVID-19. These healthcare workers are at increased risk for experiencing mood and trauma-related disorders, including Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. In this concept article, strategies are recommended for individual healthcare workers and hospital leadership to aid in mitigating the risk of PTSD as well as to build resilience in light of a potential second surge of COVID-19.
Non-communicable chronic diseases (NCCDs) are the main cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Demographic aging has resulted in older populations with more complex healthcare needs. This necessitates a multilevel rethinking of healthcare policies, health education and community support systems with digitalization of technologies playing a central role. The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Aging (A3) working group focuses on well-being for older adults, with an emphasis on quality of life and healthy aging. A subgroup of A3, including multidisciplinary stakeholders in health care across Europe, focuses on the palliative care (PC) model as a paradigm to be modified to meet the needs of older persons with NCCDs. This development paper delineates the key parameters we identified as critical in creating a public health model of PC directed to the needs of persons with NCCDs. This paradigm shift should affect horizontal components of public health models. Furthermore, our model includes vertical components often neglected, such as nutrition, resilience, well-being and leisure activities. The main enablers identified are information and communication technologies, education and training programs, communities of compassion, twinning activities, promoting research and increasing awareness amongst policymakers. We also identified key ‘bottlenecks’: inequity of access, insufficient research, inadequate development of advance care planning and a lack of co-creation of relevant technologies and shared decision-making. Rethinking PC within a public health context must focus on developing policies, training and technologies to enhance person-centered quality life for those with NCCD, while ensuring that they and those important to them experience death with dignity.
In 2009, the Institute of Medicine published guidelines for implementation of Crisis Standards of Care (CSC) at the state level in the United States (US). Based in part on the then concern for H1N1 pandemic, there was a recognized need for additional planning at the state level to maintain health system preparedness and conventional care standards when available resources become scarce. Despite the availability of this framework, in the years since and despite repeated large-scale domestic events, implementation remains mixed.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rejuvenates concern for how health systems can maintain quality care when faced with unrelenting burden. This study seeks to outline which states in the US have developed CSC and which areas of care have thus far been addressed.
An online search was conducted for all 50 states in 2015 and again in 2020. For states without CSC plans online, state officials were contacted by email and phone. Public protocols were reviewed to assess for operational implementation capabilities, specifically highlighting guidance on ventilator use, burn management, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, pediatric standards, and reliance on influenza planning.
Thirty-six states in the US were actively developing (17) or had already developed (19) official CSC guidance. Fourteen states had no publicly acknowledged effort. Eleven of the 17 public plans had updated within five years, with a majority addressing ventilator usage (16/17), influenza planning (14/17), and pediatric care (15/17), but substantially fewer addressing care for burn patients (9/17).
Many states lacked publicly available guidance on maintaining standards of care during disasters, and many states with specific care guidelines had not sufficiently addressed the full spectrum of hazard to which their health care systems remain vulnerable.
The role of the hospital in caring for children has changed beyond recognition in the past five decades. On the one hand, the conditions that were once responsible for most bed occupancy, such as respiratory tract infections, gastroenteritis, and hepatitis A, are now far less common and, when they occur, are managed at home in all but the most severe cases. On the other hand, advances in medicine and technology, coupled with better understanding of genetics, metabolic and neonatal medicine, new treatments for cancer and acute/chronic organ failure, advances in surgical techniques, and new ways of managing severe mental disorders, have created a need for services that did not previously exist (Wolfe et al., 2013). Consequently, the hospital continues to play a key role in the health care of children, albeit one that is rapidly adapting to the changing needs of sick foetuses, newborns, infants, children, and adolescents. Hospital services for children must also be able to work closely with other parts of the health system and beyond, reaching out to wider services for children including education, prevention, long-term outpatient care for children with rare diseases, and primary care out of normal hours. Yet a survey conducted in 2015 revealed great diversity in hospital services for children in the 53 countries of the World Health Organization’s European region (Ehrich, Namazova-Baranova & Pettoello-Mantovani, 2016).
Colombia is the fourth largest country in South America. It is an upper middle-income country with an estimated population of 49.2 million people, and road traffic collisions (RTCs) are the second most common cause of traumatic death. The United Nations (UN) proclaimed 2011 to 2020 as the “Decade of Action for Road Safety.” In this context, the government of Colombia established the National Road Safety Plan (PNSV) for the period 2011-2021, aiming to reduce RTC-related deaths by 26%. Some road safety laws (RSLs) were implemented before the PNSV, but their impact on deaths and injuries is still not known.
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether these RSLs have had a long-term effect on road safety in the country.
Data on RTC casualties, deaths, and injuries from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2017 were collated from official Colombian governmental publications. Three different periods were considered for analysis: 2001-2010 to evaluate the Transit Code; 2011-2017 to evaluate the PNSV; and 2001-2017 to evaluate a composite of the full study period. Analyses of trends in deaths and injuries were related to dates of new RSLs.
A total of 102,723 deaths (12.7%) and 707,778 injuries (87.3%) were reported from 2001 through 2017. The Transit Code period (2001-2010) showed a 10.1% decline in deaths, 16.6% decline in injuries, and rates per 100,000 inhabitants and per 10,000 registered vehicles also declined. During the period of the PNSV (2011-2017), there was an increase in the number of deaths by 16.6%, injuries decreased by 1.7%, and death rates per 100,000 inhabitants also increased. During the total study period, a 12.4% reduction in the total number of casualties was achieved, and death and injury rates per 100,000 inhabitants decreased by 12.4% and 27.5%, respectively.
Despite the introduction of the PNSV, RTCs remain the second most common cause of preventable death in Colombia. Overall, while the absolute number of RTCs and deaths has been increasing, the rate of RTCs per 10,000 registered vehicles has been decreasing. This suggests that although the goals of the PNSV may not be realized, some of the laws emanating from it may be having a beneficial effect. Further study is required over a protracted period to determine the longer-term impact of these initiatives.
The uncertainty surrounding high intakes of folic acid and associations with cognitive decline in older adults with low vitamin B12 status has been an obstacle to mandatory folic acid fortification for many years. We estimated the prevalence of combinations of low/normal/high vitamin B12 and folate status and compared associations with global cognitive function using two approaches, of individuals in a population-based study of those aged ≥50 years in the Republic of Ireland. Cross-sectional data from 3781 men and women from Wave 1 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing were analysed. Global cognitive function was assessed by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Prevalence estimates for combinations of vitamin B12 (plasma vitamin B12 < or ≥258 pmol/l) and folate (plasma folate ≤ or >45·3 nmol/l) concentrations were generated. Negative binomial regression models were used to investigate the associations of vitamin B12 and folate status with global cognitive function. Of the participants, 1·5 % (n 51) had low vitamin B12 (<258 pmol/l) and high folate (>45·3 nmol/l) status. Global cognitive performance was not significantly reduced in these individuals when compared with those with normal status for both B-vitamins (n 2433). Those with normal vitamin B12/high folate status (7·6 %) had better cognitive performance (MMSE: incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0·82, 95 % CI 0·68, 0·99; P = 0·043, MoCA: IRR 0·89, 95 % CI 0·80, 0·99; P = 0·025). We demonstrated that high folate status was not associated with lower cognitive scores in older adults with low vitamin B12 status. These findings provide important safety information that could guide fortification policy recommendations in Europe.
The emergence of a distinct warrior ideology across most parts of Europe occurred in the Bronze Age, marking a profound change in the management of conflict within prehistoric societies. Between the mid third and early first millennium BCE metal evolved from a rare commodity to a common resource used for violent activities, most notably in the form of swords, spears, shields and armour created for battle. Becoming increasingly common by the later part of this period, the scale and complexity of fortified sites transformed the organisation of violence in communities while also reshaping relationships between the built environment and societies by formalising inclusive and exclusive spaces in new ways. The people living through this period of change experienced violence in many venues, with bones preserving the most direct evidence. Violence as commemorated in art is illustrative of how the different societies of Europe understood its social purpose. Our sources demonstrate that across Europe children, women and men could be brutally attacked by weapons ranging from slings and arrows, suited to hunting, to swords and spears, designed for war. This chapter focuses mainly on changes in warfare-related violence due to the wealth of material remains suited to exploring this theme.
The long-term success of weed management programs requires that all crops in a rotation receive satisfactory weed control. Band sowing with inter-band hoeing has been proposed as an innovative weed management strategy for grain crops. In the band-sowing system, crops are sown in a broadcast pattern within a band of some chosen width (here we selected 12.7 cm); weeds between bands are controlled with inter-band hoeing, with or without so-called “blind cultivation,” for example, tine harrowing. Alteration of the crop spatial arrangement from typical single-line rows to a more evenly distributed pattern aims to enhance interspecific competition while reducing intraspecific competition. Field experiments, conducted in Maine in 2016 and 2017, compared band sowing with inter-band hoeing to the region’s standard practice of planting in 16.5-cm rows and tine harrowing in four test crops: spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ‘Glenn’), oat (Avena sativa L. ‘Colt’), field pea (Pisum sativum L. ‘Jetset’), and flax (Linum usitatissimum L. ‘Prairie Thunder’). Band sowing improved weed control relative to the standard practice, especially in crops with greater competitive ability (wheat and oat). Despite improved weed control, in most cases, yields were unaffected by treatment. While band sowing with hoeing provided improved weed control in multiple crops, further study is warranted to optimize seeding rate, band width, and inter-band width to improve crop yields.
Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) has been linked with adverse health outcomes, including cancer, cardiovascular disease and mortality. The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) has previously shown that 13.1% of the Irish population over 50 are deficient in 25(OH)D, after adjusting for seasonality. The aim of this study is to assess whether low 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with all-cause mortality in the over 50s in Ireland.
Data from Wave 1 (2009–2011) of TILDA, a prospective population representative study of community dwelling adults aged over 50, were used. Blood was obtained during the health assessment, and analysis of 25(OH)D was performed. Mortality was confirmed through official death records, and all participant deaths between baseline and March 2017 were included. Logistic regression assessed whether baseline levels of 25(OH) D, both continuous and categorised into deficient (25(OH)D < 30 nmol/l), insufficient (30 < = 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l) or sufficient (25(OH)D > = 50 nmol/l), are associated with mortality.
Of the 8,175 over 50s recruited, 25(OH)D data was available for 5,388 participants. Of these, 366 individuals had died prior to March 2017. Higher concentrations of 25(OH)D were associated with lower odds of mortality (OR 0.70; 95% CI 0.60, 0.81, p-value), controlling for confounders. On categorising 25(OH)D, those with insufficient 25(OH)D concentrations had higher odds of mortality than those with sufficient levels (OR 2.04; 95% CI 1.48, 2.8; p-value < 0.001). Stratifying between men and women, there was no gender difference in this association.
Insufficient baseline 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with an increased odds of all-cause mortality in community dwelling adults over 50 in Ireland. Further research evaluating whether treatment of vitamin D deficiency improves mortality is warranted.
Vitamin B12 deficiency is common among older adults, even with dietary intakes well in excess of current recommendations. Severe clinical B12 deficiency (i.e. pernicious anaemia) leads to irreversible neurological damage, but once diagnosed, can be treated effectively with B12 injections. A much more common cause of low vitamin B12 status in older adults is food-bound malabsorption owing to atrophic gastritis. This in turn leads to reduced gastric acid secretion, thus limiting B12 absorption from food (given the essential role of gastric acid in releasing B12 from food proteins). Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) drugs reduce gastric acid secretion, similar to atrophic gastritis, thus there is a concern that these medications may lead to vitamin B12 malabsorption. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate biomarker status of vitamin B12 in relation to atrophic gastritis and PPI usage. Data were accessed from The Trinity Ulster Department of Agriculture (TUDA) Ageing Cohort Study, a cross-sectional study of community-dwelling adults (n 5186, ≥ 60 years) recruited across Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland (2008–2012). TUDA participants were classified into 3 groups; ‘healthy’ controls, atrophic gastritis and PPI users. Vitamin B12 status was assessed using a total of four biomarkers: serum total B12; serum holotranscobalamin, holoTC; plasma methylmalonic acid, MMA; plasma homocysteine. Atrophic gastritis was identified using pepsinogen analysis (via ELISA), with a pepsinogen I : II ratio of < 3 considered indicative of atrophic gastritis. Based on results from all four biomarkers, participants with atrophic gastritis were found to have significantly lower B12 status compared to healthy controls: e.g. mean (95% CI) serum total vitamin B12, 188 (156, 218) pmol/L vs. 262 (252, 272) pmol/L P < 0.001; holoTC, 46.0 (38.1, 53.8) pmol/L vs. 60.3 (57.8, 62.8) pmol/L P < 0.001; plasma MMA, 0.65 (0.52, 0.78) μmol/L vs. 0.37 (0.32, 0.42) μmol/L P = 0.001. No differences in B12 biomarker concentrations were observed between PPI users and healthy controls. Regular consumption of fortified foods (i.e. ≥ 5 portions per week) compared to non-regular consumption (i.e. 0–4 portions per week) impacted positively on B12 biomarker status in all participants. This effect however appeared insufficient to restore normal vitamin B12 status in those with atrophic gastritis. These results show that older adults with atrophic gastritis have significantly lower vitamin B12 biomarker status, particularly in those who did not regularly consume fortified foods. Further investigations of the effect of atrophic gastritis and PPI usage on B12 status are warranted.
The early fetal environment during pregnancy is extremely important and research indicates that weight at birth can have crucial impacts for the individual's health later in life. With rates of childhood obesity estimated to be as high as 21% in some European countries, it is vital that early risk factors are identified so that interventions can be developed. We aimed to investigate if children born macrosomic (birth weight > 4kg) remained larger than normal birth weight babies up to 5 years of age.
Materials and Methods:
This is a longitudinal follow-up of 387 five-year-old children (53% born with macrosomia, 47% normal birth weight) born into the ROLO randomised control trial in the National Maternity Hospital, Dublin (ISRCTN54392969). Birth weight was previously recorded then at 6 months, 2 years, and 5 years of age child height, weight, anthropometric and skinfold measurements were collected. Body Mass Index (kg/m2) and centiles were calculated. Student t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the two groups with multiple linear regression modelling to control for confounders.
Children with a birth weight > 4 kg had consistently higher weights, lengths, and BMI centiles, along with increased head and chest circumferences, compared to normal birth weight children from 6 months up to 5 years of age (p < 0.05). After controlling for child sex, intervention group, smoking during pregnancy, maternal education status, and maternal BMI, children with macrosomia were 0.61 kg heavier than non-macrosomic infants at 5 years of age (95% CI: 0.04–1.18, p < 0.05).
Children born with a high birth weight remain heavier and larger into childhood. These individuals are at a higher risk of obesity which highlights the need for monitoring and potential interventions, both during pregnancy and in infancy, to curb the current childhood obesity crisis.
Weeds remain the foremost production challenge for organic small grain farmers in the northeastern United States. Instead of crops sown in narrow, single-line rows, band sowing offers a more uniform spatial arrangement of the crop, maximizing interspecific while reducing intraspecific competition. Weeds in the inter-band zone are controlled by cultivating with aggressive sweeps; tine harrowing can target weeds in both intra- and inter-band zones. Field experiments in Maine and Vermont in 2016 and 2017 evaluated band sowing for improved weed control, crop yield, and grain quality in organic spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ‘Newdale’). Specifically, we compared: (1) the standard practice of sowing 16.5-cm rows at a target crop density of 325 plants m−2, (2) narrow-row sowing with increased crop density, (3) wide-row sowing with interrow hoeing, and (4) band sowing both with and (5) without inter-band hoeing. Mustard (Sinapis alba L. ‘Ida Gold’) was planted throughout the experiment as a surrogate weed. Compared with the standard practice, band sowing with hoeing reduced surrogate weed density on average by 45% across site-years. However, effects on weed biomass and yield were inconsistent, perhaps due to suboptimal timing of hoeing and adverse weather conditions. In 1 out of 4 site-years, band sowing with hoeing reduced surrogate weed biomass by 67% and increased crop yield compared with the standard treatment. Results also indicate that band sowing with hoeing may improve 1,000-kernel weight and plump kernel grain-quality parameters.
Human stampedes (HS) may result in mass casualty incidents (MCI) that arise due to complex interactions between individuals, collective crowd, and space, which have yet to be described from a physics perspective. HS events were analyzed using basic physics principles to better understand the dynamic kinetic variables that give rise to HS.
A literature review was performed of medical and nonmedical sourced databases, Library of Congress databases, and online sources for the term human stampedes resulting in 25,123 references. Filters were applied to exclude nonhuman events. Retrieved references were reviewed for a predefined list of physics terms. Data collection involved recording frequency of each phrase and physics principle to give the final proportions of each predefined principle used a single-entry method for each of the 105 event reports analyzed. Data analysis was performed using the R statistics packages “tidyverse”, “psych”, “lubridate”, and “Hmisc” with descriptive statistics used to describe the frequency of each observed variable.
Of the 105 reports of HS resulting in injury or death reviewed, the following frequency of terms were found: density change in a limited capacity, 45%; XY-axis motion failure, 100%; loss of proxemics, 100%; deceleration with average velocity of zero, 90%; Z-axis displacement pathology (falls), 92%; associated structure with nozzle effect, 93%; and matched fluid dynamic of high pressure stagnation of mass gathering, 100%.
Description or reference to principles of physics was seen in differing frequency in 105 reports. These include XY-axis motion failure of deceleration that leads to loss of human to human proxemics, and high stagnation pressure resulting in the Z-axis displacement effect (falls) causing injury and death. Real-time video-analysis monitoring of high capacity events or those with known nozzle effects for loss of proxemics and Z-axis displacement pathology offers the opportunity to prevent mortality from human stampedes.
Children represent a particularly vulnerable population in disasters. Disaster Risk Reduction refers to a systematic approach to identifying, assessing, and reducing risks of disaster through sets of interventions towards disaster causes and population vulnerabilities. Disaster Risk Reduction through the education of the population, and especially children, is an emerging field requiring further study.
To test the hypothesis that an educational program on Disaster Risk Reduction can induce a sustained improvement in knowledge, risk perception, awareness, and attitudes toward preparedness behavior of children.
A Disaster Risk Reduction educational program for students aged 10-12 was completed in an earthquake-prone region of Jordan (Madaba). Subject students (A) and control groups of similarly aged untrained children in public (B) and private (C) schools were surveyed one year after the program. Surveys focused on disaster knowledge, risk perception, awareness, and preparedness behavior. Likert scales were used for some questions and binary yes/no for others. Results were collated and total scores averaged for each section. Average scores were compared between groups and analyzed using SPSS.
Students who had completed the Disaster Risk Reduction program were found through Levene’s test to have statistically significant improvement in earthquake knowledge (5.921 vs. 4.55 vs. 5.125), enhanced risk perception (3.966 vs. 3.580 vs. 3.789), and improved awareness of earthquakes (4.652 vs. 3.293 vs. 4.060) with heightened attitudes toward preparedness behavior (8.008 vs. 6.517 vs. 7.597) when compared to untrained public and private school control groups, respectively.
Disaster Risk Reduction education programs can have lasting impacts when applied to children. They can improve students’ knowledge, risk perception, awareness, and attitudes towards preparedness. Further work is required to determine the frequency of re-education required and appropriate age groups for educational interventions.
In the past five decades, the region of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) has been subject to several types of terrorist attacks, with most committed by local terrorist organizations. However, there have also been attacks by international terrorist groups. Internationally, terrorist attacks are increasing in both frequency and complexity. Significant concerns exist regarding the use of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) in civilian settings. Asphyxiants (e.g. cyanide), opioids (e.g. fentanyl), and nerve agents (e.g. sarin) represent some of the most lethal CWAs. To date, there is very little published data on their use in the LAC region despite the fact that the recent attacks in Syria have sparked international interest in the use and regulation of CWAs.
To improve civilian health service preparedness in response to CWAs attacks by describing the types of agents historically used within the LAC region.
Information was extracted and analyzed from the open-source Global Terrorist Database hosted by the University of Maryland, regarding CWA-LAC from January 1, 1970, to December 31, 2017.
During the forty-seven year period reviewed, there were 29,846 terrorist attacks in the LAC region, with 63.6% occurring in the southern region. Twenty-nine CWA attacks were reported, with the most common agents being tear gas (37%) and cyanide (29.6%). The most frequent targets were religious figures/institutions (22.2%), law enforcement (18.5%), and government agencies/personnel (18.5%).
Cyanide is one of the most prevalent agents used for chemical weapons attacks in the LAC region. Preparedness should be enhanced for CWA terrorist attacks, especially those involving cyanide, given its life-threatening nature, prevalence, and the existence of reversal agents. First responders, physicians, and nurses should be aware of this potential hazard and be trained to respond appropriately. Additionally, regional stockpiles of antidotes should be considered by governmental bodies within the LAC region.
Saudi Arabia, the largest country in the Middle East, has suffered numerous terrorist attacks and is the location of Hajj, one of the world’s largest annual mass gatherings. Healthcare providers’ pre-incident knowledge and understanding of basic disaster medicine (DM) concepts are crucial for a unified and effective health-system response. Introducing healthcare providers to best practices is a stated vision of the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties. Standardizing DM curriculum taught to physicians during their residency training will assist this goal.
To produce expert consensus on the most critical DM topics for the residency curriculum in emergency medicine (EM) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Utilizing a Delphi approach, a panel of Saudi Arabian experts in DM and EM residency directors were surveyed regarding potential DM topics for EM residency curricula. The first round comprised of open-ended questions seeking lists of suggested DM curriculum topics. In subsequent rounds, each participant received a questionnaire asking them to review the items contributed in the first round, summarized by the investigation team. The participants rated each item on a five-point Likert Scale to establish preliminary priorities and added their comments. In further rounds, participants reviewed and prioritized subjects until they reached a consensus of >=80%.
The study is ongoing and full data will be available in the new year.
This expert consensus from major stakeholders can be used to improve the foundation of the DM curriculum. The Delphi Method gives an evidence-based approach to identification and prioritization of subjects, which should be integrated within the Saudi Arabian Emergency Medicine Residency Curriculum. It also can be used as a cornerstone for implementation in other medical education programs across the Kingdom in the future.
Road traffic collisions (RTC) are the leading cause of preventable death among those aged 15–29 years worldwide. More than 1.2 million lives are lost each year on roads. Ninety percent of these deaths take place in low- and middle-income countries. The General Assembly of the United Nations (UN) proclaimed the period from 2011-2020 the “Decade of Action for Road Safety,” with the objective of stabilizing and reducing the number of deaths by 50% worldwide. In this context, the government of Colombia established the National Road Safety Plan (PNSV) for the period 2011–2021 with the objective of reducing the number of fatalities by 26%. However, the effectiveness of road safety policies in Colombia is still unknown.
To evaluate the effect of road safety laws on the incidence of RTC, deaths, and injuries in Colombia.
RTC data and fatality numbers for the time period of January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2017, were collated from official Colombian governmental publications and analyzed for reductions and trends related to the introduction of new road safety legislation.
Data analysis are expected to be completed by January 2019.
RTC remains the leading preventable cause of death in Colombia despite the PNSV. Data is being mined to determine the trends of these rates of crashes and fatalities, and their relation to the introduction of national traffic laws. Overall, while the absolute numbers of RTC and deaths have been increasing, the rate of RTC per 10,000 cars has been decreasing. This suggests that although the goals of the PNSV may not be realized, some of the laws emanating from it may be beneficial, but warrant further detailed analysis.
Mass gatherings are growing in frequency. Religious, or in this case, “mass” mass gatherings are also growing in complexity, requiring considerable effort from nations hosting a Papal Mass. Ireland hosted a papal mass in 1979 when the prospect of terrorism at such events was significantly lower. Large high-profile events such as a Papal Mass offer a platform via the media and social media to gain widespread coverage of adverse events. In 2018, a predicted 500,000 guests were scheduled to attend a Papal Mass gathering in Phoenix Park, Dublin, a bounded 1,700-hectare park in the center of Dublin.
To develop a medical plan estimating numbers of people requiring medical attention at a Papal Mass held in Ireland late August 2018, and compare same with actual numbers treated post-event. This study aims to reduce the medical impact of such an event on local receiving hospitals through plans that effectively manage medical- and trauma-related presentations on site.
A literature review of medical reports regarding medical care at Papal Mass gatherings worldwide found a range of predicted medical attendance from 21-61 per 10,000 attendees. On that basis we had prepared on-site facilities, facilities on travel routes and access point system for medical care for a crowd of 500,000 were selected.
One of 6 receiving hospitals in Dublin had an increase in average presentations on the day. Attendance was reduced significantly due to weather. 261 patients were treated on site, falling in line with lower rate predicted of 31 patients treated in hospital on site and 17 transports off-site.
A predictable number of patients presented for medical care. On-site medical services reduced transports to hospital. Reduced attendance ensured facilities were sufficient, but could have been under the pressure of the predicted attendance of 500,000.