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We have observed the G23 field of the Galaxy AndMass Assembly (GAMA) survey using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) in its commissioning phase to validate the performance of the telescope and to characterise the detected galaxy populations. This observation covers ~48 deg2 with synthesised beam of 32.7 arcsec by 17.8 arcsec at 936MHz, and ~39 deg2 with synthesised beam of 15.8 arcsec by 12.0 arcsec at 1320MHz. At both frequencies, the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) noise is ~0.1 mJy/beam. We combine these radio observations with the GAMA galaxy data, which includes spectroscopy of galaxies that are i-band selected with a magnitude limit of 19.2. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared (IR) photometry is used to determine which galaxies host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). In properties including source counts, mass distributions, and IR versus radio luminosity relation, the ASKAP-detected radio sources behave as expected. Radio galaxies have higher stellar mass and luminosity in IR, optical, and UV than other galaxies. We apply optical and IR AGN diagnostics and find that they disagree for ~30% of the galaxies in our sample. We suggest possible causes for the disagreement. Some cases can be explained by optical extinction of the AGN, but for more than half of the cases we do not find a clear explanation. Radio sources aremore likely (~6%) to have an AGN than radio quiet galaxies (~1%), but the majority of AGN are not detected in radio at this sensitivity.
Transitional justice emerged after the Second World War as a set of discrete measures, such as trials, truth commissions or reparations, to address the atrocities of a past regime and to transition societies away from the recurrence of atrocities. Since the 1990s there has been an increasing emphasis on the need for multifaceted, comprehensive transitional justice measures to effectively deal with impunity and the consequences of mass violence. It is no longer considered effective to pigeonhole discrete transitional justice mechanisms. Instead there is increasing discussion of a comprehensive package of measures that complement each other. Each of the areas of transitional justice – truth, justice, reparations, amnesties, guarantees of non-recurrence and, to a certain extent, demobilisation, disarmament and reintegration (DDR) – have their own particular focus, benefits and limitations. Although such measures can be complementary, there can also be overlap and tension between them, such as when trying to carry out prosecutions while at the same time seeking to secure truth, which requires careful crafting of social, political, economic and legal factors to avoid derailing the transition itself.
Given that the focus of this chapter is on truth commissions and reparations, it will mainly address the connection between these two measures. Truth commissions and reparations, to a certain extent, have a symbiotic relationship through which they can complement and reinforce one another's goals in acknowledging the atrocities of the past, building social inclusion and trying to vindicate victims's uffering. The first part of this chapter explores the bond between these two mechanisms, drawing upon different examples of how recommendations for reparations are constructed by truth commissions and their justification. The second part of this chapter analyses the implementation of reparation recommendations, finding that in most cases states fail to follow through, or only do so where they are forced by civil society through legal and political pressure. The third part of this chapter briefly discusses transitional societies where reparations are made without a truth commission and their impact on the transition, before reaching a conclusion. As such, it is more likely than not that truth commissions can facilitate the implementation of reparations. That said, transitional societies are complex and fragile, and cannot be easily socially engineered; the past is Often still contested and fought through political and legal forums.
Following the arrival of the MV Ocean Lady in 2009, four men were charged with human smuggling under s. 117 of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act for having helped Sri Lankan asylum seekers reach Canada. Section 117 made it a criminal offence to aid and abet the unauthorized entry of asylum seekers, including when this was done for humanitarian reasons, to help family members, or as a matter of mutual aid. The case made its way to the Supreme Court and, in 2015, the court ruled in R v Appulonappa that s. 117 was too broad, potentially criminalizing humanitarian workers and family members who help transport asylum seekers, and should be interpreted in a strict manner. This article draws from pragmatic sociology to study the regimes of justification mobilized by various actors involved in, and around, R v Appulonappa between 2009 and 2015. It focuses on two sites of contestation that crystalized around divergent conceptions of fairness and safety, discussing how competing regimes of justification were used to advance stakeholder’s positions.
We present a new distance determination to the Small Magellanic Cloud from the surface brightness technique applied to the Cepheid variable HV 829. Although this is a preliminary distance based on only one star, it illustrates the power of the surface brightness technique to extragalactic Cepheid distances, it develops the technique which we will apply to additional SMC and LMC Cepheids, and the distance is of intrinsic interest because of the current controvery concerning distances for the Magellanic Clouds.
For HV 829 itself we obtain a distance modulus of 18.91 ± 0.20 mag. From other evidence we infer that HV 829 is slightly in front of the SMC centroid distance. Correcting to the SMC centroid yields a distance to the SMC of 19.05 ± 0.20 mag. We stress that this distance modulus is fully independent of any other distance modulus for the SMC, including those based upon Cepheids. Even so, our result agrees more closely with other, independent Cepheid distances than with RR Lyrae distances and main sequence fitting distances.
Haemodynamically unstable patients can experience potentially hazardous changes in vital signs related to the exchange of depleted syringes of epinephrine to full syringes. The purpose was to determine the measured effects of epinephrine syringe exchanges on the magnitude, duration, and frequency of haemodynamic disturbances in the hour after an exchange event (study) relative to the hours before (control).
Materials and methods
Beat-to-beat vital signs recorded every 2 seconds from bedside monitors for patients admitted to the paediatric cardiovascular ICU of Texas Children’s Hospital were collected between 1 January, 2013 and 30 June, 2015. Epinephrine syringe exchanges without dose/flow change were obtained from electronic records. Time, magnitude, and duration of changes in systolic blood pressure and heart rate were characterised using Matlab. Significant haemodynamic events were identified and compared with control data.
In all, 1042 syringe exchange events were found and 850 (81.6%) had uncorrupted data for analysis. A total of 744 (87.5%) exchanges had at least 1 associated haemodynamic perturbation including 2958 systolic blood pressure and 1747 heart-rate changes. Heart-rate perturbations occurred 37% before exchange and 63% after exchange, and 37% of systolic blood pressure perturbations happened before syringe exchange, whereas 63% occurred after syringe exchange with significant differences found in systolic blood pressure frequency (p<0.001), duration (p<0.001), and amplitude (p<0.001) compared with control data.
This novel data collection and signal processing analysis showed a significant increase in frequency, duration, and magnitude of systolic blood pressure perturbations surrounding epinephrine syringe exchange events.
Few data are available regarding the use of metolazone in infants in cardiac intensive care. Researchers need to carry out further evaluation to characterise the effects of this treatment in this population.
This is a descriptive, retrospective study carried out in patients less than a year old. These infants had received metolazone over a 2-year period in the paediatric cardiac intensive care unit at our institution. The primary goal was to measure the change in urine output from 24 hours before the start of metolazone therapy to 24 hours after. Patient demographic variables, laboratory data, and fluid-balance data were analysed.
The study identified 97 infants with a mean age of 0.32±0.25 years. Their mean weight was 4.9±1.5 kg, and 58% of the participants were male. An overall 63% of them had undergone cardiovascular surgery. The baseline estimated creatinine clearance was 93±37 ml/minute/1.73 m2. Initially, the participants had received a metolazone dose of 0.27±0.10 mg/kg/day, the maximum dose being 0.43 mg/kg/day. They had also received other diuretics during metolazone initiation, such as furosemide (87.6%), spironolactone (58.8%), acetazolamide (11.3%), bumetanide (7.2%), and ethacrynic acid (1%). The median change in urine output after metolazone was 0.9 ml/kg/hour (interquartile range 0.15–1.9). The study categorised a total of 66 patients (68.0%) as responders. Multivariable analysis identified acetazolamide use (p=0.002) and increased fluid input in the 24 hours after metolazone initiation (p<0.001) as being significant for increased urine output. Changes in urine output were not associated with the dose of metolazone (p>0.05).
Metolazone increased urine output in a select group of patients. Efficacy can be maximised by strategic selection of patients.
The excavated evidence of the building on the middle terrace of Site C at Tintagel Castle, in Cornwall, indicates that in the post-Roman period it had been the focus of activity involving the reuse of imported amphorae in conjunction with secondary stone stoppers made at Tintagel. This paper considers the nature of that activity and suggests that mead (fermented honey water) was being made in the building in the fifth and sixth centuries ad and stored in reused amphorae. The role of alcohol and feasting in power structures of the period and in the development of the site’s defences is also discussed.
The visual surface brightness relation is applied to the determination of parallaxes of white dwarfs on the assumption, borne out by previous studies of white dwarfs of known parallax, that these show only a small range of linear diameters.
Cepheids with periods around 15 days sometimes show a reversal, or dip, in their light curves near phase 0.85. The theoretical interpretation of this feature is still in doubt. We present a list of suspected dip Cepheids, accessible to small telescopes, which need additional photometry to verify the dip.
In southern Africa, there has been a long-standing but unsubstantiated assumption that the site of Khami evolved out of Great Zimbabwe's demise around ad 1450. The study of local ceramics from the two sites indicate that the respective ceramic traditions are clearly different across the entire sequence, pointing towards different cultural affiliations in their origins. Furthermore, there are tangible typological differences between and within their related dry-stone architecture. Finally, absolute and relative chronologies of the two sites suggest that Khami flourished as a major centre from the late fourteenth/early fifteenth century, long before Great Zimbabwe's decline. Great Zimbabwe also continued to be occupied into the late seventeenth and perhaps eighteenth centuries, after the decline of Khami. Consequently, the combined significance of these observations contradicts the parent-offspring relationship implied in traditional frameworks. Instead, as chronologically overlapping entities, the relationship between Khami and Great Zimbabwe, was heterarchical. However, within the individual polities, malleable hierarchies of control and situational heterarchies were a common feature. This is in tune with historically documented political relations in related pre-colonial southern Zambezian states, and motivates for contextual approaches to imagining power relations in pre-colonial African contexts.
Sequential nephron blockade using intravenous chlorothiazide is often used to enhance urine output in patients with inadequate response to loop diuretics. A few data exist to support this practice in critically ill infants.
We included 100 consecutive patients <1 year of age who were administered intravenous chlorothiazide while receiving furosemide therapy in the cardiac ICU in our study. The primary end point was change in urine output 24 hours after chlorothiazide administration, and patients were considered to be responders if an increase in urine output of 0.5 ml/kg/hour was documented. Data on demographic, clinical, fluid intake/output, and furosemide and chlorothiazide dosing were collected. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to determine variables significant for increase in urine output after chlorothiazide administration.
The study population was 48% male, with a mean weight of 4.9±1.8 kg, and 69% had undergone previous cardiovascular surgery. Intravenous chlorothiazide was initiated at 89 days (interquartile range 20–127 days) of life at a dose of 4.6±2.7 mg/kg/day (maximum 12 mg/kg/day). Baseline estimated creatinine clearance was 83±42 ml/minute/1.73 m2. Furosemide dose before chlorothiazide administration was 2.8±1.4 mg/kg/day and 3.3±1.5 mg/kg/day after administration. A total of 43% of patients were categorised as responders, and increase in furosemide dose was the only variable significant for increase in urine output on multivariable analysis (p<0.05). No graphical trends were noted for change in urine output and dose of chlorothiazide.
Sequential nephron blockade with intravenous chlorothiazide was not consistently associated with improved urine output in critically ill infants.
Images of oil-covered seabirds or radioactive fallout from nuclear disasters easily evoke concerns over the risks to personal integrity and environmental degradation. The energy-extraction industry, like others, is profit-driven – a competitive enterprise, with little regard for the social impact of its activities beyond corporate social responsibility (CSR) rhetoric. CSR is neither a precautionary measure nor a remedial framework. Outsider stakeholder influence from government is limited and CSR is written on companies’ terms. What emerges is a distortion between companies’ responsibility and accountability for breaches. We propose a hybrid form of accountability that incorporates public international law to ensure the state, as a guardian of society, plays a more definitive role. This will require more binding obligations on states and companies beyond the current soft-law principles, to curtail jurisdictional constraints and forum shopping of large corporations, through an international court of reparations to guarantee effective remedies for victims.
Pulse-shape changes correlating with flux have been shown to exist in the Vela pulsar's radio emission (Krishnamohan & Downs 1983). The aim of this work was to look for correlations between radio and X-ray flux in Vela on a pulse-by-pulse basis. We found that Vela emits significantly more X-rays during radio pulses with strong flux than during weak radio flux pulses, which indicates that the mechanisms creating the Vela pulsar's X-ray and radio emission must be related.
We present results that trace the dynamics of two historical remnants, SN 1006 and SN 1572 (Tycho), for the past two decades. 21-cm radio images of each remnant were recorded during two previous epochs: 1983–1984 and 1991–1994. We obtained third-epoch images of both remnants from 2001 to 2003. After a direct comparison of images from these three epochs, we found the mean radio expansion rate of Tycho now agrees with a previous X-ray expansion study, and for the first time, we have measured the azimuthal expansion rate over the entire rim of SN 1006.
We present results from our analysis of Chandra data on the supernova remnant MSH 11–62 (also known as G291.0−0.1). Our previous ASCA analysis showed that MSH 11–62 is most likely a composite remnant whose strong non-thermal emission is powered by a compact object, most probably a pulsar. The present analysis confirms in a spectacular fashion the earlier detection of a compact source. The Chandra data reveal a small region with a hard non-thermal spectrum located at the tip of the central radio emission seen in data taken at the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). This source is likely the young rapidly rotating neutron star powering the synchrotron nebula in MSH 11–62. Compared to other young rotation-powered pulsars the Chandra specrum of MSH 11–62 implies an energy loss rate of Ė ∼ 5 × 1036 ergs s−1.
An annotated card index of 14C dates directly relating to Old World cultural material of Palaeolithic and Mesolithic age (> 50,000 − ∼7000 BP) and New World material older than 7000 BP was compiled in 1972 to include all previously published dates. It is updated annually and currently correct to the end of 1981. The need for such an index to reduce duplication of research time spent in primary data acquisition has long been implicity recognized. Indeed, many such data files may already exist. We wish to discover the nature, scope, and intercompatibility of other lists both to improve our own system and to allow for an exchange of information without unnecessary duplication. Our sources include SCIENCE and NATURE but RADIOCARBON is the major source of information. The general scientific and archaeologic literature has not been systematically searched. Where possible, other published lists have been consulted and additional dates incorporated in our list.
The work of Commission 25 covers a wide range of topics concerning the measurement of magnitude, colour and polarisation of astronomical objects. As such, the area of interest covers virtually every field of astrophysical research in the visual and infrared spectral domain. Our reports cover some aspects of photometry and polarimetry as a technique rather than being an account of research highlights over the last three years.
We have used new BVRI photometry and radial velocities of a selection of bright classical Cepheids to determine their distances and radii through the surface brightness method. The improved photometry permitted, through the visual surface brightness relation, high-quality angular-diameter values for each Cepheid throughout its pulsation. The simultaneous radial velocities permitted the linear displacement curve to be phase-locked to the angular diameter variation. The results are individual distances and radii with considerably smaller uncertainty than could be obtained previously.