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Thermoelectric materials can play an important role to develop a sustainable energy source for internet of things devices near room temperature. In this direction, it is important to have a thermoelectric material with high thermoelectric performance. Cesium tin triiodide (CsSnI3) single crystal perovskite has shown high value of Seebeck coefficient and ultra low thermal conductivity which are necessary conditions for high thermoelectric performance. Here, we report the thermoelectric response of CsSnI3 thin films. These films are prepared by cost effective wet spin coating process at different baking temperature. Films were characterized using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. In our case, films baked at 130°C for 5 min have shown the best thermoelectric performance at room temperature with: Seebeck coefficient 115 μV/K and electrical conductivity 124 S/cm, thermal conductivity 0.36 W/m·K and figure of merit ZT of 0.137.
A learning project was launched to prepare for natural disasters such as earthquakes and floods. Competencies were developed for clinical nurses in the Initial phase of disasters as an indicator to build a bridge between daily training and actions during crises. There are two predominant features of the competencies that differ from other works. First was to concentrate only on “the initial phase” of a crisis outbreak. The second was to associate each competence with services and roles of clinical nurses.
The development has been conducted in accordance with the ibstpi® competency development model. First, 50 outlining competencies from earlier studies were selected, like ICN Framework and Disaster Nursing Core Competency for undergraduates in Japan. Then a web-based questionnaire was carried out with a four-point scale of “able,” “probable,” “impossible,” and “cannot understand meaning” for incumbent nurses in order to gauge their adequacy.
There were 86 responses with an average of 14 years (1-40) of nursing experience. We compared them in three groups; those with a job post (G1), those with experience of longer than five years (G2), and those with experience of fewer than five years (G3). The average competency score (total 150 points) was 96.7 (67-129) in G1, 88.2 (53-145) in G2 and 80.2 (59-114) in G3.
The results imply, even in G1, the average score is low at 65/100 points. This may indicate most clinical nurses should make efforts to develop their skills and knowledge of disaster nursing through daily work. Only 32 competencies (G1), 14 (G2), and 5 (G3) were marked as “able” or “probable” by over 80% of responders. Thus with consideration, depending on the result and expert reviews, the competencies determined to be “required” for clinical nurses were finally refined down to 35 items including the premise of ten.
Over the past few years there has been substantial progress in the TXRF analysis of heavy element surface contamination on silicon wafers. Further advances and improvements are desired in the analytical performance and hardware. Extension of the analytical range to include the light elements is particularly desirable.
In the case of light element analysis, sodium and aluminum impurities have been monitored in the IC production process. The increase of the sodium impurity in a silicon wafer gives rise to a decrease in the insulation in IC devices and the growth of the SiO2 film is disturbed by the prsence of aluminum impurity on the silicon wafer surface.
In this work, the guest Li+ conduction properties in NaBr–LiBH4 system were investigated. It was suggested that the guest Li+ ions occupy the Na+ sites and BH4− ions substitute the Br− ions in NaBr. The dominant Li+ conduction in NaBr–LiBH4 system was demonstrated by the combination of electrochemical measurements and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The guest Li+ ion conductivity of 15NaBr·LiBH4 was measured to be 1 × 10−7 S/cm at 313 K. The present results indicate that the guest Li+ conductors are not restricted to the previous reported iodides (NaI, KI), but other Li-free compounds have the possibility to become the candidates for the guest Li+ ion conductors.
To improve conversion efficiency of silicon nanowire (SiNW) solar cells, it is very important to reduce the surface recombination rate on the surface of SiNWs, since SiNWs have a large surface area. We tried to cover SiNWs with aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and titanium oxide (TiO2) by atomic layer deposition (ALD), since Al2O3 grown by ALD provides an excellent level of surface passivation on silicon wafers and TiO2 has a higher refractive index than Al2O3, leading to the reduction of surface reflectance. The effective minority carrier lifetime in SiNW arrays embedded in a TiO2/Al2O3 stack layer of 94 μsec was obtained, which was comparable to an Al2O3 single layer. The surface reflectance of SiNW solar cells was drastically decreased below around 5% in all of the wavelength range using the Al2O3/TiO2/Al2O3 stack layer. Heterojunction SiNW solar cells with the structure of ITO/p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H)/n-type SiNWs embedded in Al2O3 and TiO2 stack layer for passivation/n-type a-Si:H/back electrode was fabricated, and a typical rectifying property and open-circuit voltage of 356 mV were successfully obtained.
We outline the recent developments in CCD imager technology aimed at producing the very large format (8192 × 8192 pixels and larger) detector mosaics required for existing 4-m class and new 8 to 10-m class telescopes. The key technology areas include buttable array design and buttable element packaging, and optimization schemes for QE and readout time. As an example, we highlight the University of Hawaii effort to develop an 8192 × 8192 15 μm pixel CCD mosaic.
This paper considers an overlapping-generations model with pay-as-you-go social security and retirement decision making by an old agent. In addition, this paper assumes that labor productivity depreciates. Under this setting, socially optimal allocations are examined. The first-best allocation is an allocation that maximizes welfare when a social planner distributes resources and forces an old agent to work and retire as she wants. The second-best allocation is one that maximizes welfare when a social planner can use only pay-as-you-go social security in a decentralized economy. This paper finds a range of an old agent's labor productivity such that the first-best allocation is achieved in a decentralized economy. This finding differs from that in Michel and Pestieau [“Social security and early retirement in an overlapping-generations growth model”, Annals of Economics & Finance, 2013], which notes that the first-best allocation cannot be achieved in a decentralized economy.
To explore how evacuees obtained health care information at their evacuation destinations after the Great East Japan Earthquake.
We conducted semi-structured interviews of 11 evacuees who moved to City A in Kyoto Prefecture following the Great East Japan Earthquake. The interviews explored how the evacuees obtained health care information, including the main factors of influence. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed to identify trends by using the constant comparative method.
Four categories emerged from 6 concepts. Mother-children evacuees and family evacuees tended to obtain health care information in different ways. Family evacuees had moved as a family unit and had obtained their health care information from local neighbors. Mother-children evacuees were mothers who had moved with their children, leaving behind other family members. These evacuees tended to obtain information from other mother-children evacuees. At the time of evacuation, we found 2 factors, emotions and systems, influencing how mother-children evacuees obtained health care information.
We found 2 different ways of obtaining health care information among mother-children evacuees and other evacuees. At the time of evacuation, 2 factors, emotions and systems, influenced how mother-children evacuees obtained health care information. Community-building support should be a priority from an early stage after a disaster for health care management. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:729–734)
Nymphonella tapetis (Pycnogonida, Ascorhynchidae) is an endoparasitic sea spider affecting bivalves. Recently, sea spiders have been found on a massive scale in the commercially important Manila clams (Veneridae, Ruditapes philippinarum) in Japan (Tokyo Bay). Simultaneously, mass mortality has occurred in this area. Local fishers assumed that this mass mortality was caused by the parasitic sea spider, despite the effect of the parasite and parasite intensity on the host being unknown. To evaluate the susceptibility of the Manila clam to sea spider infestation and the impact on mortality levels, we established six treatments at different infection intensities (density of newly hatched larvae of sea spiders) over a 6-month long laboratory experiment. We monitored mortality and three susceptibility indices (clearance rate, sand-burrowing speed and adductor muscle strength) under sufficient food conditions. Parasitization by sea spider affected clearance rate and sand-burrowing speed. The pattern of parasitic intensity effects on survival of Manila clam hosts was shown to be dependent on the levels of parasite numbers, i.e. clams with lower parasitic levels (total of <200 hatching larvae of sea spider given to a host) have a higher survival rate, and high mortality of host clams was shown in excessively higher parasitic densities (400–4000 individuals). Such pattern of parasitic effects on host survival might be one of the causes of mass mortality of Manila clams occurring in the field.
In the present work, NaI – LiBH4 system fabricated by ball milling were post annealed and their variation of Li+ ion conductivity were investigated. From the change of lattice parameters by post annealing, it was suggested that unreacted LiBH4 existed in as-milled sample further dissolved into NaI, which implied an enhancement of the sample homogeneity. On the other hand, the segregation of LiI was anticipated when ball milled 15NaI·LiI (BH4 free sample) was annealed at 423 K. Li+ conductivity was decreased by post anneal process and compositional dependence of an activation energy for Li+ conduction was indicated for the homogeneous NaI – LiBH4 system.
We have demonstrated that newly developed Suprime-Cam on the 8-m Subaru telescope is capable of blind searches of mass concentration via weak lensing. We then propose to extend the survey up to 33 square degrees where archival X-ray data is available (Suprime33 Survey). The survey status and the performance of Suprime-Cam in the weak lensing survey are shown.
In this study, molluscan shells housed at the University Museum, the University of Tokyo, provided a new set of region-specific correction values (ΔR) for the western Pacific, in particular for the central part of the main islands in the Japanese Archipelago and the southwest islands of Japan. The values of 40 total samples were calculated from 11 regions. North of the main islands and in the Ryukyu Islands, the mean ΔR values showed comparatively small values, 5–40 14C yr; in the central part of the main islands, these values were 60–90 14C yr.
We found a molecular cloud connecting from the outer region to the “Galactic Center Mini-spiral (GCMS)” which is a bundle of the ionized gas streams adjacent to Sgr A*. The molecular cloud has a filamentary appearance which is prominent in the CS J=2-1 emission line and is continuously connected with the GCMS. The velocity of the molecular cloud is also continuously connected with that of the ionized gas in the GCMS observed in the H42α recombination line. The morphological and kinematic relations suggest that the molecular cloud is falling from the outer region to the vicinity of Sgr A*, being disrupted by the tidal shear of Sgr A* and ionized by UV emission from the Central Cluster. We also found the SiO J=2-1 emission in the boundary area between the filamentary molecular cloud and the GCMS. There seems to exist shocked gas in the boundary area.
We have observed the Galactic Center 50km/s molecular cloud (50MC) with ALMA to search for filamentary structures. In the CS J=2-1 emission line channel maps, we succeeded in identifying 27 molecular cloud filaments using the DisPerSE algorithm. This is the first attempt of filament-finding in the Galactic Center Region. These molecular cloud filaments strongly suggest that the molecular cloud filaments are also ubiquitous in the molecular clouds of the Galactic Center Region.
An elongated ERO with R - K′ = 7.5 behind the cluster A851 at z=0.4 was found to lie at z = 1.5 both by the photometric redshift and by a cross correlation method of its H-band SED with local E/SO spectra. the luminosity profile is well represented by a seeing convolved exponential disk, and the lack of redshifted H-alpha emission indicates that it has a dynamically relaxed disk with an old stellar population. Gravitational lensing of the cluster is not strong enough to stretch the image and cannot convert the de Vaucouleurs law into an exponential law.
Molecular gas in the Galactic center region is spatially and kinematically complex, and its physical conditions are distinctively different from those of molecular gas in the Galactic disk (e.g., Morris 1996). Relative paucity of current star formation activity, despite the abundance of dense molecular gas in this region, is one of the problem at issue.
The kinematics and structures of the molecular clouds probably give us key information for activities in the Galactic center region. CS lines are good tracers of dense molecular clouds. In addition, the lines are expected to be nearly free from the strong contamination of disk molecular clouds because of high critical density, n(H2) ≃ 104cm−3. Thus, we have made survey observations of the Galactic center region in the CS J=1-0 line with the Nobeyama 45-m telescope (Tsuboi, Handa, and Ukita 1997). The beamsize is 34″ and the achieved noise was Trms = 0.25 K/1.6 km s−1 in TMB. Then, we detected the molecular mass of M(H2)CS, thin = (3 − 8) × 107 M⊙ in the Galactic center molecular zone (CMZ), assuming of optically thin, Tex = 30 − 80 K (Güsten 1989), and X(CS) = 1 × 10−8 (Irvine et al. 1987).