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Political sociology is a large and expanding field with many new developments, and The New Handbook of Political Sociology supplies the knowledge necessary to keep up with this exciting field. Written by a distinguished group of leading scholars in sociology, this volume provides a survey of this vibrant and growing field in the new millennium. The Handbook presents the field in six parts: theories of political sociology, the information and knowledge explosion, the state and political parties, civil society and citizenship, the varieties of state policies, and globalization and how it affects politics. Covering all subareas of the field with both theoretical orientations and empirical studies, it directly connects scholars with current research in the field. A total reconceptualization of the first edition, the new handbook features nine additional chapters and highlights the impact of the media and big data.
This paper dwells upon investigating the effect of aspect ratio (AR) variation on the aerodynamic performance of unconventional control surfaces called grid fins by virtue of a series of subsonic experiments on a simplified grid fin variant called the cascade fin. Wind tunnel tests were performed for different AR (variable span) grid fins. The same had been investigated for different gap-to-chord ratio (g/c) variants. Results demonstrated a tangible increase in the aerodynamic efficiency as well as stall angle reduction for higher AR. Moreover, higher AR leads to increased pitching moment, which emphasizes elevated hinge moment requirements. The study ensued the presence of higher deviation between the low AR fins, that is
compared to the pertinent deviations between the high AR fins, that is
. The effect associated with these variations was termed as span effect in this paper. It was established that, the deviations arising due to this phenomena were lesser for higher g/c and higher AR. The analysis of AR variation for different g/c presented a limiting value of AR reduction for stall performance enhancement. Thus, optimised selection of the g/c and AR values can lead to enhanced aerodynamic efficiency alongside an improved stalling characteristic.
Stand-off Raman spectroscopy is emerging as a critical new tool for planetary exploration. Mounted on a rover, a stand-off Raman system can be used to rapidly identify areas of interest for subsequent, synergistic investigations with other stand-off or close-up (arm-mounted) instruments; survey broad areas and perform reconnaissance tasks from a fixed location; and increase the efficiency of mission operations where targets of interest are in areas that are too hard to access for a rover. Not surprisingly, NASA’s next Mars mission will fly a stand-off Raman system as part of the SuperCam instrument package. This chapter reviews two stand-off Raman systems that paved the way for the development of new technologies and instrument architectures for robotic stand-off planetary exploration using Raman spectroscopy, including the SuperCam instrument suite.
The ability of microramps to control shock - boundary layer interaction at the vicinity of an axisymmetric compression corner was investigated computationally in a Mach 4 flow. A cylinder/flare model with a flare angle of 25° was chosen for this study. Height (h) of the microramp device was 22% of the undisturbed boundary layer thickness (δ) obtained at the compression corner location. A single array of these microramps with an inter-device spacing of 7.5h was placed at three different streamwise locations viz. 5δ, 10δ and 15δ (22.7h, 45.41h and 68.12h in terms of the device height) upstream of the corner and the variations in the flowfield characteristics were observed. These devices modified the separation bubble structure noticeably by producing alternate upwash and downwash regions in the boundary layer. Variations in the separation bubble’s length and height were observed along the spanwise (circumferential) direction due to these devices.
Papillon treatment is a form of contact X-ray brachytherapy (CXB) which is used as an alternative to surgery for rectal cancer. This study aimed to audit patients who were referred for and treated with CXB over a 6-year period against guidelines derived from a critical review of the evidence base.
Materials and methods:
Patient demographics, tumour characteristics and outcome data were gathered for 31 patients referred for CXB. A critical review of the evidence identified consensus referral criteria and outcome data against which to audit patients.
Referral criteria were derived from six published studies. These applied to patients unfit for surgery or stoma-averse. All referred patients had a visible tumour or scar with a tumour size under 3 cm and sited less than 12 cm from the anal verge. Nodal status varied from N0 to N2, but there was no metastatic disease present. The audited cohort demonstrated demographic equivalence, while the initial clinical complete response and recurrence rates were also comparable.
This audit confirmed the validity of referral and treatment protocols and should guide future referrals until evidence from ongoing studies becomes available. These findings should contribute to the development of robust national guidelines.
Pre-weaning animals exit a flock through death induced by various reasons, causing significant economic losses to the goat producers. In this study, we investigated the survival from birth to weaning of Sirohi goat kids within framework of the survival analysis. Kid records were accessed from 1997 to 2017, with the information on 4417 pre-weaning animals of farmed Sirohi goat native to the Rajasthan State of India. A multivariable Cox regression was fitted to the data after checking the assumptions of regression. The explanatory variables were sex, type of birth, season of birth, birthweight, doe weight at kidding and year of birth. Model selection eliminated doe weight from the model, and sex, type of birth, season of birth, birthweight and year of birth were retained in the model. With model calibration also, these five covariates were retained in the model. The mortality on the first day after birth was 0.3%, constituting 3.5% of all pre-weaning mortality. The mortality until the end of weaning period was 7.8%. Regression analysis revealed that the higher birthweight at kidding was associated with reduced hazard of death among the kids. Male kids had higher hazards of death compared with female kids. The single-born kids had lower risks of death compared with twin-born kids after accounting for heterogeneity. The winter season had a very high adverse effect on the survival of the kids. With each passing year, risks of death decreased. The results of this study indicate that better survival of kids can be achieved by controlling both environmental and animal-related factors.
The present work aims to explore the mechanism of action of C-cinnamoyl glycoside as an antifilarial agent against the bovine filarial nematode Setaria cervi. Both apoptosis and autophagy programmed cell death pathways play a significant role in parasitic death. The generation of reactive oxygen species, alteration of the level of antioxidant components and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential may be the causative factors that drive the parasitic death. Monitoring of autophagic flux via the formation of autophagosome and autophagolysosome was detected via CYTO ID dye. The expression profiling of both apoptotic and autophagic marker proteins strongly support the initial findings of these two cell death processes. The increased interaction of pro-autophagic protein Beclin1 with BCL-2 may promote apoptotic pathway by suppressing anti-apoptotic protein BCL-2 from its function. This in turn partially restrains the autophagic pathway by engaging Beclin1 in the complex. But overall positive increment in autophagic flux was observed. Dynamic interaction and regulative balance of these two critical cellular pathways play a decisive role in controlling disease pathogenesis. Therefore, the present experimental work may prosper the chance for C-cinnamoyl glycosides to become a potential antifilarial therapeutic in the upcoming day after detail in vivo study and proper clinical trial.
The term ‘global mental health’ came to the fore in 2007, when the Lancet published a series by that name.
To review all peer-reviewed articles using the term ‘global mental health’ and determine the implicit priorities of scientific literature that self-identifies with this term.
We conducted a systematic review to quantify all peer-reviewed articles using the English term ‘global mental health’ in their text published between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2016, including by geographic regions and by mental health conditions.
A total of 467 articles met criteria. Use of the term ‘global mental health’ increased from 12 articles in 2007 to 114 articles in 2016. For the 111 empirical studies (23.8% of articles), the majority (78.4%) took place in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), with the most in Sub-Saharan Africa (28.4%) and South Asia (25.5%) and none from Central Asia. The most commonly studied mental health conditions were depression (29.7%), psychoses (12.6%) and conditions specifically related to stress (12.6%), with fewer studies on epilepsy (2.7%), self-harm and suicide (1.8%) and dementia (0.9%). The majority of studies lacked contextual information, including specific region(s) within countries where studies took place (20.7% missing), specific language(s) in which studies were conducted (36.9% missing), and details on ethnic identities such as ethnicity, caste and/or tribe (79.6% missing) and on socioeconomic status (85.4% missing).
Research identifying itself as ‘global mental health’ has focused predominantly on depression in LMICs and lacked contextual and sociodemographic data that limit interpretation and application of findings.
Radiation therapy (RT), in combination with chemotherapy, is the mainstay in the treatment for locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer. We analysed the tumour response and the toxicity profiles in patients having locally advanced oropharyngeal cancers receiving hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy with Cisplatin investigating the feasibility and radiobiological efficacy of the regimen, along with its use as a resource-sparing alternative for a high-volume centre.
Material and Methods:
The records of 41 eligible patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of oropharynx, registered from September 2015 to April 2017, treated with hypofractionated IMRT with concurrent Cisplatin, were analysed from the hospital database. Patients received concurrent chemo-radiation with 2 cycles of 3-weekly cisplatin on day 1 and day 22 along with hypofractionated IMRT, 55 Gy delivered in 20 fractions over 4 weeks. Patients were observed for any radiation reaction or chemotherapy toxicity at least once a week during the course of radiation therapy.
Twenty-nine patients (70·7%) achieved complete response and remaining 12 showed partial response. Acute grade 3 toxicity was observed mostly in the form of oral mucositis and radiation dermatitis. Both grade 3 oral mucositis and radiation dermatitis were seen in 15 patients (36·6%) and 7 patients (17%), respectively. The most common late toxicities were dysphagia and dry mouth. Twenty-five patients (61%) completed the overall treatment within 4 weeks’ duration.
This hypofractionated regimen is feasible and was associated with tolerable acute and late morbidity and satisfactory locoregional response. Larger prospective, multi- institutional studies examining similar schedules may be undertaken to establish this as a standard practice, particularly for a high-volume centre.
The incidence of breast cancer has surpassed cervical cancer in India and it has now become the most common cancer in women. Multiple randomised studies have reported low α/β value in the range of 3–4 for breast cancer, which predict a potential radiobiological advantage for hypofractionated radiotherapy resulting in such schedules becoming standard in many centers with reduction in overall treatment time. Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a novel technique of delivering radiotherapy that reduces treatment delivery time, requires less monitor units (MU) and offers good conformity. The mean dose to normal tissue may be minimised using this technique although there will be inferior sparing if we consider the low-dose volume such as V5, the effect of which is not quantifiable yet.
Reporting acute toxicity, cosmetic effects, and quality of life in patients of early breast cancer treated with adjuvant hypofractionated VMAT with SIB.
Material and Methods:
The records of 44 patients registered at the hospital between August 2014 and December 2015 were included in this analysis. Acute toxicities were analysed using CTCAE v4.03. Cosmetic outcomes were assessed using Harvard scale, while quality of life outcomes were assessed using EORTC scales and Health Related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaires (QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23).
No grade ≥2 skin toxicities were recorded. Breast pain was recorded as Grade 1 in 13·8% patients and Grade 1 fatigue in 18·2%. The maximum haematological abnormality grade recorded was Grade 1. Cosmesis was assessed at the baseline, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years. A total of 88·6% of the patients had an Excellent or good cosmesis at the baseline, which was similar even at 6 months, at 88·7%, improved further at 1 year to 90·9%. At 6 months post radiotherapy, high functional scale QOL scores were noted.
The technique is associated with minimum acute toxicity, good to excellent cosmesis and acceptable quality of life.
Many patients with advanced serious illness or at the end of life experience delirium, a potentially reversible form of acute brain dysfunction, which may impair ability to participate in medical decision-making and to engage with their loved ones. Screening for delirium provides an opportunity to address modifiable causes. Unfortunately, delirium remains underrecognized. The main objective of this pilot was to validate the brief Confusion Assessment Method (bCAM), a two-minute delirium-screening tool, in a veteran palliative care sample.
This was a pilot prospective, observational study that included hospitalized patients evaluated by the palliative care service at a single Veterans’ Administration Medical Center. The bCAM was compared against the reference standard, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition. Both assessments were blinded and conducted within 30 minutes of each other.
We enrolled 36 patients who were a median of 67 years (interquartile range 63–73). The primary reasons for admission to the hospital were sepsis or severe infection (33%), severe cardiac disease (including heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and myocardial infarction) (17%), or gastrointestinal/liver disease (17%). The bCAM performed well against the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, for detecting delirium, with a sensitivity (95% confidence interval) of 0.80 (0.4, 0.96) and specificity of 0.87 (0.67, 0.96).
Significance of Results
Delirium was present in 27% of patients enrolled and never recognized by the palliative care service in routine clinical care. The bCAM provided good sensitivity and specificity in a pilot of palliative care patients, providing a method for nonpsychiatrically trained personnel to detect delirium.
Nanostructured multiphase metallic materials present extraordinary properties, such as high strength, enhanced fatigue and radiation resistance, and thermal stability, compared to conventional bulk metallic materials. Previous research studies have shown that their deformation and fracture behavior are dominated by defect interactions at internal interfaces. In situ straining, including nanoindentation, compression, and tension, in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate the physics of defect–interface interactions at the nano-scale and even atomic scale. The mechanistic insights gained from these experiments coupled with dislocation theory and atomistic modeling has helped develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanical properties. In this article, through some recent investigations on observing dislocation and interface activities, crack propagation, and nanopillar compression, we present current progress in utilizing in situ TEM straining to examine interface-dominated deformation mechanisms.
Coronary-pulmonary artery fistula is a rare anomaly in which an aortopulmonary collateral artery arises from a coronary artery, often seen in patients with pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect. In the presented case, a coronary-pulmonary artery fistula arose from the left main coronary artery and supplied blood flow to a left upper lobe segment. The life-sized three-dimensional printed model was helpful in pre-surgical planning for unifocalisation of the aortopulmonary collateral arteries.
Breeding for resistance against nematodes has become the need of the hour due to emergence of anthelmintic resistant strains of major pathogenic nematodes of economic importance and rising demand for chemical residue free food by consumers. ICAR-Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute Avikanagar (Rajasthan) has developed Haemonchus contortus resistant lines of sheep in Avikalin and Malpura breeds by harvesting benefits of over-dispersion in fecal egg counts (FEC) through executing a breeding program since year 2004. Aim of the present study was to assess the genetic parameters for nematode resistance in these lines and also to develop suitable criteria for selection targeting resistance as well as growth improvement in these two lines. The data on 1240 Avikalin and 2172 Malpura sheep generated over 13 years (2004–16) for FEC along with deep pedigree and growth records for live weight at 6 (6WT) and 12 month were used for study. Data were analyzed using Average Information Restricted Maximum Likelihood (AIREML) approach. Results revealed moderate heritability (h2) for pre-drench log transformed fecal egg count (LFEC) in Avikalin (0.21±0.06) and Malpura (0.18±0.04) sheep. The post-drench h2 for LFEC was low in Avikalin (0.04±0.03) and Malpura (0.11±0.03) sheep. Effective selection program can be carried out for further improving the resistance against H. contortus in both the breeds using pre-drench LFEC estimates. The genetic correlation between the pre-drench LFEC and growth traits was not in the desired direction. Existence of substantial genotype × environment (G×E) interaction was seen in Malpura sheep, where major shift in ranks of sheep based on pre-drench LFEC as that of post-drench LFEC was observed owing to genetic correlation of 0.65±0.15. The G×E was absent in Avikalin sheep. Unreliable genetic correlation between growth and LFEC does not warrant a multi trait selection index development and its utilization in breeding program. The independent selection for LFEC followed by corrected 6WT can precisely help in achieving the goal of improving growth in nematode resistant sheep.