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This qualitative study used a narrative approach to address the vulnerabilities and problems experienced by the children of sex workers in Iran. A purposive sample of women who were referred to drop-in centres were invited to take part in semi-structured interviews. An analysis of the data identified 8 main themes and 12 sub-themes, most of which related to risks and harm being perpetrated on the children of sex workers. The main risk to these children was the likelihood that they would escape from home and become sex workers themselves. Also identified as problematic was the risk of child labour, becoming members of offending groups and becoming a member of a brothel.
Adding corn silage (CS) instead of alfalfa hay (AH) to the finely ground starter diet would improve calf performance if feed intake or feed efficiency is increased. We investigated the effects of replacing AH with CS in the starter diet on nutrient intake, digestibility, growth performance, rumen fermentation and selected blood metabolites in Holstein calves. Newborn male calves (n = 30; 3 days of age; 40.2 ± 1.28 kg BW) were assigned randomly to three groups receiving starter diets containing chopped AH (10% dry matter (DM) basis; AH diet), CS (10% DM, CS diet) or their combination (each at 5% level; AHCS diet). The starter diets had the same nutrient composition but differed in DM content (91.2%, 87.5% and 83.8% for AH, AHCS and CS, respectively). The calves were weaned on day 50, and the study continued until day 70. Nutrient intake, BW (at weaning and at the end of the study) and body measurements were not affected by the diet. During the post-weaning period, average daily gain tended to be greater on CS than on AH diet. Feed efficiency was greater in CS than in AH or AHCS calves during the post-weaning period. Digestibility of neutral detergent fiber was greater in AHCS and CS compared with AH during the post-weaning period. Concentration and profile of volatile fatty acids and ruminal fluid pH were not affected by the diet. Replacing AH with CS in the starter diet had no effect on feed intake, growth performance and general health of the calves. These results indicate that AH and CS can be used interchangeably in dairy calf starter diets until 70 days of age, allowing dairy producers more choices in selecting the feed ingredients.
Optimal type and dietary inclusion rates of cereal grains for periparturient sheep are unknown. The objective was to determine effects of feeding diets with high (H) v. low (L) levels of ground corn grain (CN) v. combined ground wheat and barley grains (WB) on intake, rumen fermentation, colostrum and milk properties, and blood metabolites of periparturient sheep. Twenty Afshari×Merino ewes were used in a completely randomized design study from 24 days prepartum through 21 days postpartum. Ewes were kept indoors in individual boxes and received once daily at 0900 h total mixed rations. Treatments were mixed rations containing either (1) H or (2) L concentrate based on either (1) 100% CN or (2) 50 : 50 ratio of ground wheat : ground barley grains in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Each treatment group had five ewes including two twin-lamb ewes and three single-lamb ewes. Postpartal dry matter intake (DMI) increased by feeding high CN v. high and low WB, while high v. low CN improved postpartum DMI. The DMI during lambing tended to increase with the high v. low WB. Feeding CN v. WB, and feeding both CN and WB at L v. H level increased fecal pH. Postpartal rumen pH was lower with the high v. low WB (5.7 v. 6.2). Rumen concentrations of propionate were lower and of acetate were higher with L v. H grain levels. Increased dietary grain reduced urine pH for WB (7.24 v. 7.83) but not for CN (7.63 v. 7.52) prepartum. Colostrum properties, postpartal urine pH, lamb weight at birth and 21 days of age, and placental weight and expulsion time were unaffected. Milk yield increased and milk fat yield tended to increase by H v. L grain diets. Plasma glucose was increased by feeding high v. low WB, whereas CN v. WB tended to reduce peripartal plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and increased insulin to NEFA ratio. In conclusion, more cereal grains can be included in periparturient sheep diets and CN instead of WB may be fed to periparturient sheep to improve energy status. Findings suggest opportunities to optimize periparturient ewe physiology and performance through feeding certain cereals and avoiding high levels of WB.
Very recently, we added water to a dry texturized starter diet and found substantial improvements in calf performance during summer, leading to the hypothesis that the wet starter diet would also benefit calf performance during winter. Forty-five 3-day-old male Holstein calves (BW 43.4±3.4 kg) were blocked by initial BW and distributed randomly to one of three starter diets (1 calf per pen; 15 pens per treatment) that differed only in moisture content as 90%, 75% and 50% dry matter (DM; DM90, DM75 and DM50, respectively). The starter diet comprised 55.1% ground ingredients (soybean meal, barley and corn gluten meal), 21.9% whole corn, 10% rolled barley and 10% chopped alfalfa hay. The mean ambient temperature averaged 2.1±0.9°C during the 70-day experiment. Calves were weaned at day 50 of the study. Although starter feed intake remained unaffected by treatment, the calves receiving DM75 and DM50 consumed more starter feed (DM basis) than those receiving DM90 diet during the first 20 days of the experiment. Body weight at weaning exhibited a quadratic response with the heaviest weaning weight (76.8 kg) occurring when calves consumed DM75 diet. Adding water to the dry starter diet tended to linearly increase final BW. Average daily gain during the pre- (0.67 kg/day) and post-weaning (1.22 kg/day) periods was the greatest for calves receiving DM75 and DM50, respectively. Although feed efficiency during the pre-weaning and overall periods did not differ across the treatments, a quadratic effect was detected in the post-weaning feed efficiency, with the lowest value being observed with DM75 diet. No difference was noted on skeletal growth parameters measured on days 50 and 70. Adding water to the dry starter diet linearly increased total volatile fatty acids concentration in the rumen. No difference among treatments existed in calf behavior recorded on days 35 and 70. As moisture content of the starter diet increased, the extent of sorting for long particles (>2 mm) and against fine particles (<0.125 mm) decreased. During the 70-day winter trial, adding water to the dry texturized starter diet with 10% chopped alfalfa hay resulted in a higher feed intake during the first weeks of life, a quadratic tendency toward improved growth rate during the pre-weaning period, and possibly a more functional rumen fermentation. A wet starter diet with 75% DM in the physical form offered in this study can be recommended to improve calf performance during winter.
Increasing evidence has suggested an association between food insecurity and the risk of anaemia. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to examine the associations between food insecurity and anaemia risk.
Pertinent studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE databases up to August 2017. Data were available from nineteen studies; seventeen studies were cross-sectional and two studies were longitudinal. Risk ratios of 95993 individual participants from twelve different countries in these studies were pooled for the meta-analysis.
The results showed that there was an overall positive relationship between food insecurity and anaemia risk (OR=1·27; 95 % CI 1·13, 1·40). Similar results were observed for Fe-deficiency anaemia (OR=1·45; 95 % CI 1·04, 1·86). These results revealed that food insecurity at two levels, including mild food insecurity (OR=1·15; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·31) and moderate food insecurity (OR=1·36; 95 % CI 1·23, 1·48), increased the risk of anaemia. In addition, it was found that age had an impact on the associations between food insecurity and anaemia risk (OR=1·22; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·36). Age subgroup analysis indicated that food insecurity significantly increased the risk of anaemia among infants/toddlers (OR=1·17; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·29) and adult women (OR=1·35; 95 % CI 1·16, 1·54).
It seems that infants, toddlers and adult women in food-insecure households are at a higher risk of anaemia. To prevent anaemia in food-insecure households, these age groups may require more nutritional support.
Osteoporosis and adipose tissue are closely related with many contradictions. Visfatin is an adipokine that is related to osteoporosis and adiposity. This nutrigenomics study examined the interaction between visfatin genotypes and dietary fat intake, with regard to bone mineral density (BMD) among an obese population. In this cross-sectional study, 336 subjects were enrolled; the mean age was 38·25 (sd 11·69) years and the mean BMI was 31·79 (sd 4·77) kg/m2. Laboratory measurements were lipid profile, insulin and fasting blood sugar. Bone density measurements were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary data were collected through a 3-d 24-h dietary recall. Genotyping for visfatin gene SNP (rs2110385) was performed by the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The frequency of GG, GT and TT genotypes were 33·92 48·51 and 17·54 %, respectively, and 86·6 % of participants were women. The results showed that subjects with TT genotypes had significantly higher lumbar BMD, T score and z score (P<0·0001). After categorisation by percentage of fat intake (30 % of total energy content as a cut-off point), no interaction was found, but when categorised by fat types, we found an interaction between visfatin genotypes and dietary PUFA intake in terms of the hip T score and z score (P=0·043, B= −0·08; P=0·04, B= −0·078, respectively). There was a significant relationship between high PUFA intake and lower energy and protein intake. When participants were categorised by median PUFA intake (22·8 g), it was concluded that subjects with GG genotype who had high PUFA-intake diets had lower hip z scores and T scores, unlike the other genotypes.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to a group of risk factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Dietary habits are among the most important risk factors for MetS. The current study aimed at assessing the effect of dietary habits on the risk of MetS in a 10-year follow-up study in central Iran.
Participants aged 20–74 years without any history of MetS, who were originally recruited for Yazd Healthy Heart Project (YHHP) during 2005–2006, were revisited during 2015–2016. At phase I of YHHP, demographic data, anthropometric measurements, five components of MetS, biochemical tests and dietary habits were evaluated; and the same data were collected in phase II.
A total of 1092 participants were eligible to be included in the present study. After follow-up, the 10-year cumulative incidence of MetS was 56·1 %. After adjustment for potential confounders, increased risk of MetS (hazard ratio; 95 % CI) was found in those who did not try to control their body weight (1·57; 1·06, 2·35), did not usually eat salad (1·91; 1·22, 3·00) and added salt to their food (1·57, 1·06, 2·33). These associations were stronger in men than in the total population after subgroup analysis, but were not present in women.
Dietary habits affect the risk of MetS in the Iranian population. Lifestyle interventions are needed to improve dietary habits to reduce the risk of MetS. Future studies are highly recommended to confirm our results in other populations.
This paper introduces a novel captioning method, partial and synchronized captioning (PSC), as a tool for developing second language (L2) listening skills. Unlike conventional full captioning, which provides the full text and allows comprehension of the material merely by reading, PSC promotes listening to the speech by presenting a selected subset of words, where each word is synched to its corresponding speech signal. In this method, word-level synchronization is realized by an automatic speech recognition (ASR) system, dedicated to the desired corpora. This feature allows the learners to become familiar with the correspondences between words and their utterances. Partialization is done by automatically selecting words or phrases likely to hinder listening comprehension. In this work we presume that the incidence of infrequent or specific words and fast delivery of speech are major barriers to listening comprehension. The word selection criteria are thus based on three factors: speech rate, word frequency and specificity. The thresholds for these features are adjusted to the proficiency level of the learners. The selected words are presented to aid listening comprehension while the remaining words are masked in order to keep learners listening to the audio. PSC was evaluated against no-captioning and full-captioning conditions using TED videos. The results indicate that PSC leads to the same level of comprehension as the full-captioning method while presenting less than 30% of the transcript. Furthermore, compared with the other methods, PSC can serve as an effective medium for decreasing dependence on captions and preparing learners to listen without any assistance.
Lexis-based views of second or foreign language (L2) teaching place prime importance on the teaching of conventionalized multi-word lexical items, or unanalyzed chunks, as a useful mechanism for fostering learners’ creative production of forms and their subsequent development of L2 competence. This pretest/posttest quasi-experimental study probed the use of teacher-designed multi-purpose instructional lexis software, dubbed LexisBOARD, on L2 learners’ vocabulary achievement in an Iranian EFL (English as a foreign language) context. A cohort of 50 Iranian junior-high-school students participated in the main instructional phase of the study. Instruction on L2 lexical items (e.g., concordances, polywords, or formulaic sequences) was mainly given to the experimental group using LexisBOARD, which was designed to be user-friendly and attuned to learners’ communicative and curricular needs. LexisBOARD offered further practice or feedback affordances through engaging students in lexical exercises (with word partnerships and collocations) for each unit and several quizzes for self-assessment. The control group was only taught using their mainstream EFL textbooks focusing on grammatical rules, discrete vocabulary items with fixed meanings, and reading texts, without any use of corpus-based activities. The results of the groups’ vocabulary test scores indicate that the lexis group significantly outperformed the control group, pointing to the superiority of practicing and learning L2 vocabulary when lexical items are seen in larger, more holistic ways and, especially, when engaging and experimenting with lexis is scaffolded through computer affordances.
The modulational instability associated with propagation of an intense laser pulse through a transversely magnetized plasma is investigated in the presence of collisional effects. The source-dependent expansion method for analyzing the wave equation is employed. The dispersion relation is obtained and modulational instability and its growth rate are studied. It is shown that in the absence of collisional effects the modulational instability is restricted to the small wavenumber region and the constant magnetic field reduces the growth rate of the instability. In contrast, in the collisional plasma, there is no upper limit of wavenumber for the existence of modulational instability. In addition, in this case, the growth rate of instability increases as the collision frequency goes up.
The genetic diversity of 39 Iranian black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) landraces was analysed using 14 polymorphic Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) markers. A total of 106 bands ranging from 3 (for SCoT70) to 13 (for SCoT23) were observed. Of them, 33 (31%) bands were polymorphic with a mean of 1.65 bands per primer. Polymorphism information content (PIC) per primer ranged from 0.035 (for SCoT12) to 0.133 (for SCoT70), with an average of 0.078. Besides PIC, Simpson's diversity (D) index was also calculated for each SCoT marker as an indication of discrimination power across population. The D index was used to adjust the PIC of the SCoT markers. As the adjusted PIC (PICD= PIC × D) was calculated based on both the PIC and the rate of band dispersion, this reflected the informativeness of a dominant marker more precisely than PIC. Genetic relationships were estimated using Jaccard's similarity coefficient-generated values between different pairs of genotypes that varied from 80 to 97% with an average of 88%. These coefficients were applied to construct a dendrogram using the UPGMA algorithm. A high genetic similarity was observed that might be due to the fact that N. sativa is a self-pollinated plant not originated from Iran and might have been imported from the Mediterranean regions.
Given the importance of evaluation in an organization and considering the objectives and missions of military hospitals, we aimed to extract some indexes (in addition to common evaluation indexes) for use in evaluating military hospitals. This was an applied-type qualitative study. The participants were 15 health experts who were first chosen by a purposeful sampling, which was then continued by theoretical sampling. The data obtained were analyzed by using MAXQDA11 software and the content analysis method. After 290 obtained codes were analyzed, 17 indexes in 6 domains were extracted, including capacity development for crisis periods, equipment and facilities, training and research, passive defense, treatment, and services, from which 8 indexes were related to capacity development for crisis periods and equipment and facilities (4 indexes each), 3 indexes were related to services, and 6 indexes were related to training and research, passive defense, and treatment (2 indexes each). The results of the present research, as a supplement to current evaluation methods such as accreditation, can be used for the comprehensive evaluation of military hospitals. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;9:409–414)
Length-weight relationship, growth parameters and mortality rates of Anadara granosa in the intertidal zone of Balik Pulau, Penang Island, West Coast of Malaysia were investigated based on monthly length-frequency data (December 2011 to November 2012). A total of 548 individuals ranging from 11.25 to 33.13 mm size were subjected to analysis. Logarithmic relationship between the length and weight was Log W = 2.328 Log L − 2.537 (R2 = 0.922) for combined sexes. From this equation it was clear that the exponent ‘b’ value for A. granosa showed a negative allometric growth (b < 3). A von Bertalanffy growth function with an asymptotic length (L∞) of 35.40 mm and a growth constant (K) of 1.1 year−1 was established from length frequency distributions. The t0(−0.140) was estimated by substituting the L∞and K in the Pauly's equation. The sizes attained by A. granosa were 10.13, 14.36, 17.89, 20.82, 23.56 and 25.29 mm at the end of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 months, respectively. The estimated growth performance index (Ø) was 3.13 while the estimated lifespan of the cockles was about 2.72 years at the study area. The estimated value of total mortality based on length-converted catch curve was Z = 3.02 year−1. The natural mortality (M) and fishing mortality (F) rates were 1.84 and 0.48 year−1, respectively. The exploitation level (E) of A. granosa was 0.20, which indicated slight fishing pressure on the stock.
The significance of flow optimization utilizing the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method becomes obvious regarding its advantages as a novel flow field solution method compared to the other conventional computational fluid dynamics techniques. These unique characteristics of the LB method form the main idea of its application to optimization problems. In this research, for the first time, both continuous and discrete adjoint equations were extracted based on the LB method using a general procedure with low implementation cost. The proposed approach could be performed similarly for any optimization problem with the corresponding cost function and design variables vector. Moreover, this approach was not limited to flow fields and could be employed for steady as well as unsteady flows. Initially, the continuous and discrete adjoint LB equations and the cost function gradient vector were derived mathematically in detail using the continuous and discrete LB equations in space and time, respectively. Meanwhile, new adjoint concepts in lattice space were introduced. Finally, the analytical evaluation of the adjoint distribution functions and the cost function gradients was carried out.
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women worldwide. Several studies have examined the role of single nutrients and food groups in breast cancer pathogenesis but fewer investigations have addressed the role of dietary patterns. Our main objective was to identify the relationship between major dietary patterns and breast cancer risk among Iranian women.
Hospital-based case–control study.
Shohada Teaching Hospital, Tehran, Iran.
Overall, 100 female patients aged 30–65 years with breast cancer and 174 female hospital controls were included in the present study. Dietary intake was assessed using a valid and reliable semi-quantitative FFQ consisting of 168 food items.
Two dietary patterns were identified explaining 24·31 % of dietary variation in the study population. The ‘healthy’ food pattern was characterized by the consumption of vegetables, fruits, low-fat dairy products, legumes, olive and vegetable oils, fish, condiments, organ meat, poultry, pickles, soya and whole grains; while the ‘unhealthy’ food pattern was characterized by the consumption of soft drinks, sugars, tea and coffee, French fries and potato chips, salt, sweets and desserts, hydrogenated fats, nuts, industrial juice, refined grains, and red and processed meat. Compared with the lowest tertile, women in the highest tertile of the ‘healthy’ dietary pattern score had 75 % decreased risk of breast cancer (OR = 0·25, 95 % CI 0·08, 0·78), whereas women in the highest tertile of the ‘unhealthy’ dietary pattern had a significantly increased breast cancer risk (OR = 7·78, 95 % CI 2·31, 26·22).
A healthy dietary pattern may be negatively associated with breast cancer risk, while an unhealthy dietary pattern is likely to increase the risk among Iranian women.
Hypersonic, collimated jets are being lately intensively studied in Earth laboratories,
trying to reproduce some of the physical properties of a subclass of astrophysical jets
that are the Herbig-Haro (HH) jets. These jets are produced in the regions around Young
Stellar Objects (YSOs), that are proto-stars located inside galactic Giant Molecular
Clouds. In addition to the novel experimental approach, HH or YSO jets have been object of
interest by the astrophysical community since a few decades and studied by means of
observations at different wavelengths and analytical and numerical modeling. We present
laboratory experiments and 2D numerical simulations of hypersonic jets, comparing the
results of experiments and simulations that reproduce the evolution of the above mentioned
jets. The experimental flows match two main scaling parameter requirements for
proto-stellar jets, i.e. the ejection Mach number M and
the jet/ambient density ratio η. In particular, η goes
from slightly underdense to overdense values. Furthermore, as a development of previous
works, we consider here the dependence of the jet structure and morphology on the Mach
number, in the range 10 to 15.
M-phase filters offer high-Q filtering by frequency translation of low-Q baseband impedances to the clock frequency. These filters are placed typically at high-impedance RF nodes, and the quality factor of the resulting bandpass filtering at the RF is proportional approximately to this impedance. Low-impedance RF nodes cannot benefit from these M-phase filters for the following two reasons: (a) for a given quality factor, the required baseband capacitors (and, therefore, the filter size) is inversely proportional to this impedance; (b) the attenuation of the filter at far-out frequencies is equal to the ratio of this impedance to the switch resistance. For low-impedance nodes, the far-out attenuation becomes insignificant.
The well-known duality theorem in circuit theory, however, suggests that the low and high impedances of any given electrical network are mapped to high and low impedances, respectively. This phenomenon suggests that because the M-phase filter is beneficial for high-impedance nodes, its dual must be useful for low-impedance nodes. Therefore, in this chapter, we visit briefly the widely recognized concept of duality in electrical networks. Following that, we will describe the dual of the conventional M-phase filter and its variations and will explain how, for low-impedance nodes, these new filters can offer high-Q filtering with centers controlled by clocks.
Designing less expensive RF wireless transceivers that can operate effectively and efficiently in the crowded wireless spectrum is a major challenge that must be met by today's designers. To reduce silicon costs, the chip dies must be as small as possible. To reduce the cost and size of batteries in mobile wireless devices, the amount of power consumed by the chip must be as little as possible. External components such as filters and their matching components, which are bulky and expensive, must be integrated on the chip to the greatest extent possible.
To address the issue of operating effectively in a crowded wireless spectrum, cognitive radios have been introduced. Cognitive radios are smart devices that can search for any available spectrum (even ones that are outside of what is specified by the standard) and take advantage of that free spectrum. Additionally, over the last decade, researchers have been exploring the possibility of using a universal radio that can be programmed and reconfigured through software to operate on any band, channel bandwidth, and modulation scheme. Such a universal radio is called a software-defined radio (SDR).
For a wireless device to support SDR, it must be capable of broadband operation, which raises a few unique challenges. The receiver of such a broadband device is open to any in-band or out-of-band interferences and must be able to tolerate them while maintaining good sensitivity.
In a wireless receiver, the desired signal, which can be very weak, can be accompanied by strong out-of-band blockers. To amplify the weak desired signal and overcome the noise of the following stages, the incoming signal must pass through a low noise amplifier. Also, for a very weak desired signal, the gain of the LNA is maximized. If they are not attenuated before experiencing the LNA gain, the strong out-of-band blockers compress the LNA. In practice, external SAW filters are used in front of the LNA to attenuate the out-of-band blockers. Such external SAW filters are not only expensive and bulky, they increase the receiver noise figure due to their inevitable insertion loss. Additionally, such SAW filters require typically external matching components to convert the impedance seen from the RFIC to the 50Ω they need for proper operation.
In multiband receivers, because each radio requires its own off-chip SAW filter and matching components, the RF sections (low noise amplifiers and mixers) cannot easily be shared. Not only is there no hardware sharing for the RF blocks, the number of RF pads increases with the number of received bands. These factors complicate the design at all levels, including packaging and board design. To have a single RF input for the RFIC, these external SAW filters must be replaced with a single external SAW filter that is capable of having its center frequency and bandwidth tuned. Tunable SAW filters with high quality factors and low insertion losses are still the subject of research and have not yet been implemented.