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Treatment of metachronous second primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients already treated with definitive radiotherapy is a matter of debate, since most patients are excluded from surgical treatment, which remains a therapeutic standard for patients with isolated lung masses. Salvage chemotherapy or immunotherapy alone offers a low probability of disease control. The option of re-irradiation often remains the only viable, but the risks of severe acute or late toxicities affecting the surrounding normal tissues make this a real clinical challenge.
Materials and methods:
From January 2015 to April 2018, five patients (male/female: 4/1; age 54–81 years, median 68) with previously irradiated NSCLC presented with a second primary lung tumour.
A partial response was seen in four patients, one complete responses in the fifth. The toxicity was low: two patients experienced a grade 2 asymptomatic radiation pneumonitis after 6 and 12 months from the end of stereotactic body radiation therapy, resolved with cortisone therapy. No acute or late oesophageal or cardiac toxicity was found.
In this work, we present our initial experience about the use of stereotactic radiotherapy technique in already irradiated patients. We reported a local disease control in all cases with an acceptable toxicity.
Accurate measurement of herbage intake rate is critical to advance knowledge of the ecology of grazing ruminants. This experiment tested the integration of behavioral and acoustic measurements of chewing and biting to estimate herbage dry matter intake (DMI) in dairy cows offered micro-swards of contrasting plant structure. Micro-swards constructed with plastic pots were offered to three lactating Holstein cows (608±24.9 kg of BW) in individual grazing sessions (n=48). Treatments were a factorial combination of two forage species (alfalfa and fescue) and two plant heights (tall=25±3.8 cm and short=12±1.9 cm) and were offered on a gradient of increasing herbage mass (10 to 30 pots) and number of bites (~10 to 40 bites). During each grazing session, sounds of biting and chewing were recorded with a wireless microphone placed on the cows’ foreheads and a digital video camera to allow synchronized audio and video recordings. Dry matter intake rate was higher in tall alfalfa than in the other three treatments (32±1.6 v. 19±1.2 g/min). A high proportion of jaw movements in every grazing session (23 to 36%) were compound jaw movements (chew-bites) that appeared to be a key component of chewing and biting efficiency and of the ability of cows to regulate intake rate. Dry matter intake was accurately predicted based on easily observable behavioral and acoustic variables. Chewing sound energy measured as energy flux density (EFD) was linearly related to DMI, with 74% of EFD variation explained by DMI. Total chewing EFD, number of chew-bites and plant height (tall v. short) were the most important predictors of DMI. The best model explained 91% of the variation in DMI with a coefficient of variation of 17%. Ingestive sounds integrate valuable information to remotely monitor feeding behavior and predict DMI in grazing cows.
M 54 is the central cluster of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. This stellar system is now in process of being disrupted by the tidal interaction with the Milky Way and represents one of the building blocks of the Galactic Halo. Recent discoveries, based on the synergy of photometry and spectroscopy have revealed that the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of some massive, anomalous, Globular Clusters (GCs) host stellar populations with different content of heavy elements. In this paper, I use multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometry to detect and characterize multiple stellar populations in M 54. I provide empirical evidence that this GC shares photometric and spectroscopic similarities with the class of anomalous GCs. These findings make it tempting to speculate that, similarly to Sagittarius nuclear cluster M 54, other anomalous GCs were born in an extra-Galactic environment.
A large number of intermediate-age (~1-2-Gyr old) globular clusters (GCs) in the Large and the Small Magellanic Cloud (MC) exhibit either bimodal or extended main-sequence (MS) turn off and dual red clump (RC). Moreover, recent papers have shown that the MS of the young clusters NGC 1844 and NGC 1856 is either broadened or split. These features of the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) are not consistent with a single isochrone and suggest that star clusters in MCs have experienced a prolonged star formation, in close analogy with Milky-Way GCs with multiple stellar populations. As an alternative, stellar rotation or interacting binaries can be responsible of the CMD morphology. In the following I will summarize the observational scenario and provide constraints on the nature of the complex CMD of young and intermediate-age MC clusters from our ongoing photometric survey with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST).
International Astronomical Union was formed after the First World War although it became truly international only after the Second World War. Its Commission 41 on History of Astronomy (C41) was set up in 1948 and in a few years established itself as an active and influential unit. It has the distinction of being a joint Commission, the other partner being International Union of History and Philosophy of Science and Technology (IUHPS). Since IAU is an internationally respected body of professional astronomers, its support for history of astronomy enhances the credibility of the discipline in the eyes of scientists as well as science establishments of individual countries. C41 is committed to advancing objective and rigorous world history of astronomy taking into account all its aspects.
Commission 25 (C25) deals with the techniques and issues involved with the measurement of optical and infrared radiation intensities and polarization from astronomical sources. As such, in recent years attention has focused on photometric standard stars, atmospheric extinction, photometric passbands, transformation between systems, nomenclature, and observing and reduction techniques. At the start of the trimester C25 changed its name from Stellar Photometry and Polarization to Astronomical Photometry and Polarization so as to explicitly include in its mandate particular issues arising from the measurement of resolved sources, given the importance of photometric redshifts of distant galaxies for many of the large photometric surveys now underway. We begin by summarizing commission activities over the 2012-2014 period, follow with a report on Polarimetry, continue with Photometry topics that have been of interest to C25 members, and conclude with a Vision for the Future.
A very simple model for the kinetics of oxidation of carbon Nanotubes (NTs) is proposed which is able to reproduce the main features of their measured kinetic thermal oxidation profiles. Based on this model the resistance to oxidation of NTs is found to decrease with increasing defect density and amorphous phases, i.e. sp3 bonding component. This finding supports the validity of assumptions previously made to explain the correlation between results of Raman Spectroscopy (RS) and Kinetic Thermal Analysis (KTA) on NTs via a three-stage model, inspired to that proposed by Ferrari and Robertson for other nanocarbons.
We alert the community to a paradigm method to calibrate a range of standard candles by means of well-calibrated photometry of eclipsing binaries in star clusters. In particular, we re-examine systems studied as part of our Binaries-in-Clusters program, and previously analyzed with earlier versions of the Wilson–Devinney light-curve modeling program. We make use of the 2010 version of this program, which incorporates a procedure to estimate the distance to an eclipsing system directly, as a system parameter, and is thus dependent on the data and analysis model alone. As such, the derived distance is accorded a standard error, independent of any additional assumptions or approximations that such analyses conventionally require.
The infrared channel of the Wide-Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope revealed multiple main sequences of very low-mass stars in the globular clusters NGC 2808 and ω Cen. In this paper I summarize the observational facts and provide a possible interpretation.
The Commission on Photometry and Polarimetry has a long and distinguished history in the IAU and its contributions to astronomy have been extensive and profound. Its efforts are centered on the issues of atmospheric extinction, photometric passbands, transformations among photometric systems, and calibration. Photometric and polarimetric techniques and standardization are essential tools in our exploration and investigation of astronomical objects and astrophysical quantities.
The formal commissioning of the IRWG occurred at the 1991 Buenos Aires General Assembly, following a Joint Commission meeting at the IAU GA in Baltimore in 1988 that identified the problems with ground-based infrared photometry. The meeting justification, papers, and conclusions, can be found in Milone (1989). In summary, the challenges involved how to explain the failure to achieve the milli-magnitude precision expected of infrared photometry and an apparent 3% limit on system transformability. The proposed solution was to redefine the broadband Johnson system, the passbands of which had proven so unsatisfactory that over time effectively different systems proliferated, although bearing the same “JHKLMNQ” designations; the new system needed to be better positioned and centered in the spectral windows of the Earth's atmosphere, and the variable water vapour content of the atmosphere needed to be measured in real time to better correct for atmospheric extinction.
Element abundance ratios hold important clues to understanding the evolution of stellar populations, through the varying timescales of different nucleosynthetic contributors. Newly measured and compiled [Mg/Fe] ratios in the MILES stellar library are used to confront models of star spectra. Such models have been used in recent years to provide estimates of differential changes in spectral line strengths, due to enhancements in [α/Fe]. In this paper we test one widely used set of theoretical element response functions. Using magnesium as a proxy for all alpha elements we test the reliability of these theoretical response functions against empirical observations, and thus the reliability of current methods of measuring element abundance ratios in the stellar populations.
With the goal of assembling a new generation of more realistic single stellar population (SSP) models, we have obtained magnesium abundances for nearly 80% of the stars of the widely employed MILES empirical spectral library. Additional spectroscopic observations of carefully selected stars have recently been obtained to improve the parametric coverage of this library. Here we report on: (i) the framework of Mg abundance determination carried out at mid-resolution, (ii) the newly acquired data, and (iii) the preliminary steps towards modelling stellar populations.
The Business Meeting for Commission 25 was held on the 6th of August 2009. The meeting was chaired by Dr Eugene Milone, Vice President for the 2006-2009 triennium, and incoming President for the 2009-2011 triennium. Dr Milone presented an apology from the President of the Commission, Dr Peter Martinez, who was unable to attend the meeting.
Division IX provides a forum for astronomers engaged in the planning, development, construction, and calibration of optical and infrared telescopes and instrumentation, as well as observational procedures including data processing. A few years ago, discussions were started about changes in the structure of Division IX, with the aim of bringing it more in line with today's world of large coordinated projects and multi-national observatories. The course of this process, and further steps to be taken in the period from 2009 to 2012, were at the focus of the deliberations at the business meeting of Division IX at the IAU General Assembly in Rio de Janeiro.
The formal origin of the IRWG occured at the Buenos Aires General Assembly, following a Joint Commission meeting at the IAU GA in Baltimore in 1988 that identified the problems with ground-based infrared photometry. The situation is summarized in Milone (1989). In short, the challenges involved how to explain the failure to achieve the milli-magnitude precision expected of infrared photometry and an apparent 3% limit on system transformability. The proposed solution was to redefine the broadband Johnson system, the passbands of which had proven so unsatisfactory that over time effectively different systems proliferated, although bearing the same JHKLMNQ designations; the new system needed to be better positioned and centered in the atmospheric windows of the Earth's atmosphere, and the variable water vapour content of the atmosphere needed to be measured in real time to better correct for atmospheric extinction.
We derive abundances of Fe, Na, O, α and s-elements from GIRAFFE@VLT spectra for more than 200 red giant stars in the Milky Way satellite ω Centauri. Our preliminary results are that: (i) we confirm that ω Centauri exhibits large star-to-star metallicity variation (~1.4 dex); (ii) the metallicity distribution reveals the presence of at least five stellar populations with different [Fe/H]; (iii) a distinct Na-O anticorrelation is clearly observed for the metal-poor and metal-intermediate stellar populations while apparently the anticorrelation disappears for the most metal rich populations. Interestingly the Na level grows with iron.
We have been analyzing a large sample of solar-like stars with and without planets in order to homogeneously measure their photospheric parameters and Carbon abundances. Our sample contains around 200 stars in the solar neighborhood observed with the ELODIE spectrograph, for which the observational data are publicly available. We performed spectral synthesis of prominent bands of C2 and CI lines, aiming to accurately obtain the C abundances. We intend to contribute homogeneous results to studies that compare elemental abundances in stars with and without known planets. New arguments will be brought forward to the discussion of possible chemical anomalies that have been suggested in the literature, leading us to a better understanding of the planetary formation process. In this work we focus on the C abundances in both stellar groups of our sample.
The properties of the binary components of the eclipsing variables found in the 47 Tuc core region as part of a search for extrasolar planets have been re-examined following reanalysis of the image photometry and calibration. This is part of an ongoing study to find fundamental properties of stars of different metallicity in a variety of environments through eclipsing-binary analyses.