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Systematic analysis of fiduciaries and trust is rare. The aim of this volume is to help fill this gap. The chapters explore the interactions of fiduciary law and trust, drawing on literatures on trust that have been generated in a variety of disciplines. They do so with an eye to the full scope of extension claimed for the fiduciary principle, from its heartland in private law, to its frontiers in public law and government more broadly. Overall, the volume advances an integrated and wide-ranging understanding of the relation of fiduciaries and trust that illuminates key legal and political problems, and challenges and deepens our understanding of fiduciaries and trust themselves.
Now in its third edition, Health and Physical Education: Preparing Educators for the Future continues to provide a comprehensive overview of the theoretical underpinnings, knowledge, understanding and skills required to successfully teach health and physical education in Australia. Emphasising the importance of the development of movement competence and health literacy, the book brings together research, curriculum and pedagogy in the field. The hallmark of this edition is a strong 'future focus' approach. The text features a greater balance of early childhood, primary and secondary content and expanded coverage of health education across two chapters, and links closely to the Early Years Learning Framework and the Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education. Each chapter is framed by the five propositions of the Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education, and includes key terms, vignettes, activities and review questions suited to personal reflection and group work.
In this chapter I examine the criteria that it is legitimate for liberal states to use when selecting refugees for admission. My aim is not to provide detailed policy guidance. Refugee policy, like immigration policy generally, is a complex matter, and states have evolved different selection practices to suit their particular circumstances and the demands for admission that they face. Nevertheless, we can readily agree that some selection criteria are inadmissible – selection on grounds of race, for example. In particular, I want to explore whether in setting their policies, states have simply to respond to the weight of the moral claim that each refugee can make to be admitted, or whether they also have some scope to shape these policies to reflect the preferences and interests of their own citizens. In relation to the former, what gives one refugee a stronger claim than another to be granted admission, on either a temporary or a permanent basis? In relation to the latter, how far, if at all, is it permissible for states to allow considerations of national culture, economic advantage, social cohesion and so forth to influence their refugee selection policies?
Of the cast of characters who populate the contemporary world, none is more familiar than the figure of the refugee. He or she is visible to us mainly as a person on the move, the victim of war or ethnic cleansing. We see her sitting surrounded by her life’s possessions in a battered truck crossing the wasteland; we see him strapped into an orange lifejacket and crammed precariously on an inflatable raft; we see her waiting sorrowfully in front of a border fence hoping that a guard will one day let her cross. But our remotely acquired visual impressions can mislead. Refugees who are actively in flight make up only a small fraction of the number who qualify for that designation at any moment. The vast majority – some 25 million – are more or less stationary, living largely out of our sight in the global South, in encampments that are purpose-built or home-made, or on the margins of cities like Beirut or Peshawar. They exist in a kind of limbo, often unwelcome visitors in the countries that have little choice but to house them, but unable to return to their homelands while conditions there remain hostile or unsafe. Many would prefer to be resettled in rich, developed countries – typically more than half a million apply to do so each year. But the number who succeed is only a fraction of this, since the governments of these countries set quotas for accepting refugees and go to considerable lengths to enforce them. The events of 2015, when more than a million migrants, including many refugees, entered Europe directly and found sanctuary there, were unprecedented in the recent past, and are unlikely to be repeated. Yet, for citizens in Europe and North America, it is the minority who attempt to settle in the global North who capture most of their attention, and philosophical reflection on the moral and political claims of the refugee, of the kind that occupies this book, has also focussed mainly on those who seek admission to rich developed countries.
Clonal Mycobacterium mucogenicum isolates (determined by molecular typing) were recovered from 19 bronchoscopic specimens from 15 patients. None of these patients had evidence of mycobacterial infection. Laboratory culture materials and bronchoscopes were negative for Mycobacteria. This pseudo-outbreak was caused by contaminated ice used to provide bronchoscopic lavage. Control was achieved by transitioning to sterile ice.
Uninsured patients are more likely than the general population to use tobacco and less likely to quit.
To determine if the mode of delivering the PHS Guidelines influenced the effectiveness of smoking cessation among patients in a safety net setting.
Six free clinics were randomly assigned to a training program delivered by an academic physician or community partner plus video support. A repeated cross-sectional survey of patients was conducted at three waves to assess effectiveness to promote quitting.
Tobacco use was triple the rate of the US population: 57.7% (Wave 1), 44.7% (Wave 2), and 48.9% (Wave 3). Patients were more likely to report receipt of at least one evidence-based strategy to promote quitting at Wave 2 (AOR = 2.33, 95% CI (1.18–4.58)). Patients treated in clinics trained by the community partner were significantly more likely to report receiving cessation assistance at Wave 2 (AOR 2.54, 95%CI 1.29–5.00) and the trend was similar, but not significant at Wave 3. Patients in the community partner-led arm were significantly less likely to report tobacco use at Wave 3 (AOR 0.59, 95% CI 0.35–0.99).
Implementation of the PHS Guidelines in free clinics demonstrates preliminary efficacy, with delivery by community partners offering greater scalability.
In the setting of disease, religion can play a positive role in a person’s life, helping them manage their perception of an illness, bolstering the ability of the patient and their family to manage the diagnosis, day-to-day functioning and treatment . Individuals who have practised religion earlier in life may show new vigour in their belief after diagnosis of a serious illness, or religion can be discovered for the first time. Increased religiosity can be a means for support and comfort through difficult periods in a person’s life.
The outbreaks of anti-Jewish violence in the former Habsburg lands in the fall of 1918 are often overlooked, in part because of the subsequent violence in Hungary (1919–1921), in part because of the myth of Czechoslovak exceptionalism that emerged during the interwar period. It is tempting to view the post-war power vacuum as the main context – and catalyst – for this wave of violence that erupted after the collapse of the monarchy. A closer look at the anti-Jewish violence, however, suggests that it was part of the state-building process, or at least part of an effort to demarcate the exclusive terms of membership in the newly-established states. In explaining or justifying the anti-Jewish violence, perpetrators (and their supporters) often invoked the canard of Jewish “provocation” or the myth of Jewish “power” as part of a larger discourse of exclusion that placed Jews outside the Hungarian, Polish, or Czechoslovak body politic.
How to assess and deal with the claims of millions of displaced people to find refuge and asylum in safe and prosperous countries is one of the most pressing issues of modern political philosophy. In this timely volume, fresh insights are offered into the political and moral implications of refugee crises and the treatment of asylum seekers. The contributions illustrate the widening of the debate over what is owed to refugees, and why it is assumed that national state actors and the international community owe special consideration and protection. Among the specific issues discussed are refugees' rights and duties, refugee selection, whether repatriation can be encouraged or required, and the ethics of sanctuary policies.
We show that the isomorphism problems for left distributive algebras, racks, quandles and kei are as complex as possible in the sense of Borel reducibility. These algebraic structures are important for their connections with the theory of knots, links and braids. In particular, Joyce showed that a quandle can be associated with any knot, and this serves as a complete invariant for tame knots. However, such a classification of tame knots heuristically seemed to be unsatisfactory, due to the apparent difficulty of the quandle isomorphism problem. Our result confirms this view, showing that, from a set-theoretic perspective, classifying tame knots by quandles replaces one problem with (a special case of) a much harder problem.
During the nineteenth century, the Muslim Mediterranean became a locus of competing imperial projects led by the Ottomans and European powers. This article examines how the migration of people and ideas across North Africa and Asia complicated processes of imperial consolidation and exposed the ways in which North Africa, Europe, and Asia were connected through trans-imperial influences that often undermined the jurisdictional sovereignty of imperial states. It demonstrates that cross-border migrations and cultural transfers both frustrated and abetted imperial projects while allowing for the imagining of new types of solidarities that transcended national and imperial categorizations. In analysing these factors, this article argues for a rethinking of the metropole–periphery relationship by highlighting the important role print and trans-imperial networks played in shaping the Mediterranean region.
Indian country in the United States is incredibly poor. Indian nations desperately need to develop reservation economic activities. Most tribal governments, however, are primarily focused on developing tribally owned businesses. This chapter argues for Indian peoples and Indian governments to revive and regenerate their century old institutions that promoted, supported, and protected private sector economic development and economies. Indian country and Indian peoples need to develop economic enterprises and activities in their homelands to ensure their sustainability by creating living wage jobs and adequate housing. Developing private sector economies, in addition to tribal public sector economies, will help create economic diversification on reservations, new businesses and jobs, protect from economic downturns, slow the "brain drain" that all rural areas suffer, and promote more spending which will help Indian country benefit from the "multiplier effect" as more and more money is spent, and re-spent, on reservations.