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This article investigates how naturalized models of hegemonic masculinity affect race and sexuality in the James Bond film series. Through close analysis of film dialogue and paralinguistic cues, the article examines how the sexualities of East Asian female and male characters are constructed as oversexed and undersexed, respectively. The analysis therefore affirms Connell's (1995) conception of white heterosexual masculinity as exemplary: East Asian characters are positioned not only as racial Others, but as bodies upon which Bond's heterosexual masculinity is reflected and affirmed as normative and, by extension, ideal. In this way, race is curiously invoked to ‘explain’ sexuality, and Bond's unmarked white masculinity becomes the normative referent for expressions of heterosexual desire. By showing how the sexuality of East Asian characters is typecast as non-normative, the article gestures toward the possibility of theorizing racialized performances of heterosexuality as queer. (East Asia, James Bond, sexuality, race, masculinity, femininity, normativity, film)*
This article questions queer theory's investment in antinormativity and anti-identitarianism by applying a queer multimodal discourse analytic approach to the ethnographic context of queer, bilingual Mexicans/Latinxs in the US Southwest. The article explores the complexity of ways that norms are taken up and resisted (or not) in discourse, with particular attention to the activist use of discourses about community and identity. A close analysis of several texts illuminates how language practices and social practices—as seen, for example, in advertising strategies, participation in annual LGBTQ Pride festivals, and activism surrounding the undocuqueer movement—become invested with social meaning among queer Mexicans/Latinxs. (Antinormativity, queer theory, bilingual, sexual identity, community, Latinx, jotería)*
The rise of India's global economy has reinforced a perception of English as a language of sexual modernity within the expanding middle classes. This article explores this perception in the multilingual humor of Hindi-speaking Delhi youth marginalized for sexual and gender difference. Their joking routines feature the Sikh Sardarji, a longstanding ethnic figure often caricatured as circulating in modernity but lacking the English competence to understand modernity's semiotics. Reflective of the economic restructuring that ushered in the millennium, the humor supports a normative progress narrative that prioritizes an ethnically unmarked urban middle class. At the same time, the lesbian, bisexual, and transgender youth who tell these jokes—still criminalized under Section 377 when this fieldwork was conducted—shift this narrative by positioning sexual knowledge at modernity's forefront. The analysis reveals how sexual modernity—here viewed as constituted in everyday interaction through competing configurations of place, time, and personhood—relies on normativity even while defining itself against it. (Chronotope, ethnic humor, formulaic jokes, globalization, Hindi-English, Hinglish, media, middle class, normativity, sexual modernity, temporality)*
This article presents a case study of the discursive construction of sexual orientation obsessive-compulsive disorder (SO-OCD) as it surfaces in posts to an online mental health forum. SO-OCD is an anxiety disorder that involves having unwanted, intrusive thoughts as a consequence of conflict with normative sexual beliefs. The study focuses on the way normativity regulates communication about sexual identities, desires, and practices in a corpus of online posts by heterosexual men who pathologically doubt their sexual identity. Drawing on quantitative and qualitative corpus linguistic methods, we investigate how writers linguistically orient to normativity in their posts. More specifically, analyses of keywords, n-grams, and concordances are used to uncover linguistic mechanisms that play a central role in users’ orientation to normativity and in the obsessive-compulsive behaviours associated with SO-OCD. (Sexual orientation obsessive-compulsive disorder (SO-OCD), heterosexuality, masculinity, normativity, heteronormativity, critical discourse analysis, corpus linguistics)
This special issue was born out of a conversation initiated at a panel organized by two of us at the ninth biannual meeting of the International Gender and Language Association (IGALA), held at City University of Hong Kong in May 2016. The principal goal of the panel was to stimulate an academic discussion on the role of normativity and antinormativity in language, gender, and sexuality research in response to a series of critical interventions in cultural studies regarding some of the tenets underpinning queer theory (see Wiegman 2012; Penney 2014; Wiegman & Wilson 2015). It was our belief that sociolinguistics—with its focus on situated interpretations of social practice—has much to contribute, both theoretically and empirically, to these debates within cultural studies. This special issue is an initial attempt at articulating what such a contribution would be.
This study investigates the sequentially occasioned provision of what I term category accounts in interaction. Category accounts tap into and make use of normative assumptions about identities and membership categories in order to explain away moments of what the participants view as category deviance. To introduce this concept, I focus on sequences in which speakers’ initiations of repair (e.g. Huh?) are oriented to as indicative of a problem of understanding. In the cases examined here, recipients of such initiations of repair treat divergence from some gender/sexuality norm as the source of the misunderstanding, which is revealed through their attempt to resolve the trouble by providing a category account, thereby closing the repair sequence and providing for the resumption of progressivity. These and similar accounting sequences are thus a means through which participants collaboratively normalize momentary departures from normativity, while at the same time reconstituting what exactly constitutes ‘normativity’ and ‘departures therefrom’, and for whom. (Gender, sexuality, identity, membership categorization, Conversation Analysis, Ethnomethodology, repair, social interaction, normativity, deviance)*
Israel has recently succeeded in presenting itself as an attractive haven for LGBT constituencies. In this article, we investigate how this affective traction operates in practice, along with the ambiguous entanglement of normativity and antinormativity as expressed in the agency of some gay Palestinian Israelis vis-à-vis the Israeli homonationalist project. For this purpose, we analyze the documentary Oriented (2015), produced by the British director Jake Witzenfeld together with the Palestinian collective Qambuta Productions. More specifically, the aim of the article is twofold. From a theoretical perspective, we seek to demonstrate how Foucault's notion of heterotopia provides a useful framework for understanding the spatial component of Palestinian Israeli experience, and the push and pull of conflicted identity projects more generally. Empirically, we illustrate how Israel is a homotopia, an inherently ambivalent place that is simultaneously utopian and dystopian, and that generates what we call vicious belonging. (Code-switching, heterotopia, homonationalism, normativity, pinkwashing, sexuality, space)*
This paper tries to infer and compare the evolution of the Federal Reserve’s (unobserved) inflation target series by estimating a monetary model under the alternative assumptions of rational expectations or subjective expectations and learning. In the estimated model that assumes that economic agents have rational expectations, the implied inflation target displays large shifts over time: it starts at 2% in the early 1960s, it rises to 8% in the 1970s, and it falls to 4% and 2% in the 1980s and 1990s. When the assumption of rational expectations is relaxed in favor of learning by the policymaker, the inferred target is, instead, remarkably stable over time. The target assumes values between 2% and 3% over the whole postwar sample. The findings suggest changing beliefs and learning by the Federal Reserve as major endogenous causes of the perceived variation in the inflation target. When the model is allowed to take the central bank’s evolving beliefs into account, the joint evolution of US inflation, output, and monetary policy decisions can be explained without requiring large exogenous changes in the inflation target.
Germ plasm-related structures (GPRS) are known to accompany meiotic cell differentiation but their dynamics are still poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the ultrastructural mechanisms of GPRS transformation during oogenesis and spermatogenesis of the bivalve mollusc Ruditapes philippinarum (Manila clam), exploring patterns of GPRS activity occurring at meiosis onset, sex-specific difference/similarity of such patterns, and the involvement of mitochondria during GPRS-assigned events. In the two sexes, the zygotene–pachytene stage of meiosis is anticipated by three shared steps. First, the dispersion of germ plasm granules containing the germ line determinant VASA occurs. Second, the VASA protein deriving from germ plasm granules enters neighbouring mitochondria and appears to induce mitochondrial matter release, as supported by cytochrome B localization outside the mitochondria. Third, intranuclear VASA entrance occurs and the protein appears involved in chromatin reorganization, as supported by VASA localization in synaptonemal complexes. In spermatogenesis, these three steps are sufficient for the normal course of meiosis. In oogenesis, these are followed by the action of ‘germ plasm granule formation complex’, a novel type of structure that appears alternative to the Balbiani body. The possibility of germ plasm involvement in reproductive technologies is also suggested.
We present the synthesis and the characterization of a novel cellulose-based electroactive hydrogel obtained through a simple water-based process. Its swelling and electroactive properties are here studied especially in low salinity water solutions. By combining smart materials and three-dimensional printing technique, we assessed that hydrogels can be shaped as natural algae and their motion can be controlled with electric signals to mimic natural seaweed movements under the effect of water flow. This could constitute a first step toward the development of hybrid habitats where artificial smart algae could cohabit with real living organisms or microorganisms.
Besides graphite and diamond, the solid allotropes of carbon in sp2 and sp3 hybridization, the possible existence of a third allotrope based on the sp-carbon linear chain, the carbyne, has stimulated researchers for a long time. The advent of fullerenes, nanotubes, and graphene has opened new opportunities and nurtured the interest in novel carbon allotropes, including linear structures. The efforts made in this direction produced a number of interesting sp-hybridized carbon molecules and nanostructures in the form of carbon-atom wires. Here we discuss some of the new perspectives opened by the recent advancements in the research on sp-carbon systems.
The aims of this study were to describe radiation level at our institution during transcatheter patent ductus arteriosus occlusion and to evaluate the components contributing to radiation exposure.
Transcatheter occlusion relying on X-ray imaging has become the treatment of choice for patients with patent ductus arteriosus. Interventionists now work hard to minimise radiation exposure in order to reduce risk of induced cancers.
We retrospectively reviewed all consecutive children who underwent transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus from January 2012 to January 2016. Clinical data, anatomical characteristics, and catheterisation procedure parameters were reported. Radiation doses were analysed for the following variables: total air kerma, mGy; dose area product, Gy.cm2; dose area product per body weight, Gy.cm2/kg; and total fluoroscopic time.
A total of 324 patients were included (median age=1.51 [Q1–Q3: 0.62–4.23] years; weight=10.3 [6.7–17.0] kg). In all, 322/324 (99.4%) procedures were successful. The median radiation doses were as follows: total air kerma: 26 (14.5–49.3) mGy; dose area product: 1.01 (0.56–2.24) Gy.cm2; dose area product/kg: 0.106 (0.061–0.185) Gy.cm2/kg; and fluoroscopic time: 2.8 (2–4) min. In multivariate analysis, a weight >10 kg, a ductus arteriosus width <2 mm, complications during the procedure, and a high frame rate (15 frames/second) were risk factors for an increased exposure.
Lower doses of radiation can be achieved with subsequent recommendations: technical improvement, frame rate reduction, avoidance of biplane cineangiograms, use of stored fluoroscopy as much as possible, and limitation of fluoroscopic time. A greater use of echocardiography might even lessen the exposure.
Family history is a long-standing and readily obtainable risk factor for schizophrenia (SCZ). Low-cost genotyping technologies have enabled large genetic studies of SCZ, and the results suggest the utility of genetic risk scores (GRS, direct assessments of inherited common variant risk). Few studies have evaluated family history and GRS simultaneously to ask whether one can explain away the other.
We studied 5959 SCZ cases and 8717 controls from four Nordic countries. All subjects had family history data from national registers and genome-wide genotypes that were processed through the quality control procedures used by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Using external training data, GRS were estimated for SCZ, bipolar disorder (BIP), major depression, autism, educational attainment, and body mass index. Multivariable modeling was used to estimate effect sizes.
Using harmonized genomic and national register data from Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden, we confirmed that family history of SCZ and GRS for SCZ and BIP were risk factors for SCZ. In a joint model, the effects of GRS for SCZ and BIP were essentially unchanged, and the effect of family history was attenuated but remained significant. The predictive capacity of a model including GRS and family history neared the minimum for clinical utility.
Combining national register data with measured genetic risk factors represents an important investigative approach for psychotic disorders. Our findings suggest the potential clinical utility of combining GRS and family history for early prediction and diagnostic improvements.
Generalizing the secular perturbation theory of Milani and Knežević (1990), we have determined in the a — e — I proper elements space the locations of the secular resonances between the precession rates of the longitudes of perihelion and node of a small body and the corresponding eigenfrequencies of the secular perturbations of the four outer planets. We discuss some implications of the results for the dynamical evolution of small solar system bodies. In particular, our findings include: (i) the fact that the g = g6 resonance in the inner asteroid belt lies closer than previously assumed to the Flora region, providing a plausible dynamical route to inject asteroid fragments into planet-crossing orbits; (ii) the possible presence of some low-inclination “stable islands” between the orbits of the outer planets; (iii) the fact that none of the secular resonances considered in this work exists for semimajor axes > 50 AU, so that these resonances do not provide a mechanism for transporting inwards possible Kuiper–belt comets.
This paper tests the ability of New Keynesian models to match the data regarding a key channel for monetary transmission: the dynamic interactions between macroeconomic variables and their corresponding expectations. We exploit survey expectations data and adopt a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE)-VAR approach to assess the extent and sources of model misspecification. The results point to serious misspecification in the expectations-formation side of the DSGE model. The rational expectations hypothesis is primarily responsible for the model's failure to capture the co-movements between observed macroeconomic expectations and realizations. Alternative models of expectations formation help partially reconcile the New Keynesian model with the data.
Cetacean stranding reports in the North Aegean Sea were recorded since 1998 from Strimonikos Gulf in Chalkidiki up to Alexandroupoli on the Turkish border and in a few northern Aegean islands. On site, the specimens were examined to identify species, gender, approximate age and, when possible, cause for stranding. A total of 26 filled stomachs of five cetacean species collected since 2002 were analysed: bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus (N = 8), common dolphins Delphinus delphis (N = 8), harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena (N = 5), striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba (N = 4) and Risso's dolphins Grampus griseus (N = 1). From the analysed stomachs it was found that the bottlenose dolphins fed mainly on snake blenny Ophidion barbatum (34%), bogue Boops boops (22%) and round sardinella Sardinella aurita (13%); common dolphins on round sardinella (17%), picarels Spicara spp. (10%) and Cocco's lantern fish Lobianchia gemellaris (9%); harbour porpoises on Gobidae (four-spotted goby Deltentosteus quadrimaculatus 41% and black goby Gobius niger 37%) and round sardinella (7%); striped dolphins on Myctophydae (Madeira lantern fish Ceratoscopelus maderensis 51%), and on Pfeffer's enople squid Abraliopsis morisii (10%) and bogue (8%); and Risso's dolphin exclusively on Teuthidae (31%), the umbrella squid Histioteuthis bonellii (30%) and the reverse jewel squid H. reversa (14%). The present work represents the first attempt to investigate the diet up to species level for several cetaceans in Greek waters and for harbour porpoises stranded in the Mediterranean Sea.