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In the last decade, the relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modelling of pulsar wind nebulae, and of the Crab nebula in particular, has been highly successful, with many of the observed dynamical and emission properties reproduced down to the finest detail. Here, we critically discuss the results of some of the most recent studies: namely the investigation of the origin of the radio emitting particles and the quest for the acceleration sites of particles of different energies along the termination shock, by using wisp motions as a diagnostic tool; the study of the magnetic dissipation process in high magnetization nebulae by means of new long-term three-dimensional simulations of the pulsar wind nebula evolution; the investigation of the relativistic tearing instability in thinning current sheets, leading to fast reconnection events that might be at the origin of the Crab nebula gamma-ray flares.
Over the past decades, Indigenous communities around the world have become more vocal and mobilized to address the health inequities they experience. Many Indigenous communities we work with in Canada, Australia, Latin America, the USA, New Zealand and to a lesser extent Scandinavia have developed their own culturally-informed services, focusing on the needs of their own community members. This paper discusses Indigenous healthcare innovations from an international perspective, and showcases Indigenous health system innovations that emerged in Canada (the First Nation Health Authority) and Colombia (Anas Wayúu). These case studies serve as examples of Indigenous-led innovations that might serve as models to other communities. The analysis we present suggests that when opportunities arise, Indigenous communities can and will mobilize to develop Indigenous-led primary healthcare services that are well managed and effective at addressing health inequities. Sustainable funding and supportive policy frameworks that are harmonized across international, national and local levels are required for these organizations to achieve their full potential. In conclusion, this paper demonstrates the value of supporting Indigenous health system innovations.
Agroecology uses ecological processes and local resources rather than chemical inputs to develop productive and resilient livestock and crop production systems. In this context, breeding innovations are necessary to obtain animals that are both productive and adapted to a broad range of local contexts and diversity of systems. Breeding strategies to promote agroecological systems are similar for different animal species. However, current practices differ regarding the breeding of ruminants, pigs and poultry. Ruminant breeding is still an open system where farmers continue to choose their own breeds and strategies. Conversely, pig and poultry breeding is more or less the exclusive domain of international breeding companies which supply farmers with hybrid animals. Innovations in breeding strategies must therefore be adapted to the different species. In developed countries, reorienting current breeding programmes seems to be more effective than developing programmes dedicated to agroecological systems that will struggle to be really effective because of the small size of the populations currently concerned by such systems. Particular attention needs to be paid to determining the respective usefulness of cross-breeding v. straight breeding strategies of well-adapted local breeds. While cross-breeding may offer some immediate benefits in terms of improving certain traits that enable the animals to adapt well to local environmental conditions, it may be difficult to sustain these benefits in the longer term and could also induce an important loss of genetic diversity if the initial pure-bred populations are no longer produced. As well as supporting the value of within-breed diversity, we must preserve between-breed diversity in order to maintain numerous options for adaptation to a variety of production environments and contexts. This may involve specific public policies to maintain and characterize local breeds (in terms of both phenotypes and genotypes), which could be used more effectively if they benefited from the scientific and technical resources currently available for more common breeds. Last but not least, public policies need to enable improved information concerning the genetic resources and breeding tools available for the agroecological management of livestock production systems, and facilitate its assimilation by farmers and farm technicians.
Agroecology uses natural processes and local resources rather than chemical inputs to ensure production while limiting the environmental footprint of livestock and crop production systems. Selecting to achieve a maximization of target production criteria has long proved detrimental to fitness traits. However, since the 1990s, developments in animal breeding have also focussed on animal robustness by balancing production and functional traits within overall breeding goals. We discuss here how an agroecological perspective should further shift breeding goals towards functional traits rather than production traits. Breeding for robustness aims to promote individual adaptive capacities by considering diverse selection criteria which include reproduction, animal health and welfare, and adaptation to rough feed resources, a warm climate or fluctuating environmental conditions. It requires the consideration of genotype×environment interactions in the prediction of breeding values. Animal performance must be evaluated in low-input systems in order to select those animals that are adapted to limiting conditions, including feed and water availability, climate variations and diseases. Finally, we argue that there is no single agroecological animal type, but animals with a variety of profiles that can meet the expectations of agroecology. The standardization of both animals and breeding conditions indeed appears contradictory to the agroecological paradigm that calls for an adaptation of animals to local opportunities and constraints in weakly artificialized systems tied to their physical environment.
Exposure of laying hens to chronic heat stress results in loss of egg production. It should be possible to improve hen resilience to chronic heat stress by genetic selection but measuring their sensitivity through internal temperature is time consuming and is not very precise. In this study we used infrared thermography to measure the hen’s capacity to dissipate heat, in a commercial line of laying hens subjected to cycles of neutral (N, 19.6°C) or high (H, 28.4°C) ambient temperatures. Mean body temperatures (BT) were estimated from 9355 infrared images of wing, comb and shank taken from 1200 hens. Genetic parameters were estimated separately for N and H temperatures. Correlations between BT and plumage condition were also investigated. Wing temperature had low heritability (0.00 to 0.09), consistent with the fact that wing temperature mainly reflects the environmental temperature and is not a zone of heat dissipation. The heritability of comb temperature was higher, from 0.15 to 0.19 in N and H conditions, respectively. Finally, the shank temperature provided the highest heritability estimates, with values of 0.20 to 0.22 in H and N conditions, respectively. Taken together, these results show that heat dissipation is partly under genetic control. Interestingly, the genetic correlation between plumage condition and shank and comb temperatures indicated that birds with poor condition plumage also had the possibility to dissipate heat through featherless areas. Genetic correlations of temperature measurements with egg quality showed that temperatures were correlated with egg width and weight, yolk brightness and yellowness and Haugh units only under H conditions. In contrast, shell colour was correlated with leg temperature only at thermo-neutrality.
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a rare but severe infection caused by Aspergillus spp. that often develops in immunocompromised patients. Lethality remains high in this population. Therefore, preventive strategies are of key importance. The impact of a mobile air decontamination system (Plasmair, AirInSpace, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France) on the incidence of IA in neutropenic patients was evaluated in this study.
Retrospective cohort study
Patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia lasting 7 days or more were included over a 2-year period. Cases of IA were confirmed using the revised European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria. We took advantage of a partial installation of Plasmair systems in the hematology intensive care unit during this period to compare patients treated in Plasmair-equipped versus non-equipped rooms. Patients were assigned to Plasmair-equipped or non-equipped rooms depending only on bed availability. Differences in IA incidence in both groups were compared using Fisher’s exact test, and a multivariate analysis was performed to take into account potential confounding factors.
Data from 156 evaluable patients were available. Both groups were homogenous in terms of age, gender, hematological diagnosis, duration of neutropenia, and prophylaxis. A total of 11 cases of probable IA were diagnosed: 10 in patients in non-equipped rooms and only 1 patient in a Plasmair-equipped room. The odds of developing IA were much lower for patients hospitalized in Plasmair-equipped rooms than for patients in non-equipped rooms (P=.02; odds ratio [OR] =0.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.00–0.84).
In this study, Plasmair demonstrated a major impact in reducing the incidence of IA in neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies.
Synthetic superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) are used in concrete for various applications such as internal curing and frost resistance. However, the addition of these SAPs may lead to a significant decrease in mortar strength, especially when high amounts of SAP are necessary. This is the case for example when self-sealing and -healing of cracks is strived at. In order to overcome this bottleneck, the present work focuses on the application of biopolymers as SAPs. The work especially aims to evaluate the potential of both sodium alginate (NaAlg) as well as physically cross-linked calcium alginate (CaAlg) as SAPs to establish a sustainable approach towards self-sealing and -healing concrete without impairing mechanical strength. First, the swelling properties in both demineralized water and cement filtrate solution are tested. Subsequently, the mechanical properties of mortar mixtures in the absence and the presence of SAPs are compared by performing flexural and compressive tests. The alginates show a swelling capacity up to 72 times their own weight in aqueous solutions. Interestingly, they lead to a minor reduction in compression strength (up to 15% upon addition of 1m% SAP). These biopolymers show high potential for enabling concrete repair, more specifically, for the self-sealing and -healing of cracks without impairing the strength.
The cashew apple is an unvalued by-product from the cashew nut industry, of which millions of tonnes are simply discarded globally. Interestingly, however, cashew apple nutrients may have beneficial effects for health even if these are still poorly described. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of a hydro-alcoholic extract of cashew apple (cashew apple extract; CAE; Cashewin™) on obesity and diabetes, in two experimental designs using the diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. First, in the preventive design, mice were treated orally with the CAE at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight from the first day under a high-fat diet (HFD) and during 8 weeks thereafter. Second, in the curative design, the animals were first maintained under the HFD for 4 weeks and then treated with the CAE for a further 4 weeks under the same regimen. For both experimental designs, body weight, peri-epididymal adipose tissue, liver weight, food consumption, glycaemia, insulinaemia and insulin resistance were assessed. In both designs, the CAE significantly reduced body-weight gain and fat storage in both the peri-epididymal adipose tissue and the liver for mice under the HFD. This was achieved without modifying their energy consumption. Furthermore, glycaemia, insulinaemia and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance) of the DIO mice were significantly lowered compared with the control group. Thus, a well-designed hydro-alcoholic extract of cashew apple could provide an attractive nutritional food ingredient to help support the management of body weight and associated metabolic parameters such as blood glucose and insulin levels.
This paper investigates the interactions between three key macroeconomic imbalances, namely current-account discrepancies (external imbalances), output gaps (internal imbalances), and exchange-rate misalignments. We estimate a panel VAR model for a sample of 22 industrialized countries over the period 1980–2011. Our findings show that macroeconomic imbalances strongly interact through a causal relationship. If current-account disequilibria threaten the stability of the global economy, their origin can be found in internal imbalances and exchange-rate misalignments: positive output-gap shocks as well as currency overvaluation deepen current-account deficits. In addition, although variations in external imbalances mainly result from exchange-rate misalignments in the euro area, they are mostly explained by output gaps for non-eurozone members.
Background: Cerebral proliferative angiopathy (CPA) is a rare vascular malformation with intervening normal brain tissue interspersed among abnormal vascular channels. There are 77 reported cases, the youngest being 9 years old, with persistent symptoms and recurring symptoms being rare. Methods: A three-year-old girl with CPA is described and compared to the literature. Results: A previously healthy girl with early left-handedness and a left forehead nevus flammeus presented with sudden onset of right arm and leg weakness, along with abrupt speech arrest and right homonymous hemianopia. Head CT Angiogram and MRI revealed an abnormal vascular network with densely packed, moderately enlarged vessels arising within the white matter with no dominant feeding vessel and both old and acute infarcts in the left hemisphere. Eye exam was unremarkable. The clinical and radiologic features were most consistent with a diagnosis of CPA. Her visual deficits and motor symptoms persisted, and she had a recurrent event shortly after. Conclusions: This is the youngest reported case of CPA, with novel features including radiologic evidence of previous infarcts, clinical recurrence of symptoms, and permanent deficits. This case demonstrates the need for further research into the surveillance and management of this rare entity, possibly unique in young children
This paper reports the findings of a study on the presence of various species of filarial nematodes in dogs in Liguria, north-west Italy, a region traditionally considered free from the disease. Between 2009 and 2012 blood samples were taken from 365 dogs in rural areas in Liguria. The blood samples were then submitted to Knott's test, histochemical staining, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Dirofilaria immitis antigens. Overall, 35 of the 365 dogs were positive using Knott's test for microfilariae (prevalence 9.6%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.6–12.6%). Acanthocheilonema reconditum was the most prevalent species (8.0%), while Dirofilaria repens (1.4%) and Dirofilaria immitis (0.6%) were less common. One co-infection by D. repens and A. reconditum was observed. All morphological identifications were confirmed by histochemical staining and PCR. In addition, a retrospective analysis of data on D. immitis antigens in 11,363 samples of canine sera was carried out. Sera were collected and analysed for D. immitis antigens by the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale (IZS) of Piedmont, Liguria and Aosta Valley (Imperia section) between 2004 and 2013 during annual tests for leishmaniasis on autochthonous dogs throughout Liguria. Serological data from IZS showed an overall seroprevalence of 0.65% (95% CI: 0.50–0.80%) for D. immitis throughout the region. The present study updates the epidemiological map of canine filarial infections in Italy and suggests the need for surveillance and prophylaxis in Liguria.
Widely recognized by nationalists, Islamists and conservatives as the heroine of the Turkish Right in the twentieth century, Sâmiha Ayverdi influenced the renaissance of right-wing politics in Turkey as an important leader of the Rifaȋ order, a prolific author, an unyielding anti-communist, and finally as an institution-builder for right-wing causes. This article focuses on the apparent paradoxes in Ayverdi's long career, such as her modernist interpretation of Islam, her relationship with her sufi master, preference for memoirs, and her unabashed elitism. Such characteristics defy clichés associated with the stereotypical conservative/nationalist/Islamist intellectual in Cold War Turkey. Our in-depth study of Ayverdi's works thus reveals the complexity of right-wing identities, and the fact that our protagonist is an outspoken woman intellectual also adds an important twist to the story.
Selection programs have enabled broiler chickens to gain muscle mass without similar enlargement of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems that are essential for thermoregulatory efficiency. Meat-type chickens cope with high ambient temperature by reducing feed intake and growth during chronic and moderate heat exposure. In case of acute heat exposure, a dramatic increase in morbidity and mortality can occur. In order to alleviate heat stress in the long term, research has recently focused on early thermal manipulation. Aimed at stimulation of long-term thermotolerance, the thermal manipulation of embryos is a method based on fine tuning of incubation conditions, taking into account the level and duration of increases in temperature and relative humidity during a critical period of embryogenesis. The consequences of thermal manipulation on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens have been explored to ensure the potential application of this strategy. The physiological basis of the method is the induction of epigenetic and metabolic mechanisms that control body temperature in the long term. Early thermal manipulation can enhance poultry resistance to environmental changes without much effect on growth performance. This review presents the main strategies of early heat exposure and the physiological concepts on which these methods were based. The cellular mechanisms potentially underlying the adaptive response are discussed as well as the potential interest of thermal manipulation of embryos for poultry production.
Extraintestinal nematodes of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) are a wide group of parasites that infect wild and domestic carnivores and occasionally humans. Nematodes in the cardiopulmonary system, stomach, urinary apparatus and muscle tissue of 165 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from north-west Italy (Liguria and Piedmont) were investigated between 2009 and 2012. Of the cardiopulmonary nematodes, a high prevalence of Angiostrongylus vasorum and Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila) was found, 78.2% and 41.8% respectively; Crenosoma vulpis (15.8%) and Filaroides spp. (4.8%) were also found. Spirocerca lupi (23.5%), Aonchotheca putorii (syn. Capillaria putorii) (8.6%) and Physaloptera spp. (2.5%) were detected in the stomach and Pearsonema plica (syn. Capillaria plica) (56.8%) in the bladder. Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) was also detected in the nasal cavities of one of the two foxes examined. A coprological examination revealed eggs of E. aerophilus, A. putorii, S. lupi, Physaloptera spp. and eggs of intestinal parasites. Filarial worms were absent in all the 165 animals examined, nor was there evidence of Trichinella spp. in any of the foxes. The foxes were found to host a high prevalence of many species of extraintestinal nematodes. The prevalence of A. vasorum in foxes found in the present study is among the highest in Europe. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, E. boehmi and Filaroides spp. have never been reported before in this host in Italy.
Drug-resistant paediatric tuberculosis (TB) is an overlooked global problem. In Italy, the epidemiology of TB has recently changed and data regarding drug-resistant forms in the paediatric setting is scanty. The aim of this case series was to report the cases of drug-resistant TB, diagnosed between June 2006 and July 2010 in four Italian tertiary centres for paediatric infectious diseases, in children and adolescents living in Italy. Twenty-two children were enrolled, of these 17 were resistant to one or more drugs and five had multidrug-resistant TB. All but one child were either foreign born or had at least one foreign parent. Twenty-one patients completed their treatment without clinical or radiological signs of activity at the end of treatment, and one patient was lost to follow up. The outcomes were good, with few adverse effects using second-line anti-TB drugs. Although this series is limited, it might already reflect the worrisome increase of drug-resistant TB, even in childhood.
Little research can be found describing social aspects of aging with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in Canada specifically, despite an overall increase in an aging population and increased numbers of those aging with HIV/AIDS. A systematic literature review was conducted with a selective focus on social aspects related to older adults who are living with or at risk for contracting HIV/AIDS. The primary themes that emerged in the literature are ageism and stigma, gender, mental health, and social supports. Recommendations for future research regarding prevention and education of risks for older adults and programming suitable for a wide range of audiences are presented.
This chapter presents an overview on the current recommendations and guidelines that may be implemented to improve the management of planned and unplanned urgent high-risk obstetric patients and prevent fatal outcomes for both mothers and their babies. Reviewing morbidity and mortality data over the 10 years from 2000 reveals an increase in the proportion of indirect causes of maternal deaths and demonstrates that many of the case-fatalities were women who did not receive pre-pregnancy counseling or any specific medical management. The chapter discusses two examples of multidisciplinary care planning: for women who have placenta previa with acreta and have had a previous cesarean section and for women with a serious comorbidity. The goal of rapid response teams (RRTs) is to bring critical expertise and equipment to the patient without delay, in a timely manner, and to provide a solution to the problem in a standardized manner.
Hypersonic, collimated jets are being lately intensively studied in Earth laboratories,
trying to reproduce some of the physical properties of a subclass of astrophysical jets
that are the Herbig-Haro (HH) jets. These jets are produced in the regions around Young
Stellar Objects (YSOs), that are proto-stars located inside galactic Giant Molecular
Clouds. In addition to the novel experimental approach, HH or YSO jets have been object of
interest by the astrophysical community since a few decades and studied by means of
observations at different wavelengths and analytical and numerical modeling. We present
laboratory experiments and 2D numerical simulations of hypersonic jets, comparing the
results of experiments and simulations that reproduce the evolution of the above mentioned
jets. The experimental flows match two main scaling parameter requirements for
proto-stellar jets, i.e. the ejection Mach number M and
the jet/ambient density ratio η. In particular, η goes
from slightly underdense to overdense values. Furthermore, as a development of previous
works, we consider here the dependence of the jet structure and morphology on the Mach
number, in the range 10 to 15.
Behavioural adaptation of farm animals to environmental changes contributes to high levels of production under a wide range of farming conditions, from highly controlled indoor systems to harsh outdoor systems. The genetic variation in livestock behaviour is considerable. Animals and genotypes with a larger behavioural capacity for adaptation may cope more readily with varying farming conditions than those with a lower capacity for adaptation. This capacity should be exploited when the aim is to use a limited number of species extensively across the world. The genetics of behavioural traits is understood to some extent, but it is seldom accounted for in breeding programmes. This review summarizes the estimates of genetic parameters for behavioural traits in cattle, pigs, poultry and fish. On the basis of the major studies performed in the last two decades, we focus the review on traits of common interest in the four species. These concern the behavioural responses to both acute and chronic stressors in the physical environment (feed, temperature, etc.) and those in the social environment (other group members, progeny, humans). The genetic strategies used to improve the behavioural capacity for adaptation of animals differ between species. There is a greater emphasis on responses to acute environmental stress in fish and birds, and on responses to chronic social stress in mammals.