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This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Conductive metal patterns can be fabricated through the selective electroless growth of silver on isolated nanocolloidal gold particles, deposited onto chemically functionalized substrates using microcontact printing. The transition from isolated nanoparticles to continuous, conducting silver films is characterised by a percolation threshold. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry in the visible and near-infrared spectral range on homogeneous particulate films, we have investigated this percolation threshold. From the ellipsometry spectra obtained as a function of electroless silver deposition times, the effective thickness as well as the complex dielectric function of the growing films are determined. For short deposition times, the optical spectra exhibit features characteristic of an effectively insulating, particulate layer. A maximum is observed in the imaginary part of the dielectric function, which shifts towards lower energy with increasing amounts of deposited silver. For thicker films, the appearance of a Drude-like free electron contribution to the optical spectra is exhibited by a strong increase of both the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function towards lower energy. From the optical spectra, the percolation threshold is identified. The ellipsometry results are discussed in relation to DC conductivity measurements, which also reveal a percolation threshold. Furthermore, our conclusions and the advantages of our approach are discussed in relation to recently published in situ experiments, in which the growth of magnetron sputtered silver nanoparticles is monitored real-time yielding similar optical responses.
Little is known for certain about how British and Irish monks understood the role of liturgy in the early middle ages, prior to the imposition of reforms in the time of Charlemagne (768–814). Precious insight can be gained, however, through examining two treatises that might seem at first sight to be very different from each other. One is the Vita Samsonis (VIS), remarkable for its recollection of a saint remembered as travelling initially from south Wales to Ireland and back, and then, via Cornwall, to Brittany. Dated to either the late seventh or the mid-eighth century, it presents Samson as a bishop who attached great importance to his liturgical duties in a tradition that went back to the apostles. The other is the Ratio de cursus or Explanation about the Liturgies, written perhaps in the mid-eighth century to defend the apostolic authority of both Irish and Gallican liturgies as of equal validity alongside the liturgies of the East, of Milan, and (mentioned only briefly) of those who followed the Rule of Benedict. While Bede portrayed Irish monks as narrowly traditionalist in their way of calculating the date of Easter, the Life of Samson and the Explanation about the Liturgies identify early British and Irish liturgical practices as deriving from apostolic authority. Comparing these two texts allows us how to see how both British and Irish monks understood their traditions prior to the imposition of Roman liturgical practice in the mid-eighth century and consolidation during the age of Charlemagne. Comparing the Life with the Ratio also enables us to assess the extent to which the Life of Samson records memories going back to the sixth century, transmitted by an unidentified nephew of Samson's cousin Enoch, and projects concerns of a later generation onto the age of Samson.
The Vita Samsonis
Of particular significance in the Vita Samsonis is its account of how, prior to being consecrated a bishop by Dubricius and two other British bishops, Samson had a vision of three martyrs, Peter, James, and John, each with an episcopal crown.
Introduction: High fidelity in-situ simulation has been found to detect system deficiencies, equipment failures, and conditions predisposing to medical errors, also known as latent safety threats (LST). What is not well reported is whether these LSTs are effectively managed. As a part of an ongoing quality improvement project, multidisciplinary, in-situ simulations were conducted across emergency departments (ED) in the Edmonton zone with the aim to identify LST and subsequently manage them to improve patient care. Methods: In 2017 simulations were conducted at EDs in the Edmonton Zone (N=10). Following each simulation, a cross sectional, survey based assessment tool, was completed by participants to identify LST. These LST were shared with the site clinical nurse educator and/or site manager and a management plan made. Two to six months follow-up was made to track progress. For reporting, LST were grouped into themes, progress on LST were coded as either resolved, ongoing, or not managed. Results: A total of 112 LST were identified through 18 separate simulations. The most commonly identified LTS were: resuscitation resource required (n 23), lack of staff training (21), equipment not immediately available (20), IT resource required (8), medication not immediately available (6), staff requiring familiarization (5), medication resource required (5), IT issue (4), large equipment needed (4), small equipment needed (4), lack of staff resource (3), medication needed, (3), equipment malfunction (2), Environment cluttered (2), non-appropriate resource removed (2). Site follow-up identified a total of 52 LST that where resolved, and 60 LST that had ongoing work to manage them. No occurrences of LST not being managed were identified. Conclusion: Simulation was used to effectively identify LST. Creating a structured plan and follow up allowed many LST to be resolved and effectively managed. In 2018 simulation will reassess if LST remain.
Recent evidence has shown that most tropical species are declining as a result of global change. Under this scenario, the prevalence of tolerant species to disturbances has driven many biological communities towards biotic homogenization (BH). However, the mechanisms that drive communities towards BH are not yet thoroughly understood. We tested effects of recurring wildfires on woody species richness and composition in six seasonally flooded Amazonian forests and whether these fires reduce species composition (i.e., taxonomic homogenization) over short periods of time. Our results show that these forests are undergoing taxonomic homogenization in response to recurring fire events. Species richness decreased as a result of local extinctions and floristic similarity increased among forest communities. Fire was selecting tolerant (‘winner’) species and eliminating the more sensitive (‘loser’) species. BH leads to biodiversity erosion, which can deeply alter ecosystem processes such as productivity, nutrient cycling and decomposition, resulting in important consequences for conservation.
We have re-analyzed the X-ray flare on Algol which was observed with EXOSAT (White et al. (1986)). The common practice of estimating loop volume and length from the decay time of the flare is discussed extensively. We show that during the decay phase of the flare both scaling laws for coronal loops are valid. This implies a unique determination of loop volume and length and allows a check whether additional heating occurs in the decay phase of a flare.
Objectives: Multicomponent interventions (MCIs), consisting of at least two interventions, are common in rehabilitation and other healthcare fields. When the effectiveness of the MCI versus that of its single interventions is comparable or unknown, evidence of their expected incremental cost-effectiveness can be helpful in deciding which intervention to recommend. As such evidence often is unavailable this study proposes an approach to estimate what is more cost-effective; the MCI or the single intervention(s).
Methods: We reviewed the literature for potential methods. Of those identified, headroom analysis was selected as the most suitable basis for developing the approach, based on the criteria of being able to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the single interventions versus that of the MCI (a) within a limited time frame, (b) in the absence of full data, and (c) taking into account carry-over and interaction effects. We illustrated the approach with an MCI for cancer survivors.
Results: The approach starts with analyzing the costs of the MCI. Given a specific willingness-to-pay-value, it is analyzed how much effectiveness the MCI would need to generate to be considered cost-effective, and if this is likely to be attained. Finally, the cost-effectiveness of the single interventions relative to the potential of the MCI for being cost-effective can be compared.
Conclusions: A systematic approach using headroom analysis was developed for estimating whether an MCI is likely to be more cost effective than one (or more) of its single interventions.
For a sample of 58 late type stars we analyse the relations between the soft X-ray flux density Fx, the Ca II H and K line-core flux density FH+K, and parameters determining the global stellar structure. By analysing the soft X-ray spectra from 15 stars we determine the coronal temperatures T and specific emission measures per unit area ζ. We discuss the dependence of T on B-V, Fx and stellar radius R. The diagram of the specific emission measure ζ against the temperature T is interpreted in terms of a coronal model consisting of static loops. Also, a search for time variations in the X-ray flux has been performed.
DSM-5 introduced a fundamental revision of the category of somatoform disorders, which resulted in the new somatic symptom disorder (SSD) and related disorders. However, prognostic validity of SSD remains unclear, while other classification proposals, such as bodily distress disorder (BDD) or polysymptomatic distress disorder (PSDD), might be promising alternatives for the new ICD-11. Therefore, the comparison of the different approaches concerning long-term prognosis of disorder-relevant factors is of special interest.
In a longitudinal design (baseline, 1-year, and 4-year follow-up), the three proposals (SSD, BDD, PSDD) were compared in an age-representative sample of the German general population (N = 321). To this end, the baseline sample was divided into three independent pairs of groups (with/without SSD, with/without BDD, with/without PSDD). It was tested how well each approach differentiated with regard to medium- and long-term healthcare utilization, number of symptoms, and impairment.
Criteria for BDD distinguished best with regard to future healthcare utilization resulting in a large-sized effect (f = 0.44) for the difference between persons with and without BDD, while SSD and PSDD revealed only medium-sized effects (f = 0.28 and f = 0.32) between subjects with and without diagnosis. The three proposals distinguished equally well with regard to future subjective impairment (between f = 0.39 and f = 0.41) and the number of reported symptoms (between f = 0.77 and f = 0.83).
In accordance with our data regarding prognostic validity, the current draft of the WHO group is based on the BDD proposal. However, existing limitations and weaknesses of the present proposal for the ICD-11 are further discussed.
‘Abaelard,’ ‘Abelard,’ ‘Baiolard’ …? Twelfth-century scribes were as uncertain of the exact spelling and pronunciation of the famous philosopher's cognomen as scholars have been in more recent centuries. Trivial as it might seem, correct pronunciation provides the key to understanding a short anecdote copied onto the opening folio of a twelfth-century manuscript (MS Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Clm. 14160 = M), formerly belonging to the Benedictine abbey of St. Emmeran, Regensburg. It tells the reader that the peripatetic philosopher wanted to supplement his studies of the trivium by following the lectures of master Thierry on mathematics, but then found the subject too difficult. Thierry gave Peter the name ‘Baiolard’ because he was like a greedy dog who had eaten his fill yet still wanted to lick (given as the meaning of baiare) lard, here used as an image of the quadrivium. The word lardum may itself be a pun on artium. The story-teller goes on to claim that Peter changed ‘Baiolard’ (‘lick-lard’) to ‘Abelard’ (‘have-lard’) because he came to master geometry and arithmetic. The patent absurdity of a number of details in this anecdote — such as, that Abelard was an Englishman or that he wrote on geometry and arithmetic — has led most scholars to dismiss the story as a spurious invention. In this study I shall examine whether there are any historical insights to be gained from the anecdote, the text of which is given here with an attempt at a translation.
We present preliminary results of grating observations of YY Mensae and V824 Arae by Chandra and XMM-Newton. Spectral features are presented in the context of the emission measure distributions, the coronal abundances, and plasma electron densities. In particular, we observe a coronal N/C enhancement in YY Men believed to reflect the photospheric composition (CN cycle). Finally, we interpret line broadening in YY Men as Doppler thermal broadening in its very hot corona.
X-ray emission from > 100 pre-main sequence (PMS) stars in the Orion star-forming complex is studied in a 20-ks observation by XMM-Newton. No relation between the ratio of X-ray and bolometric luminosities, LX/Lbol, and rotation period or Rossby number is exhibited, though the action of a solar-like dynamo is not excluded because all stars would appear to be in the “saturated regime” of such a dynamo. Low-mass stars showing a strong U — V excess have lower median X-ray luminosity, suggesting that accretion suppresses magnetic activity.
Although substantial progress has been achieved since the discovery of X-ray emission from early-type stars with the EINSTEIN satellite, several crucial aspects of this phenomenon are still not fully understood. Considerable breakthroughs in this field are expected from observations with the X-ray Multi-Mirror satellite (XMM) due for launch in early 2000. XMM is the second cornerstone mission of the ESA Horizon 2000 science programme (see Lumb et al. 1996 and references therein for an overall description of the satellite). XMM offers a large effective area over a wide range of energies and its instrumentation provides simultaneously non-dispersive spectroscopic imaging (EPIC - European Photon Imaging Camera), medium-resolution dispersive spectroscopy (RGS - Reflection Grating Spectrometer) and optical-UV imaging (OM - Optical Monitor).
The cataclysmic variable star EX Hydrae has been observed with the High Resolution Imager (HRI) and the Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) onboard the Einstein Observatory. The X-ray position is coincident within 3 arcsec of the optical position as measured on Schmidt survey plates. During a 15 1/2 hour observation with IPC we have searched for a modulation of the X-ray flux. Strong evidence for a 67 min period (one of two known optical periods) has been found in the energy range 0.1-3.5 keV with the IPC. The time dependence of modulations is used to discuss a model and evolutionary status of this close binary system.
We present the first observational evidence for the variation of the coronal calcium abundance in the high-temperature solar flare plasmas. The analyzed data consists of the X-ray flare spectra observed by the Solar Maximum Mission satellite with the Bent Crystal Spectrometer. From BCS spectra we derived the ratio of the line to continuum flux IL/IC for the resonance line of Ca XIX λ = 3.1781Å and the continuum at the same wavelength as a function of the temperature. The studies of 13 flares showed similar temperature dependence during the decay phases, but the agreement of the IL/IC ratio from flare to flare could only be achieved by adjusting an overall normalization factor. As the continuum flux depends weakly on the heavy elemental abundance, this variation of the IL/IC ratio can be attributed to the variation in the calcium abundance. For the flares considered, the variation between the extreme cases represented the factor of 2.5. We stress the consequences of the observed abundance variation for the analysis and interpretation of XUV and X-ray spectra.