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Let an oracle be called low for prefix-free complexity on a set in case access to the oracle improves the prefix-free complexities of the members of the set at most by an additive constant. Let an oracle be called weakly low for prefix-free complexity on a set in case the oracle is low for prefix-free complexity on an infinite subset of the given set. Furthermore, let an oracle be called low and weakly for prefix-free complexity along a sequence in case the oracle is low and weakly low, respectively, for prefix-free complexity on the set of initial segments of the sequence. Our two main results are the following characterizations. An oracle is low for prefix-free complexity if and only if it is low for prefix-free complexity along some sequences if and only if it is low for prefix-free complexity along all sequences. An oracle is weakly low for prefix-free complexity if and only if it is weakly low for prefix-free complexity along some sequence if and only if it is weakly low for prefix-free complexity along almost all sequences. As a tool for proving these results, we show that prefix-free complexity differs from its expected value with respect to an oracle chosen uniformly at random at most by an additive constant, and that similar results hold for related notions such as a priori probability. Furthermore, we demonstrate that on every infinite set almost all oracles are weakly low but are not low for prefix-free complexity, while by Shoenfield absoluteness there is an infinite set on which uncountably many oracles are low for prefix-free complexity. Finally, we obtain no-gap results, introduce weakly low reducibility, or WLK-reducibility for short, and show that all its degrees except the greatest one are countable.
Tourists approaching wild animals can potentially cause disturbance as a result of the perceived predation risk. Risk effects arise when prey alter their behaviour in response to predators. This response may carry costs through its impact on fitness-related activities such as foraging. We recorded behavioural responses of whale sharks Rhincodon typus to experimental vessel and swimmer approaches. We simulated the disturbance caused by ecotourism in the foraging site of this planktivorous fish in Bahia de Los Angeles, Gulf of Baja California, Mexico. Stress-related behaviours (vigilance, change of direction, diving and acceleration) were more common directly after both types of disturbance than before, in particular after approach by a swimmer. Individuals were more likely to be vigilant when they were new to the bay, but we did not find evidence of within-season behavioural habituation. Sharks were 24% more likely to forage before human stimuli than after. Our study highlights negative effects of vessel and swimmer approaches on whale shark behaviour, with a short-term increase in stress-related behaviours potentially carrying energetic costs, combined with a decrease in food intake following the disturbance. Our results indicate concerns about the impact of ecotourism on large fish species. An important next step would be to determine whether these short-term behavioural responses to the perception of predation risk negatively affect fitness. Among other guidelines, we recommend preventing swimmers from approaching if whale sharks stop feeding when a vessel approaches.
Conserving alpine ecosystems and the plant communities they contain using ex situ conservation requires an understanding of seed longevity. Knowledge of seed longevity may determine the effectiveness of ex situ seed banking for alpine plant conservation, and may provide insight into plant recruitment in situ. We sought to determine the influence of elevation and climatic variables, as well as plant and seed traits, on the seed longevity of 57 species inhabiting a unique biome, (sub-)alpine regions of mainland Australia. Seed longevity was estimated using controlled accelerated ageing tests to determine the time taken for seed viability to fall by 50%. We found that, across the study species, like alpine seeds elsewhere in the world, Australian alpine seeds are relatively short-lived and overall shorter-lived than Australian plants in general. Seed mass and elevation explained most of the variation in seed longevity among the Australian alpine species considered. Species with larger seed mass, and collections made at higher elevations, were found to have relatively short-lived seeds. Phylogeny, however, explained very little of the variation in longevity. Our results suggest that viability testing for Australian alpine seeds in ex situ seed banks should be conducted with shorter intervals than for the non-alpine flora. This study highlights how seed longevity in the Australian Alps is not dictated primarily by evolutionary lineage but rather by a complex combination of environmental variables and intrinsic seed characteristics. Potential implications for conservation ex situ and in situ in the context of climate change are discussed.
As has been found in previous studies, the labor market performance of individuals is often affected by demographic determinants like cohort size, age, marriage status and family size. While most of this analysis was studied for earnings, the paper investigates the issue for labor mobility. Mobility is measured here by the number of new employers and the frequency of unemployment of an individual in a particular period. Given the discrete nature of the data, the ordinal probit model and the censored Poisson as the censored negative binomial model was estimated. Since the choice of the statistical model is not clear a priori, various model comparisons are carried out and some new pseudo-R2 measures are proposed and used in the analysis. Results indicate that demographic determinants matter for labor mobility.
One of the observing modes available with the ESO Very Large Telescope will be coherent combination of the light received by up to four 8 m unit telescopes and several 1.8 m auxiliary telescopes. The location of the main telescopes is fixed, while auxiliary telescopes can be moved among some 30 observing stations. The locations of these stations were chosen to augment the (u, v) coverage of the unit telescopes as well as to function as an independent interferometric array.
The 8 m telescopes will be equipped with adaptive optics to correct for seeing-induced wavefront aberrations. This wavefront correction will be complete at near-infrared wavelengths, giving the interferometer very high sensitivity in this spectral regime. This paper gives a brief description of the VLT Interferometer and an update on its status.
The problem of optical distortion produced by the earth’s atmosphere has been known in astronomy since Isaac Newton. In 1953 H. W. Babcock (1953) proposed in his paper “The Possibility of Compensating Astronomical Seeing” to use a deformable optical element driven by a wavefront sensor to correct the distortions induced by the atmosphere that affect astronomical imaging. It took another 20 years for this principle to be demonstrated successfully for defence related laser applications. And only in the early eighties the first astronomical adaptive optics projects had been triggered.
Long baseline interferometry requires the full phasing of a telescope array. Especially for future arrays with large unit telescopes active control systems are mandatory. Adaptive optics can be applied for real-time phase compensation of the individual pupils due to atmospheric distortions. Additional to phasing of the individual pupils of independently mounted telescopes, the whole array has to be phased, including pupil position corrections due to pupil foreshortening and shift effects in order to reach a reasonable phased field-of-view.