To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Our research group demonstrated that vitamin A restriction affected meat quality of Angus cross and Simmental steers. Therefore, the aim of this study is to highlight the genotype variations in response to dietary vitamin A levels. Commercial Angus and Simmental steers (n = 32 per breed; initial BW = 337.2 ± 5.9 kg; ~8 months of age) were fed a low-vitamin A (LVA) (1017 IU/kg DM) backgrounding diet for 95 days to reduce hepatic vitamin A stores. During finishing, steers were randomly assigned to treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of genotype × dietary vitamin A concentration. The LVA treatment was a finishing diet with no supplemental vitamin A (723 IU vitamin A/kg DM); the control (CON) was the LVA diet plus supplementation with 2200 IU vitamin A/kg DM. Blood samples were collected at three time points throughout the study to analyze serum retinol concentration. At the completion of finishing, steers were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. Meat characteristics assessed were intramuscular fat concentration, color, Warner-Bratzler shear force, cook loss and pH. Camera image analysis was used for determination of marbling, 12th rib back fat and longissimus muscle area (LMA). The LVA steers had lower (P < 0.001) serum retinol concentration than CON steers. The LVA treatment resulted in greater (P = 0.03) average daily gain than the CON treatment, 1.52 and 1.44 ± 0.03 kg/day, respectively; however, there was no effect of treatment on final BW, DM intake or feed efficiency. Cooking loss and yield grade were greater and LMA was smaller in LVA steers (P < 0.05). There was an interaction between breed and treatment for marbling score (P = 0.01) and percentage of carcasses grading United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Prime (P = 0.02). For Angus steers, LVA treatment resulted in a 16% greater marbling score than CON (683 and 570 ± 40, respectively) and 27% of LVA Angus steers graded USDA Prime compared with 0% for CON. Conversely, there was no difference in marbling score or USDA Quality Grades between LVA and CON for Simmental steers. In conclusion, feeding a LVA diet during finishing increased marbling in Angus but not in Simmental steers. Reducing the vitamin A level of finishing diets fed to cattle with a high propensity to marble, such as Angus, has the potential to increase economically important traits such as marbling and quality grade without negatively impacting gain : feed or yield grade.
Background: Many computerized tomography (CT) scans ordered after-hours from the emergency department (ED) at our institution required a discussion between the emergency physician (EP) and radiology resident (RR), leading to workflow inefficiency. Aim Statement: The aim was to improve workflow efficiency and provider satisfaction, and reduce CT turnaround time, without significantly affecting CT utilization within six months. Measures & Design: We created a new workflow by creating an electronic list of ED CT requests that RRs monitor. RRs protocolled all requests and only called the ED physician for more details when required. The intervention was implemented in a stepwise fashion via plan-do-study-act cycles. An electronic survey measured qualitative outcomes, and quantitative outcomes were analyzed via statistical process control (SPC) charts and other statistical methods. Evaluation/Results: Survey response was high (76% EP, 79% RR). Most EPs and RRs felt more efficient (96.3%, 73.3%), RRs felt fewer disruptions (83.3%), and most EPs felt that scans were done faster (84.1%). We analyzed CT turnaround times and utilization using SPC charts and segmented regression analyses. Turnaround time trended to improvement (33 mins vs 29 mins on weekdays [WD], 37 mins vs 33 on weekends [WE]), but was not statistically significant. There was background rising CT utilization over time (+0.7 and + 1.9 CT/100 ED visits/year on WD and WE, respectively, p < 0.0005), but the intervention itself did not cause a significant change. The total number of pages to RR (a measure of workflow disruption) decreased significantly on the WDs (23 vs 19 pages, p = 0.0011), but not on WE (79 vs 75 pages, p = 0.1663). However when adjusting for number of scans ordered, there was a decrease in paging rates (0.73 vs 0.54 pages per scan ordered on WD [p < 0.00005], 3.24 vs 2.63 pages per scan ordered on WE [p = 0.0012]). Discussion/Impact: Our intervention led to improved work satisfaction and perceived efficiency experienced by both EPs and RRs. It did not statistically significantly affect imaging turnaround times or utilization rates. Our project shows that calling for preapproval of imaging studies does not seem to provide any benefit in our setting.
The ‘jumping to conclusions’ (JTC) bias is associated with both psychosis and general cognition but their relationship is unclear. In this study, we set out to clarify the relationship between the JTC bias, IQ, psychosis and polygenic liability to schizophrenia and IQ.
A total of 817 first episode psychosis patients and 1294 population-based controls completed assessments of general intelligence (IQ), and JTC, and provided blood or saliva samples from which we extracted DNA and computed polygenic risk scores for IQ and schizophrenia.
The estimated proportion of the total effect of case/control differences on JTC mediated by IQ was 79%. Schizophrenia polygenic risk score was non-significantly associated with a higher number of beads drawn (B = 0.47, 95% CI −0.21 to 1.16, p = 0.17); whereas IQ PRS (B = 0.51, 95% CI 0.25–0.76, p < 0.001) significantly predicted the number of beads drawn, and was thus associated with reduced JTC bias. The JTC was more strongly associated with the higher level of psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in controls, including after controlling for IQ (B = −1.7, 95% CI −2.8 to −0.5, p = 0.006), but did not relate to delusions in patients.
Our findings suggest that the JTC reasoning bias in psychosis might not be a specific cognitive deficit but rather a manifestation or consequence, of general cognitive impairment. Whereas, in the general population, the JTC bias is related to PLEs, independent of IQ. The work has the potential to inform interventions targeting cognitive biases in early psychosis.
Recent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have employed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate whether there are brain volumetric abnormalities of gray and/or white matter regions in schizophrenia. This VBM study investigated volumetric reductions in corpus callosum (CC) subregions in association with first-episode psychosis (FEP). Also, we investigated whether such changes were related to deficits in interhemispheric transfer of somatosensory information, using the Crossed Finger Localisation Test (CFLT).
122 FEP subjects and 94 controls were examined. MRI processing was performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping. In a subsample of 31 FEP subjects, we investigated correlations between CC volumes and performance on the CFLT. In this task, a fingertip on one hand is touched by the experimenter and the subject's task is to respond by touching with their thumb the corresponding finger on the other hand.
Relative to controls, FEP subjects showed volume reduction in a cluster located in the anterior CC genu (Z=3.77, p<0.001 uncorrected), which retained significance when analyses were restricted to the schizophrenia/schizophreniform subgroup (n=62) compared to controls (Z=3.16, p<0.001 uncorrected). In the subsample of FEP subjects who performed the finger localization task, there were two clusters of significant positive correlation between performance on the CFLT and CC volumes, respectively in the anterior genu (Z=3.77, p<0.001 uncorrected) and the posterior genu (Z=3.30, p<0.001 uncorrected).
These findings indicate the presence of circumscribed foci of reduced CC volumes in association with FEP, and suggest that such abnormalities are related to deficits in interhemispheric transfer of information.
Prenatal maternal depression predicts disturbances in stress responses and an increased risk of psychopathology in offspring. However the foetal origins of these programming influences on the offspring's stress response mechanism are unclear. Furthermore, there are no inquiries into this issue from the developing world, where high rates of prenatal depression (25-45%) are reported.
To explore associations between prenatal depression and, foetal and infant responsivity, in a sample from rural South India.
67 pregnant women in their third trimester with high prenatal depression scores and 66 controls were assessed for their foetus’ responsivity to repeated vibroacoustic stimulation by measuring foetal heart rate responses. At 1.5-3 months postbirth, infant cortisol responses to immunisation and infant temperament were measured.
A curvilinear relationship existed between prenatal depression and foetal responsivity to a potential stressor (R2=0.98, p=0.02). Foetuses of mothers with both very high and very low levels of depression showed elevated responses compared to the foetuses of mothers with moderate levels of depression.
Prenatal depression predicted elevated infant cortisol responsivity independent of postnatal depression and other confounders (B=13.08, p=0.02). Quintile analysis revealed this relationship to be U shaped (R2=0.20, p=0.02), similar to the relationship between prenatal depression and foetal responsivity.
There were no associations between prenatal depression and difficult infant temperament.
The findings provide the first evidence of a curvilinear relationship between prenatal depression and offspring stress responsivity from the developing world suggesting that intra-uterine exposure to moderate stress levels may be beneficial in the context of socio-economic disadvantage.
Daily use of high-potency cannabis has been reported to carry a high risk for developing a psychotic disorder. However, the evidence is mixed on whether any pattern of cannabis use is associated with a particular symptomatology in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients.
We analysed data from 901 FEP patients and 1235 controls recruited across six countries, as part of the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study. We used item response modelling to estimate two bifactor models, which included general and specific dimensions of psychotic symptoms in patients and psychotic experiences in controls. The associations between these dimensions and cannabis use were evaluated using linear mixed-effects models analyses.
In patients, there was a linear relationship between the positive symptom dimension and the extent of lifetime exposure to cannabis, with daily users of high-potency cannabis having the highest score (B = 0.35; 95% CI 0.14–0.56). Moreover, negative symptoms were more common among patients who never used cannabis compared with those with any pattern of use (B = −0.22; 95% CI −0.37 to −0.07). In controls, psychotic experiences were associated with current use of cannabis but not with the extent of lifetime use. Neither patients nor controls presented differences in depressive dimension related to cannabis use.
Our findings provide the first large-scale evidence that FEP patients with a history of daily use of high-potency cannabis present with more positive and less negative symptoms, compared with those who never used cannabis or used low-potency types.
Ethnic minority groups in Western countries face an increased risk of psychotic disorders. Causes of this long-standing public health inequality remain poorly understood. We investigated whether social disadvantage, linguistic distance and discrimination contributed to these patterns.
We used case–control data from the EUropean network of national schizophrenia networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study, carried out in 16 centres in six countries. We recruited 1130 cases and 1497 population-based controls. Our main outcome measure was first-episode ICD-10 psychotic disorder (F20–F33), and exposures were ethnicity (white majority, black, mixed, Asian, North-African, white minority and other), generational status, social disadvantage, linguistic distance and discrimination. Age, sex, paternal age, cannabis use, childhood trauma and parental history of psychosis were included as a priori confounders. Exposures and confounders were added sequentially to multivariable logistic models, following multiple imputation for missing data.
Participants from any ethnic minority background had crude excess odds of psychosis [odds ratio (OR) 2.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.69–2.43], which remained after adjustment for confounders (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.31–1.98). This was progressively attenuated following further adjustment for social disadvantage (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.22–1.89) and linguistic distance (OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.95–1.57), a pattern mirrored in several specific ethnic groups. Linguistic distance and social disadvantage had stronger effects for first- and later-generation groups, respectively.
Social disadvantage and linguistic distance, two potential markers of sociocultural exclusion, were associated with increased odds of psychotic disorder, and adjusting for these led to equivocal risk between several ethnic minority groups and the white majority.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate: (1) the effects of ensiling maize or sorghum grains after reconstitution on readily soluble fraction (a), potentially degradable fraction in the rumen (b) and rate constant for degradation of b (c) of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and starch (STA); and (2) an appropriate incubation time for in situ or in vitro procedures to estimate in vivo digestibility. Four rumen-cannulated Nellore bulls (body weight = 262 ± 19.6 kg) distributed in a 4 × 4 Latin square were used. Diets were based on dry ground maize (DGM); or dry ground sorghum (DGS); or reconstituted ground maize silage; or reconstituted ground sorghum silage. In vitro and in situ incubations of the individual grains and diets were simultaneously performed with in vivo digestibility. In general, reconstituted grains and diets based on reconstituted grains presented greater (P < 0.05) fraction a and lower (P < 0.05) fraction b of DM, OM and STA compared to dry grains and diets based on dry grain. However, the magnitude of response of the reconstitution and ensiling process on DM and OM degradability parameter was greater for maize than that for sorghum. Moreover, no differences (P > 0.05) were observed between DGM- and DGS-based diets for c estimates. The results suggest that the reconstitution process promotes grains protein matrix breakdown increasing STA availability. The incubation times required for in vivo digestibility estimations of DM, OM and STA are 24 h for in situ and 36 h for in vitro procedures.
To (1) confirm whether the Habit, Reward, and Fear Scale is able to generate a 3-factor solution in a population of obsessive-compulsive disorder and alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients; (2) compare these clinical groups in their habit, reward, and fear motivations; and (3) investigate whether homogenous subgroups can be identified to resolve heterogeneity within and across disorders based on the motivations driving ritualistic and drinking behaviors.
One hundred and thirty-four obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 76) or AUD (n = 58) patients were assessed with a battery of scales including the Habit, Reward, and Fear Scale, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Alcohol Dependence Scale, the Behavioral Inhibition/Activation System Scale, and the Urgency, (lack of
) Premeditation, (lack of
) Perseverance, Sensation Seeking, and Positive Urgency Impulsive Behavior Scale.
A 3-factor solution reflecting habit, reward, and fear subscores explained 56.6% of the total variance of the Habit, Reward, and Fear Scale. Although the habit and fear subscores were significantly higher in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and the reward subscores were significantly greater in AUD patients, a cluster analysis identified that the 3 clusters were each characterized by differing proportions of OCD and AUD patients.
While affective (reward- and fear-driven) and nonaffective (habitual) motivations for repetitive behaviors seem dissociable from each other, it is possible to identify subgroups in a transdiagnostic manner based on motivations that do not match perfectly motivations that usually described in OCD and AUD patients.
To evaluate the association between weight status and food insecurity of children living in social vulnerability who are beneficiaries of a food assistance programme (FAP).
From all children benefiting from the FAP in the municipality, 30 % were mapped in forty-seven distribution points. Their weight status was evaluated using BMI-for-age and food insecurity was determined with the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Socio-economic data of the participants were collected using regular questionnaires. The main outcome measure was obesity.
To be a beneficiary of the FAP, a family must have a child aged 24–96 months and receive less than half a minimum wage per capita. Participating families receive 1 litre of whole milk per day.
In all, 1487 children had BMI-for-age and food insecurity data. Of these children, 376 (25·3 %) had excess weight, of whom 164 (11·0 %) presented with obesity, and only twenty-seven (1·8 %) were underweight; 76 % of the families had some degree of food insecurity. Multivariable analysis revealed no overall association between household food insecurity and weight status. In the specific comparison, children living in severe food insecurity were less likely to present obesity than those children living in food security (prevalence ratio = 0·60; 95 % CI 0·38, 0·96; P = 0·03).
In a socially vulnerable population that participates in a FAP, there was no overall association between food insecurity and weight status in children, a result which is similar to what is observed in more developed contexts.
The objective of this meta-analysis study was to develop and validate equations estimated from in situ and in vitro methods to predict in vivo ruminal digestibility of organic matter (OM) of beef cattle diets. The database was composed of individual data of 23 diets from six experiments. Information collected from these studies was: in vivo digestibility and degradation parameters of OM calculated from in situ and in vitro incubations. The values of estimated times for the in situ and in vitro incubations to access in vivo digestibility of OM, and differences between degradation at 24, 48 and 72 h (in situ and in vitro) and in vivo digestibility were analysed in a model that included the fixed effects of forage neutral detergent fibre level. Thereafter, a multiple stepwise regression was carried out using OM digestibility as a dependent variable and degradation parameters (A = water-soluble fraction; B = potentially degradable water-insoluble fraction; and kd = degradation rate of fraction B) as independent variables. Equation validation was performed using data from a seventh experiment that have the same methods than previous studies. Stepwise regression results showed that the kd contributed significantly in most of the algorithms derived to predict in vivo digestibility. Validation analysis showed that equations developed from both in vitro and in situ incubations accurately estimated the in vivo digestibility of OM (P > 0.05). Our results suggest that equations developed to estimate OM digestibility showed both precision and accuracy; however, in situ method presented better results than in vitro.
Food environments may be contributing to the rapid increase in obesity occurring in most Latin American (LA) countries. The present study reviews literature from LA that (i) describes the food environment and policies targeting the food environment (FEP); and (ii) analytic studies that investigate associations between the FEP and dietary behaviours, overweight/obesity and obesity related chronic diseases. We focus on six dimensions of the FEP: food retail, provision, labelling, marketing, price and composition.
Systematic literature review. Three databases (Web of Science, SciELO, LILACS) were searched, from 1 January 1999 up to July 2017. Two authors independently selected the studies. A narrative synthesis was used to summarize, integrate and interpret findings.
Studies conducted in LA countries.
The search yielded 2695 articles of which eighty-four met inclusion criteria.
Most studies were descriptive and came from Brazil (61 %), followed by Mexico (18 %) and Guatemala (6 %). Studies were focused primarily on retail/provision (n 27), marketing (n 16) and labelling (n 15). Consistent associations between availability of fruit and vegetable markets and higher consumption of fruits and vegetables were found in cross-sectional studies. Health claims in food packaging were prevalent and mostly misleading. There was widespread use of marketing strategies for unhealthy foods aimed at children. Food prices were lower for processed relative to fresh foods. Some studies documented high sodium in industrially processed foods.
Gaps in knowledge remain regarding policy evaluations, longitudinal food retail studies, impacts of food price on diet and effects of digital marketing on diet/health.
The accurate estimation of protein requirements for beef cattle is a key factor in increasing livestock profitability and decreasing the environmental impacts of excessive N excretion due to mismatching between assumed requirements and diet formulation. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate and validate a new equation to predict the net protein requirements for growth (NPg) of Zebu beef cattle. For the development of the new approach, a database of 552 observations comprised of bulls, steers, and heifers of different genetic groups (Zebu, beef crossbreed, and dairy crossbreed) was assembled. The new approach was evaluated and compared to current models devised by the international nutrient requirements system committees (Agricultural Research Council, 1980; Beef Cattle Nutrient Requirements Model, 2016; BR-CORTE, 2016) to predict NPg. The model evaluation was performed through the model evaluation system (version 3.1.16) using an independent data set (n = 177 observations). An equation was considered the best estimator of NPg if the following conditions were met: (1) the intercept and slope of the regression between ordinary residues and/or predicted NPg values must have been equal to zero and one, respectively; and (2) the greatest concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) and determination coefficient (R), and lowest mean squared error of prediction (MSEP) were attained. Based on the regression models of the observed v. predicted NPg of Zebu beef cattle, both the new approach and that of the ARC (1980) correctly estimated NPg, since the intercept and slope were not different (P > 0.05) from zero and one, respectively. Additionally, the new approach’s determination coefficient was the greatest and the closest to one. The fact that the new model achieved a higher CCC and lower MSEP than the existing models indicated its superior reproducibility and accuracy. The equations proposed by BR-CORTE (2016) and the BCNRM (2016) did not correctly estimate NPg in that the intercept and slope were different (P < 0.01) from zero and one, respectively. Thus, the equations proposed by the new approach and the ARC (1980) accurately and precisely estimated NPg and are recommended for Zebu cattle. Furthermore, the inclusion of equivalent empty BW (EQEBW) in the new approach improves the estimation of NPg. We suggest the use of the following equation to calculate NPg for Zebu beef cattle: NPg = 176.01 × EBG – 0.381 × EQEBW0.75 × EBG1.035 (R = 0.80 and CCC = 0.75); where NPg = net protein requirements for growth, EBG = empty body gain, and EQEBW = equivalent empty BW.
Over the last decade, there has been an increased focus on describing condensed carbonaceous matter in rocks in several ultramafic settings and in experiments. This organic carbon – unaccounted for until now – seems to be ubiquitous in the crust, with profound implications for the deep carbon cycle and the sustainability of deep microbial ecosystems. Among the suite of abiotic organic compounds that may have formed abiotically in serpentinizing systems in particular are molecules of prebiotic interest, including a series of amino acids. In this chapter, the geochemical pathways for the abiotic synthesis of condensed carbonaceous matter are described, as well as the thermodynamic stability of such compounds and both their biotic and abiotic processing in the crust.
Using legumes in forage mixes can help decrease the use of nitrogen fertilizers and possibly increase the nutritive value of pasture. The aim of the current study was to determine animal production and behavioural and ingestion parameters by evaluating the production and nutritive value of Aruana grass (Panicum maximum ‘Aruana’) intercropped with forage peanut (Arachis pintoi ‘Amarillo’) or fertilized with nitrogen. The treatments were N200 (200 kg N/ha per season – summer and winter), 100N + PE (100 kg N/ha per season plus pasture mixture with forage peanut) and N100 (100 kg N/ha per season). The presence of forage peanut in the pasture did not replace nitrogen fertilization as the pasture fertilized with 200 kg of nitrogen had a greater leaf/stem ratio (0.66 v. 0.54), stocking rate (2600 v. 2290 kg live weight/ha), average daily gain (0.880 v. 0.700 kg/day) and live weight gain (LWG) (652 v. 468 kg/ha) during summer. During winter, no effect of increased nitrogen fertilization on pasture and animal production was observed. In the total study period (summer + winter), a greater LWG (897 v. 741 kg/ha) occurred when a higher quantity of nitrogen (N200) was placed in the pasture compared to the insertion of forage peanuts in the system.
Changes in cardiac autonomic regulation, expressed by increased sympathetic activity and decreased heart rate variability, have an important relationship with the onset of lethal cardiac phenomena. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the cardiac autonomic behaviour in young people according to their level of physical activity. Through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, 55 healthy young non-smokers with no history of previous diseases and whose parents did not suffer from metabolic syndrome were assessed and divided into groups: sedentary (n=12), insufficiently active (n=16), active (n=14), and very active (n=13). We collected respiratory rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure at rest, and body mass index. Subjects remained supine at rest, and without mental stress for 15 minutes in a controlled environment. Using a cardiofrequency meter (Polar® RS800CX), data were analysed in the time domain, frequency domain, and detrended fluctuation analysis. For the sedentary group, the mean RR and rMSSD were significantly lower, and the insufficiently active group showed higher means, but significantly only for rMSSD. The insufficiently active group showed in the detrended fluctuation analysis that α2 was significantly lower compared with the sedentary, active, and very active groups. We conclude that young, healthy, sedentary individuals present an increased heart rate and that insufficiently active individuals present a decreased fractal correlation and increased parasympathetic activity.
Design thinking as explored by Bernard Roth from the Stanford d.School, Roger Martin from the Rothman School of Management, and the IDEO merger trio by Tom and David Kelley, as well as current its CEO Tim Brown, dominates the narrative of the contemporary schools of design thinking since the late `90s. This article aims to investigate the underlying philosophies, authors, and events that laid the foundation in which these contemporary designers based their strategies on planning for complex environments. To satisfy this intent, the turbulent origin of design methods is explored, following the post-war environment that allowed these ideas to flourish, the generations of methods in design from the `60s to the `90s, and the encroachment of design methods to the embodiment of a commercialized design thinking methodology.
The Rio Branco is a river with unique biogeographic and ecological features, threatened by the Brazilian Government’s plan to build a major hydroelectric dam and associated hydroway along its course. The river crosses one of Amazonia’s largest rainfall gradients and a major geomorphological boundary along a savanna/forest ecotone, marked by the Bem Querer rapids. Above the rapids, the upper Rio Branco runs through the Boa Vista sedimentary formation and crosses the crystalline rocks of the Guiana Shield, and its margins are flanked by gallery forests. Downriver, it runs through a low-lying sedimentary basin, with Amazonian floodplain forests along its margins. Here, we present the results of ∼ 15 years of ornithological research on the Branco and its major tributaries, providing baseline data and evaluating potential threats to the riverine avifauna. Our surveys included opportunistic observations and standardized surveys along the entire length of the river in 16 systematically distributed localities. We catalogued 439 bird species, 87% of which are documented by physical evidence (specimens, recordings, photographs). Forty-six percent are restricted to single habitats, suggesting a high degree of habitat specialisation. A third of the species are widely distributed along the river, whereas 45% are restricted to either the upper or the lower Rio Branco, including 40 and 30 Indicator Species, respectively. Twenty-five species are threatened at global or national levels, including two ‘Critically Endangered’, nine ‘Vulnerable’, and 14 ‘Near Threatened’. We present a list of 50 bird species that are candidates for monitoring studies. Threats to the avifauna from dam construction include permanent flooding above the dam, eliminating gallery forests, river islands, and sandy beaches, and the disruption of the flood pulse along the river, affecting river island and floodplain forest specialists, many of which are globally threatened with extinction. If built, the Bem Querer dam will wipe out the ecotone region and affect dramatically the river’s avifauna.
We estimated the incidence of first-episode psychosis over a 3-year period in a Brazilian catchment area comprising the region's main city, Ribeirão Preto (1 425 306 persons-years at risk), and 25 other municipalities with a total of 1 646 556 persons-years at risk. The incidence rates were estimated and adjusted by gender and age, using the direct standardisation method to the world population as reference. The incidence of psychosis was higher in the younger groups, men, and among Black and minority ethnic Brazilians. Psychosis incidence was lower in Ribeirão Preto (16.69/100 000 person-years at risk; 95% CI 15.68–17.70) compared with the average incidence in the remaining municipalities (21.25/100 000 person-years at risk; 95% CI 20.20–22.31), which have lower population density, suggesting a distinct role for urbanicity in the incidence of first-episode psychosis in low- and middle-income countries.