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It is clinically imperative to better understand the relationship between trauma, auditory hallucinations and dissociation. The personal narrative of trauma has enormous significance for each individual and is also important for the clinician, who must use this information to decide on a diagnosis and treatment approach.
To better understand whether dissociation contributes in a significant way to hallucinations in individuals with and without trauma histories.
Three groups of participants with auditory hallucinations were recruited, with diagnoses of: schizophrenia (without trauma) (n = 18), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, n = 27) and comorbid schizophrenia and PTSD (SCZ+PTSD), n = 26). Clinician-administered measures included the PTSD Symptoms Scale Interview (PSSI-5), the Clinician-Administered Dissociative States Scale (CADSS) and the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS).
Dissociative symptoms were significantly higher in participants with trauma histories (PTSD and SCZ+PTSD groups) and significantly correlated with hallucinations in trauma-exposed participants, but not in participants with schizophrenia (without trauma history). Hallucination severity was correlated with the CADSS amnesia subscale score, but depersonalisation and derealisation were not.
Dissociation may be a mechanism in trauma-exposed individuals who hear voices, but it does not explain all hallucinatory experiences. The SCZ+PTSD group were in an intermediary position between schizophrenia and PTSD on dissociative and hallucination measures. The PTSD and SCZ+PTSD groups experienced dissociative phenomena much more frequently than the schizophrenia group, with a significant trend towards the amnesia subtype of dissociation.
The extent of intertidal flats in the Yellow Sea region has declined significantly in the past few decades, resulting in severe population declines in several waterbird species. The Yellow Sea region holds the primary stopover sites for many shorebirds during their migration to and from northern breeding grounds. However, the functional roles of these sites in shorebirds’ stopover ecology remain poorly understood. Through field surveys between July and November 2015, we investigated the stopover and moult schedules of migratory shorebirds along the southern Jiangsu coast, eastern China during their southbound migration, with a focus on the ‘Critically Endangered’ Spoon-billed Sandpiper Calidris pygmaea and ‘Endangered’ Nordmann’s Greenshank Tringa guttifer. Long-term count data indicate that both species regularly occur in globally important number in southern Jiangsu coast, constituting 16.67–49.34% and 64.0–80.67% of their global population estimates respectively, and it is highly likely that most adults undergo their primary moult during this southbound migration stopover. Our results show that Spoon-billed Sandpiper and Nordmann’s Greenshank staged for an extended period of time (66 and 84 days, respectively) to complete their primary moult. On average, Spoon-billed Sandpipers and Nordmann’s Greenshanks started moulting primary feathers on 8 August ± 4.52 and 27 July ± 1.56 days respectively, and their moult durations were 72.58 ± 9.08 and 65.09 ± 2.40 days. In addition, some individuals of several other shorebird species including the ‘Endangered’ Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris, ‘Near Threatened’ Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica, ‘Near Threatened’ Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata and Greater Sand Plover Charadrius leschenaultii also underwent primary moult. Our work highlights the importance of the southern Jiangsu region as the primary moulting ground for these species, reinforcing that conservation of shorebird habitat including both intertidal flats and supratidal roosting sites in this region is critical to safeguard the future of some highly threatened shorebird species.
Not least because of the shocks of the Investiture struggle and of the great reforms of the Church, from the second half of the twelfth century in Western Christendom there had emerged a general desire for an internalization of belief—one that from that time onward came increasingly to inspire an individual search for God, and that required both a stronger sense of self-responsibility and a more precise knowledge of self. These developments also led to a “crisis” of traditional monasticism, since the old communities had come more and more to be seen as rigid and lifeless. They lived, so it was said, like the Pharisees (more Pharasaico). They upheld the claustrales observantiae—that is, the common rituals, the liturgical rites, and traditional practices of prayer—only outwardly, while neglecting those true precepts of the Lord (praecepta Domini) that concerned the soul—humility, contrition, asceticism, contemplation. As a consequence, a remarkable flood of refugees fled from the cloister into the eremitical isolation of the forests and mountains. For the most part they gathered around a charismatic personality and built for themselves new communities whose independent identities and core spiritual ideals required a life lived, with special intensity, according to conviction.
This paper examines the stability of egocentric networks as reported over time using a novel touchscreen-based participant-aided sociogram. Past work has noted the instability of nominated network alters, with a large proportion leaving and reappearing between interview observations. To explain this instability of networks over time, researchers often look to structural embeddedness, namely the notion that alters are connected to other alters within egocentric networks. Recent research has also asked whether the interview situation itself may play a role in conditioning respondents to what might be the appropriate size and shape of a social network, and thereby which alters ought to be nominated or not. We report on change in these networks across three waves and assess whether this change appears to be the result of natural churn in the network or whether changes might be the result of factors in the interview itself, particularly anchoring and motivated underreporting. Our results indicate little change in average network size across waves, particularly for indirect tie nominations. Slight, significant changes were noted between waves one and two particularly among those with the largest networks. Almost no significant differences were observed between waves two and three, either in terms of network size, composition, or density. Data come from three waves of a Chicago-based panel study of young men who have sex with men.
While it has long been recognized that Lagrangian drift at the ocean surface plays a critical role in the kinematics and dynamics of upper ocean processes, only recently has the contribution of wave breaking to this drift begun to be investigated through direct numerical simulations (Deike et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 829, 2017, pp. 364–391; Pizzo et al., J. Phys. Oceanogr., vol. 49(4), 2019, pp. 983–992). In this work, laboratory measurements of the surface Lagrangian transport due to focusing deep-water non-breaking and breaking waves are presented. It is found that wave breaking greatly enhances mass transport, compared to non-breaking focusing wave packets. These results are in agreement with the direct numerical simulations of Deike et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 829, 2017, pp. 364–391), and the increased transport due to breaking agrees with their scaling argument. In particular, the transport at the surface scales with
, the linear prediction of the maximum slope at focusing, while the surface transport due to non-breaking waves scales with
, in agreement with the classical Stokes prediction.
Hendra virus (HeV) continues to cause fatal infection in horses and threaten infection in close-contact humans in eastern Australia. Species of Pteropus bats (flying-foxes) are the natural reservoir of the virus. We caught and sampled flying-foxes from a multispecies roost in southeast Queensland, Australia on eight occasions between June 2013 and June 2014. The effects of sample date, species, sex, age class, body condition score (BCS), pregnancy and lactation on HeV antibody prevalence, log-transformed median fluorescent intensity (lnMFI) values and HeV RNA status were assessed using unbalanced generalised linear models. A total of 1968 flying-foxes were sampled, comprising 1012 Pteropus alecto, 742 P. poliocephalus and 214 P. scapulatus. Sample date, species and age class were each statistically associated with HeV RNA status, antibody status and lnMFI values; BCS was statistically associated with HeV RNA status and antibody status. The findings support immunologically naïve sub-adult P. alecto playing an important role in maintaining HeV infection at a population level. The biological significance of the association between BCS and HeV RNA status, and BCS and HeV antibody status, is less clear and warrants further investigation. Contrary to previous studies, we found no direct association between HeV infection and pregnancy or lactation. The findings in P. poliocephalus suggest that HeV exposure in this species may not result in systemic infection and virus excretion, or alternatively, may reflect assay cross-reactivity with another (unidentified) henipavirus.
Geometric, kinematic and dynamic properties of focusing deep-water surface gravity wave packets are examined in a simplified model with the intent of deriving a wave breaking threshold parameter. The model is based on the spatial modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation of Dysthe (Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, vol. 369 (1736), 1979, pp. 105–114). The evolution of initially narrow-banded and weakly nonlinear chirped Gaussian wave packets are examined, by means of a trial function and a variational procedure, yielding analytic solutions describing the approximate evolution of the packet width, amplitude, asymmetry and phase during focusing. A model for the maximum free surface gradient, as a function of
the linear prediction of the maximum slope at focusing and
the non-dimensional packet bandwidth, is proposed and numerically examined, indicating a quasi-self-similarity of these focusing events. The equations of motion for the fully nonlinear potential flow equations are then integrated to further investigate these predictions. It is found that a model of this form can characterize the bulk partitioning of
phase space, between non-breaking and breaking waves, serving as a breaking criterion. Application of this result to better understanding air–sea interaction processes is discussed.
Research has supported a model of dissociation mediating the experience of hearing voices in traumatised individuals.
To further understand this model by examining subtypes of the dissociative experience involved in trauma-intrusive hallucinations.
The study involved four hospitals, 11 psychiatrists and 69 participants assessed using the Psychotic Symptoms Rating scale, the PTSD Symptoms Scale Interview and the Dissociative Subtype of PTSD Score
In total, 59% (n = 41) of the participants heard voices and they were compared with the 41% (n = 28) who did not. The severity of PTSD symptoms did not predict experience of hearing voices. Regression analysis indicated that two scales of dissociation (derealisation/depersonalisation and loss of awareness) were equally good predictors of the extent of hearing voices. Adding other possible predictors (age of trauma <18, sexual violence) was relevant but did not enhance the prediction.
This research supports the proposal that trauma-intrusive voices are mediated by symptoms of dissociation. The supported model describes general, rather than trauma specific, symptoms of dissociation mediating the experience of hearing voices. The concept of anchoring is discussed and suggests a potential treatment strategy, which could be useful in the clinical management of hearing voices.
Many shorebird populations are in decline along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. The rapid loss of coastal wetlands in the Yellow Sea, which provide critical stop-over sites during migration, is believed to be the cause of the alarming trends. The Yalu Jiang coastal wetland, a protected area in the north Yellow Sea, supports the largest known migratory staging populations of Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica (menzbieri and baueri subspecies) and Great Knots Calidris tenuirostris. Monitoring of the macrozoobenthos food for these shorebirds from 2011 to 2016 showed declines of over 99% in the densities of the bivalve Potamocorbula laevis, the major food here for both Bar-tailed Godwits and Great Knots. The loss of the bivalve might be caused by any combination of, but not limited to: (1) change in hydrological conditions and sediment composition due to nearby port construction, (2) run-off of agrochemicals from the extensive shoreline sea cucumber farms, and (3) parasitic infection. Surprisingly, the numbers of birds using the Yalu Jiang coastal wetland remained stable during the study period, except for the subspecies of Bar-tailed Godwit L. l. menzbieri, which exhibited a 91% decline in peak numbers. The lack of an overall decline in the number of bird days in Great Knots and in the peak numbers of L. l. baueri, also given the published simultaneous decreases in their annual survival, implies a lack of alternative habitats that birds could relocate to. This study highlights that food declines at staging sites could be an overlooked but important factor causing population declines of shorebirds along the Flyway. Maintaining the quality of protected staging sites is as important in shorebird conservation as is the safeguarding of staging sites from land claim. Meanwhile, it calls for immediate action to restore the food base for these beleaguered migrant shorebirds at Yalu Jiang coastal wetland.
In a controversial article on the life and fiction of Charles Dickens, George H. Lewes ponders the inexplicable preference of readers for the novelist's too-simplistic characters over the more complex characters of other writers. He finds an answer in the primitive reaction to fine art: “To a savage there is so little suggestion of a human face and form in a painted portrait that it is not even recognized as the representation of a man” (“Dickens” 150). The implication, it would seem, is that readers turn to Dickens because they are similarly incapable of appreciating more refined modes of art. Today the remark reads as gratuitous and insulting to readers, to Dickens, and to the other cultures Lewes stereotypes as savage. At the same time, the casual nature of the passage also suggests that it reflects commonly held beliefs about primitive life, beliefs we do not have but that Lewes and his readers took for granted. He was clearly safe in assuming such a body of common knowledge, for many other articles in the Fortnightly Review (in which Lewes's article appeared in 1872) had similar references to primitivism. Reading through the journal issues of the time, the extent to which anthropological concepts had escaped the covers of books on primitive society and taken up residence in the pages of review essays on contemporary issues – from history, to life in the colonies, to life in Britain itself – is striking. In its print context, the comment about savages and art is less isolated and inexplicable than it is representative of a broad turn to the topic of primitivism in social commentary and analysis during the 1870s.
The Lagrangian transport due to non-breaking and breaking focusing wave packets is examined. We present direct numerical simulations of the two-phase air–water Navier–Stokes equations describing focusing wave packets, investigating the Lagrangian drift by tracking tracer particles in the water before, during and after the breaking event. The net horizontal transport for non-breaking focusing packets is well described by the classical Stokes drift, both at the surface and in the bulk of the fluid, where the e-folding scale of the evanescent vertical profile is given by the characteristic wavenumber. For focusing wave packets that lead to breaking, we observe an added drift that can be ten times larger than the classical Stokes drift for a non-breaking packet at the surface, while the initial depth of the broken fluid scales with the wave height at breaking. We find that the breaking induced Lagrangian transport scales with the breaking strength. A simple scaling argument is proposed to describe this added drift and is found to be consistent with the direct numerical simulations. Applications to upper ocean processes are discussed.
There have been few published controlled studies of multi-component weight management programmes that include an energy deficit diet (EDD), for adults with intellectual disabilities and obesity. The objective of this study was to conduct a single-blind, cluster randomised controlled trial comparing a multi-component weight management programme to a health education programme. Participants were randomised to either TAKE 5, which included an EDD or Waist Winners Too (WWToo), based on health education principles. Outcomes measured at baseline, 6 months (after a weight loss phase) and 12 months (after a 6-month weight maintenance phase), by a researcher blinded to treatment allocation, included: weight; BMI; waist circumference; physical activity; sedentary behaviour and health-related quality of life. The recruitment strategy was effective with fifty participants successfully recruited. Both programmes were acceptable to adults with intellectual disabilities, evidenced by high retention rates (90 %). Exploratory efficacy analysis revealed that at 12 months there was a trend for more participants in TAKE 5 (50·0 %) to achieve a clinically important weight loss of 5–10 %, in comparison to WWToo (20·8 %) (OR 3·76; 95 % CI 0·92, 15·30; 0·064). This study found that a multi-component weight management programme that included an EDD, is feasible and an acceptable approach to weight loss when tailored to meet the needs of adults with intellectual disabilities and obesity.
The Yellow Sea region is of high global importance for waterbird populations, but recent systematic bird count data enabling identification of the most important sites are relatively sparse for some areas. Surveys of waterbirds at three sites on the coast of southern Jiangsu Province, China, in 2014 and 2015 produced peak counts of international importance for 24 species, including seven globally threatened and six Near Threatened species. The area is of particular global importance for the ‘Critically Endangered’ Spoon-billed Sandpiper Calidris pygmaea (peak count across all three study sites: 62 in spring  and 225 in autumn  and ‘Endangered’ Spotted Greenshank Tringa guttifer (peak count across all three study sites: 210 in spring  and 1,110 in autumn ). The southern Jiangsu coast is therefore currently the most important migratory stopover area in the world, in both spring and autumn, for both species. Several serious and acute threats to waterbirds were recorded at these study sites. Paramount is the threat of large-scale land claim which would completely destroy intertidal mudflats of critical importance to waterbirds. Degradation of intertidal mudflat habitats through the spread of invasive Spartina, and mortality of waterbirds by entrapment in nets or deliberate poisoning are also real and present serious threats here. Collisions with, and displacement by, wind turbines and other structures, and industrial chemical pollution may represent additional potential threats. We recommend the rapid establishment of effective protected areas for waterbirds in the study area, maintaining large areas of open intertidal mudflat, and the urgent removal of all serious threats currently faced by waterbirds here.
The Numeniini is a tribe of 13 wader species (Scolopacidae, Charadriiformes) of which seven are Near Threatened or globally threatened, including two Critically Endangered. To help inform conservation management and policy responses, we present the results of an expert assessment of the threats that members of this taxonomic group face across migratory flyways. Most threats are increasing in intensity, particularly in non-breeding areas, where habitat loss resulting from residential and commercial development, aquaculture, mining, transport, disturbance, problematic invasive species, pollution and climate change were regarded as having the greatest detrimental impact. Fewer threats (mining, disturbance, problematic native species and climate change) were identified as widely affecting breeding areas. Numeniini populations face the greatest number of non-breeding threats in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, especially those associated with coastal reclamation; related threats were also identified across the Central and Atlantic Americas, and East Atlantic flyways. Threats on the breeding grounds were greatest in Central and Atlantic Americas, East Atlantic and West Asian flyways. Three priority actions were associated with monitoring and research: to monitor breeding population trends (which for species breeding in remote areas may best be achieved through surveys at key non-breeding sites), to deploy tracking technologies to identify migratory connectivity, and to monitor land-cover change across breeding and non-breeding areas. Two priority actions were focused on conservation and policy responses: to identify and effectively protect key non-breeding sites across all flyways (particularly in the East Asian- Australasian Flyway), and to implement successful conservation interventions at a sufficient scale across human-dominated landscapes for species’ recovery to be achieved. If implemented urgently, these measures in combination have the potential to alter the current population declines of many Numeniini species and provide a template for the conservation of other groups of threatened species.
We examine the partitioning of the energy transferred to the water column by deep-water wave breaking; in this case between the turbulent and mean flow. It is found that more than 95 % of the energy lost by the wave field is dissipated in the first four wave periods after the breaking event. The remaining energy is in the coherent vortex generated by breaking. A scaling argument shows that the ratio between the energy in this breaking generated mean current and the total energy lost from the wave field to the water column due to breaking scales as
is the local slope at breaking. This model is examined using direct numerical simulations of breaking waves solving the full two-phase air–water Navier–Stokes equations, as well as the limited available laboratory data, and good agreement is found for strong breaking waves.
We examine the geometry, kinematics, and dynamics of weakly nonlinear narrow-banded deep-water wave packets governed by the modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation (Dysthe, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A., vol. 369, 1979, pp. 105–114; MNLSE). A new derivation of the spatial MNLSE, by a direct application of Whitham’s method, elucidates its variational structure. Using this formalism, we derive a set of conserved quantities and moment evolution equations. Next, by examining the MNLSE in the limit of vanishing linear dispersion, analytic solutions can be found. These solutions then serve as trial functions, which when substituted into the moment evolution equations form a closed set of equations, allowing for a qualitative and quantitative examination of the MNLSE without resorting to numerically solving the full equation. To examine the theory we consider initially symmetric, chirped and unchirped wave packets, chosen to induce wave focusing and steepening. By employing the ansatz for the trial function discussed above, we predict, a priori, the evolution of the packet. It is found that the speed of wave packets governed by the MNLSE depends on their amplitude, and in particular wave groups speed up as they focus. Next, we characterize the asymmetric growth of the wave envelope, and explain the steepening of the forward face of the initially symmetric wave packet. As the packet focuses, its variance decreases, as does the chirp of the signal. These theoretical results are then compared with the numerical predictions of the MNLSE, and agreement for small values of fetch is found. Finally, we discuss the results in the context of existing theoretical, numerical and laboratory studies.
We investigate air entrainment and bubble statistics in three-dimensional breaking waves through novel direct numerical simulations of the two-phase air–water flow, resolving the length scales relevant for the bubble formation problem, the capillary length and the Hinze scale. The dissipation due to breaking is found to be in good agreement with previous experimental observations and inertial scaling arguments. The air entrainment properties and bubble size statistics are investigated for various initial characteristic wave slopes. For radii larger than the Hinze scale, the bubble size distribution, can be described by
during the active breaking stages, where
is the time-dependent turbulent dissipation rate, with
the collapse time of the initial air pocket entrained by the breaking wave,
a weighted vertical velocity of the bubble plume,
the maximum bubble radius,
the initial volume of air entrained,
the bubble radius and
a dimensionless constant. The active breaking time-averaged bubble size distribution is described by
is the wave dissipation rate per unit length of breaking crest,
the water density and
the length of breaking crest. Finally, the averaged total volume of entrained air,
, per breaking event can be simply related to
, which leads to a relationship for a characteristic slope,
. We propose a phenomenological turbulent bubble break-up model based on earlier models and the balance between mechanical dissipation and work done against buoyancy forces. The model is consistent with the numerical results and existing experimental results.