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The discovery of documents is a key stage of litigation which today often takes over litigation and produces expense and injustice. Yet discovery originated as a discretionary remedy of equity courts. It was to allow a party to find out from an opponent facts relating to the plaintiff’s own case. When the fusion of law and equity courts began stepwise in the nineteenth century, this useful remedy was extended to common law courts. Initially, both common law and equity courts continued to treat discovery as discretionary. As fusion of the courts occurred, however, discovery was widened and considered an ‘entitlement’. This has led to the situation of today, which requires the discretionary roots of discovery to be re-found.
Recurrent aortic arch obstruction following the Norwood procedure is recognised as an important complication. Balloon arch angioplasty is associated with a high recoarctation rate.
We sought to evaluate the prevalence and outcome of stent implantation for recoarctation in children following Norwood or Damus–Kaye–Stansel procedure over the past decade at a single national cardiology centre.
Of 114 children who underwent Norwood procedure or Damus–Kaye–Stansel procedure between January 2003 and June 2013, 80 patients survived. Of these 15 children underwent stent implantation for recoarctation. Six of these patients had previous balloon angioplasty. The median age at stent implantation was 4.4 months (range 2–82 months). The median peak aortic arch gradient at catheterisation decreased from 26mmHg (range 10–70mmHg) to 2mmHg (range 0–20mmHg). The median luminal diameter increased from 4.7 mm (range 3.2–7.9 mm) to 8.6 mm (range 6.2–10.9 mm). The median coarctation index increased by 0.49 (range = 0.24–0.64). A Valeo stent was employed in 11 children, a Palmaz Genesis stent in 2 patients, a MultiLink stent in 1 child, and a Jomed covered stent in 1 child. Two factors were associated with the need for stent placement: previous arch angioplasty (p valve < 0.001, χ-square 11.5) and borderline left ventricle (p = 0.04, χ-square = 4.1). Stent migration occurred in one child. There were two deaths related to poor right ventricular systolic function and severe tricuspid regurgitation. Six patients underwent redilation of the stent with no complications.
The prevalence of recurrent aortic arch obstruction following Norwood/Damus–Kaye–Stansel procedure was 18%. Stent implantation is safe and reliably eliminates the aortic obstruction. Redilation can be successfully achieved to accommodate somatic growth or development of stent recoarctation.
Innovations in the world of alternative finance such as online consumer lending, fund-raising platforms and cryptocurrencies are proceeding apace. In this article, we examine three historical case studies of newly emerged non-bank financial markets and discuss the possible implications for today's alternative finance markets. The first insight is that the private sector can generally be counted on to meet previously unmet needs. Moneylenders filled a gap unaddressed by the banking system of the day. Junior market IPOs provided access to funds for smaller companies that might otherwise have struggled to raise external finance. Private currencies replaced sovereign coins in transactions at various points in history. The second insight, however, is that new financial markets and instruments eventually attract the attention of regulators. Finally, these examples are a warning to industry not to take for granted that an initially laissez-faire regulatory regime precludes a stronger response at some point in the future. In all three cases, tougher regulation – in some cases even to the point of shutting down the products and markets concerned – arrived after long periods of observation and deliberation by the state.
Scholars have recently investigated the efficacy of applying globalisation models to ancient cultures such as the fourth-millennium BC Mesopotamian Uruk system. Embedded within globalisation models is the ‘complex connectivity‘ that brings disparate regions together into a singular world. In the fourth millennium BC, the site of Çadır Höyük on the north-central Anatolian plateau experienced dramatic changes in its material culture and architectural assemblages, which in turn reflect new socio-economic, sociopolitical and ritual patterns at this rural agro-pastoral settlement. This study examines the complex connectivities of the ancient Uruk system, encompassing settlements in more consistent contact with the Uruk system such as Arslantepe in southeastern Anatolia, and how these may have fostered exchange networks that reached far beyond the Uruk ‘global world‘ and onto the Anatolian plateau.
We describe the case of a newborn infant with transposition of the great vessels and a retroaortic innominate vein. This is a previously undescribed association. The decision was made to incorporate the retroaortic innominate vein into the Lecompte procedure at the time of surgery to avoid the risk of superior caval vein syndrome.
Refugees report elevated rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but are relatively unlikely to seek help for their symptoms. Mental health stigma is a key barrier to help-seeking amongst refugees. We evaluated the efficacy of an online intervention in reducing self-stigma and increasing help-seeking in refugee men.
Participants were 103 refugee men with PTSD symptoms from Arabic, Farsi or Tamil-speaking backgrounds who were randomly assigned to either receive an 11-module online stigma reduction intervention specifically designed for refugees (‘Tell Your Story’, TYS) or to a wait-list control (WLC) group. Participants completed online assessments of self-stigma for PTSD and help-seeking, and help-seeking intentions and behaviors at baseline, post-intervention, and at a 1 month follow-up.
Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that, compared to the WLC, TYS resulted in significantly smaller increases in self-stigma for seeking help from post-treatment to follow-up (d = 0.42, p = 0.008). Further, participants in the TYS conditions showed greater help-seeking behavior from new sources at follow-up (B = 0.69, 95% CI 0.19–1.18, p = 0.007) than those in the WLC. The WLC showed significantly greater increases in help-seeking intentions from post-intervention to follow-up (d = 0.27, p = 0.027), relative to the TYS group.
This is the first investigation of a mental health stigma reduction program specifically designed for refugees. Findings suggest that evidence-based stigma reduction strategies are beneficial in targeting self-stigma related to help-seeking and increasing help-seeking amongst refugees. These results indicate that online interventions focusing on social contact may be a promising avenue for removing barriers to accessing help for mental health symptoms in traumatized refugees.
On 7 June 2018, the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom (UKSCt) issued its decision on, inter alia, whether Northern Ireland's near-total abortion ban was compatible with the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR). This article critically assesses the UKSC's treatment of international law in this case. It argues that the UKSCt was justified in finding that Northern Ireland's ban on abortion in cases of rape, incest, and FFA was a violation of Article 8, but that the majority erred in its assessment of Article 3 ECHR and of the relevance of international law more generally.
Modern synchrotron sources, and recent developments in experimental techniques, are allowing significant: progress to be made at present in the quality of crystal-structure infonnation at high pressure. Though there are exciting prospects for single-crystal work, especially using Laue techniques, most of the recent advances have been made in powder diffraction. In any case, high-pressure diffraction studies often require powder techniques because single crystals fail to survive the large density changes that accompany many pressure-induced phase transitions. In this paper, we focus on angle-dispersive (AD) powder diffraction on synchrotron sources.
Before the nominations of John Roberts and Samuel Alito, scholars consistently pointed to the presence of divided government as an underlying reason for conflict in the confirmation process for U.S. Supreme Court nominees. However, the importance of party unity and coalition-building appointments—each of which highlights the role of the president in the process—should not be underestimated in these confirmation battles. Moreover, an examination of the sixty twentieth-century nominations reveals that a presidency-focused political regimes model provides significant explanatory force for understanding when and what types of nominees are likely to face the most resistance in the Senate. It does so by incorporating Stephen Skowronek's analytical framework for understanding presidential authority to explain how and why different periods of political time affect presidential attempts to shape the U.S. Supreme Court through appointments. In turn, the model places recent conflict in the confirmation process in historical context.
Shame is a ‘slippery’ concept in educational contexts but by listening to Aboriginal philosophy and Country, we can rethink its slipperiness. This article contemplates how multiple understandings of shame are derived from and coexist within colonised educational contexts. We focus on one positive example of Indigenous education to consider how these understandings can be challenged and transformed for the benefit of Indigenous learners. We discuss a mentoring program run by and for Indigenous young people that is successfully impacting school retention and completion rates: The Australian Indigenous Mentoring Experience (AIME). AIME has a rule, ‘No Shame at AIME’, with the view to minimising shame as a barrier to engaging with Western education. But is this as beneficial as might first appear? Might this erode important cultural understandings of shame necessary in Indigenous education? Instead, could shame be repositioned to better align with original cultural meanings and purposes? We philosophise about the AIME rule with Yuin Country and stories from Country along with our observational and interview data. We argue AIME does not so much ‘remove’ shame as reposition it to better align with Aboriginal cultural educational practice, which positively impacts mentees.
To date, Ireland has been a leading light in the provision of youth mental health services. However, cognisant of the efforts of governmental and non-governmental agencies working in youth mental health, there is much to be done. Barriers into care as well as discontinuity of care across the spectrum of services remain key challenges. This editorial provides guidance for the next stage of development in youth mental care and support that will require significant national engagement and resource investment.
A recently blossoming historiographical literature recognizes that physical anthropologists allied with scholars of diverse aspects of society and history to racially classify European peoples over a period of about a hundred years. They created three successive race classification coalitions – ethnology, from around 1840; anthropology, from the 1850s; and interwar raciology – each of which successively disintegrated. The present genealogical study argues that representing these coalitions as ‘transdisciplinary’ can enrich our understanding of challenges to disciplinary specialization. This is especially the case for the less well-studied nineteenth century, when disciplines and challenges to disciplinary specialization were both gradually emerging. Like Marxism or structuralism, race classification was a holistic interpretive framework, which, at its most ambitious, aimed to structure the human sciences as a whole. It resisted the organization of academia and knowledge into disciplines with separate organizational institutions and research practices. However, the ‘transdisciplinarity’ of this nationalistic project also bridged emerging borderlines between science and politics. I ascribe race classification's simultaneous longevity and instability to its complex and intricately entwined processes of political and interdisciplinary coalition building. Race classification's politically useful conclusions helped secure public support for institutionalizing the coalition's component disciplines. Institutionalization in turn stimulated disciplines to professionalize. They emphasized disciplinary boundaries and insisted on apolitical science, thus ultimately undermining the ‘transdisciplinary’ project.
Migration has been reported to be associated with higher prevalence of mental disorders and suicidal behaviour.
To examine the prevalence of emotional and behavioural difficulties, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among migrant adolescents and their non-migrant peers.
A school-based survey was completed by 11 057 European adolescents as part of the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study.
A previous suicide attempt was reported by 386 (3.6%) adolescents. Compared with non-migrants, first-generation migrants had an elevated prevalence of suicide attempts (odds ratio (OR) 2.08; 95% CI 1.32–3.26; P=0.001 for European migrants and OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.06–3.27; P=0.031 for non-European migrants) and significantly higher levels of peer difficulties. Highest levels of conduct and hyperactivity problems were found among migrants of non-European origin.
Appropriate mental health services and school-based supports are required to meet the complex needs of migrant adolescents.
This article examines the history of both coerced and exploitative labor in Zanzibar between 1909 and 1970 and demonstrates that these terms were used alongside one another drawing on the same pool of laborers, most of whom were descended from slaves. Not only did these forms of labor continue to marginalize the descendants of ex-slaves, but often it was difficult for the laborers to distinguish between the forms of labor that were coerced and voluntary since both were usually couched in the language of government directives for local benefit. Laborers forced to grow food during World War II could eat that food to survive, just as laborers who voluntarily built a school were possibly able to send their children there (although in reality the poorest children usually had to work with their families). Both brought local benefit, and both were seen locally as required work, but only one was defined by international policy as “forced” labor.