To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A brief reflection on the founding and development of algorave, events where musicians and visualists create music using algorithms, usually through live coding: live manipulation of algorithms as code. The essay reflects on the now-traditional role of projected code, the experience of performing at an algorave, and the role of code as creative material in embodied music improvisation.
Economic sanctions research suggests that sanctioned countries’ overall economic costs tend to be low. This article argues that, despite this, sanction costs can force the governments of these countries to reallocate budget resources from low-priority spending categories to other categories in an effort to minimize their political costs. One such low-priority category is disaster preparedness and mitigation. The authors show that economic sanctions lead to reduced disaster preparedness spending and, as a result, increase the scale of economic and human losses generated by natural disasters in sanctioned countries.
Magic squares have long been popular in recreational mathematics. Their potential for introducing students to ideas in linear algebra was recognised over forty years ago in  and later in . More recently they have proved to be a fascinating topic for undergraduate exploration, especially when students have access to a computer algebra package . Some results on powers of magic square matrices can be found in ,  and . (Readers who google the title ‘Odd magic powers’ of Thompson’s paper  will be treated to a wide variety of non-mathematical exotica!)
As some readers may know, I have recently published a book entitled Pioneers of Ethnomusicology. In it I try to answer the questions
What were the events that led to the emergence of ethnomusicology? Who were the prime movers? What motivated them? What influences were brought to bear on them, and what were the consequences? (McLean 2006: 11)
In an earlier paper (McLean 1961)—presented at the IFMC Vienna Conference in 1960—I emphasized what seemed to me to be an extreme conservatism associated with the transmission of traditional Maori singing—or waiata—style. I outlined some of the evidence for this, and indicated ways in which accuracy of transmission was attained in practice. As a sequel, I should like now to examine Maori concepts of accuracy more closely, and go on to consider anomalies presented by such phenomena as traditionally approved reworkings of waiata texts, the undoubted existence of melodic variants of particular songs, and an evident current trend towards accelerated change in waiata singing style itself.
In the first part of this paper, three New Zealand Maori scales and a possible fourth were derived from interval associations, using strict criteria of melodic usage. An unexplained fact is the coincidence of these three scales with the plagal forms of the medieval phrygian, ionian, and aeolian modes. Historical connection with ancient Greece seems too unlikely a hypothesis to be entertained, and exposure of the Maoris to the medieval modes through early missionary activity can also be ruled out. An alternative explanation is that the ancient Greeks and the New Zealand Maoris shared common principles in their music which led to the evolution of similar scales, but such principles seem impossible to demonstrate. The conclusion must be that there is, as yet, no acceptable explanation for the parallels observed in this paper between Maori scales and those of medieval Europe and ancient Greece.
Applying high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction (HR-EBSD) to materials without regions that are amenable to the acquisition of backgrounds for static flat fielding (background subtraction) can cause analysis problems. To address this difficulty, the efficacy of electron beam induced deposition (EBID) of material as a source for an amorphous background signal is assessed and found to be practical. Using EBID material for EBSD backgrounds allows single crystal and large-grained samples to be analyzed using HR-EBSD for strain and small angle rotation measurement.
In the introduction to the new Oxford History of the Laws of England 1820–1914, the authors suggest that their task is to tell the “history of the law itself.” This review essay examines what can be learned from a history told from law's internal point of view rather than through the perspectives of other disciplines, such as economics or philosophy. It considers whether and how the common law responded to industrialization and laissez-faire ideology, the influence of salient philosophical movements—such as utilitarianism—on statutory change, and how all history is an exercise in ideology. In considering the public sphere, it suggests that this work should form the inspiration for further inquiry.
When Thomas Stokesley, Bishop of London, ‘commaunded Barlowes dyaloges to be preached of the curates through out all hys dyocese,’ he was recommending one of the most interesting English accounts of the Reformation in Germany: William Barlow's A dyaloge descrybyng the orygynall ground of these Lutheran faccyons and many of theyr abusys (1531). The interlocutor William, recently returned from the Continent, names to his friend Nicholas the leading reformers he has met and outlines Luther's controversies with Henry VIII, Carlstadt, and Zwingli. He discusses the quarrel between the Lutheran and Zwinglian factions over the eucharist and their subsequent meeting at Marburg (1529). His account of the ‘third faccyon,’ the Anabaptists, constitutes an early source for England's knowledge of Anabaptist beliefs and many of their startling practices.
The Glasgow area has a combination of highly variable superficial deposits and a legacy of heavy industry, quarrying and mining. These factors create complex foundation and hydrological conditions, influencing the movement of contaminants through the subsurface and giving rise locally to unstable ground conditions. Digital geological three-dimensional models developed by the British Geological Survey are helping to resolve the complex geology underlying Glasgow, providing a key tool for planning and environmental management. The models, covering an area of 3200km2 to a depth of 1.2km, include glacial and post-glacial deposits and the underlying, faulted Carboniferous igneous and sedimentary rocks. Control data, including 95,000 boreholes, digital mine plans and published geological maps, were used in model development. Digital outputs from the models include maps of depth to key horizons, such as rockhead or depth to mine workings. The models have formed the basis for the development of site-scale high-resolution geological models and provide input data for a wide range of other applications from groundwater modelling to stochastic lithological modelling.
This school-based study reports on the development and preliminary analysis of the new pictorial semi-structured Child Anxiety and Coping Interview (CACI). Participants included 195 children (Mage = 6.71; SDage = .76) drawn from 29 primary schools located in Western Sydney, Australia. The study used a mixed qualitative and quantitative design. The CACI was used to elicit the children's self-report on their problems, emotions, coping strategies, and coping self-efficacy. Qualitative content and thematic analysis were used to code the children's nominated coping strategies for their problems in the home and school contexts. The top five most common problems reported were as follows: fear of spiders or insects, fear of the dark, going places without parents, doing badly at school, and heights. The top five most common coping strategies reported by the children were support seeking, behavioural avoidance, solving the problem, facing the challenge, and behavioural distraction. Self-reported negative emotional intensity was highest for fear of the dark. Coping self-efficacy for fear of the dark was also high, suggesting the children found their coping strategies helpful, including those that were maladaptive. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
This study examined the effects of a school-based cognitive-behavioural group intervention for anxiety in young children, Get Lost Mr Scary, on child self-reported anxiety and coping skills. Participants included 65 children (Mage = 6.50 years, SDage = 0.75) drawn from 13 public primary schools located in Western Sydney, Australia. The children participated in seven weekly 1-hour Get Lost Mr Scary sessions, and their parents attended three information sessions. The pictorial semistructured Child Anxiety and Coping Interview (CACI) was used to elicit the children's self-report of their anxiety symptoms, emotions, coping strategies, and coping efficacy before and after the 7-week intervention. Although children rated their maladaptive coping strategies as helpful, the postintervention results indicated a significant decrease in the use of maladaptive strategies such as behavioural avoidance and an increase in adaptive cognitive strategies, particularly cognitive restructuring. Consistent with parent and teacher reports, child self-reports indicated a significant reduction in anxiety and negative emotional distress. The clinical implications of the findings are discussed.
This study examined attachment styles, online behaviours, offline relationships, and sexuality of individuals engaged in a popular massive multiplayer online (MMO) game (Game of War: Fire Age). 178 players currently involved in romantic relationships completed surveys for in-game currency. Time spent gaming predicted less time with others, less relationship satisfaction, more relationship uncertainty, more sexual anxiety, and more external sexual control. However, attachment avoidance partially mediated the relationship between time spent online gaming and time spent with immediate family and friends; relationship satisfaction; self-partner, and relationship uncertainty; sexual anxiety; and external sexual control.
Fluctuating bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) populations jeopardise pollination services. Nesting habitat for solitary bees is potentially limited in many agroecosystems, but the provision of artificial nests could augment bee communities and the pollination services they provide. We investigated whether cavity-nesting bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton (Ericaceae)) fields would use artificial trap nests. Different nest designs were compared, as was nesting occupancy between fruit-bearing and vegetative fields. Milk carton nests had significantly more uptake by and emergence of Osmia Panzer and Megachile Latreille than wooden nests. Only 3% of wooden nests had at least one occupied nesting tube versus 73% of milk carton nests, with a total of 34% nesting tubes occupied. Bee emergence was significantly higher in nesting tubes from fruit-bearing fields than vegetative fields. Osmia and Megachile emergence was low from milk carton nests, with bees emerging from less than 10% of occupied nesting tubes, in large part due to parasitism. Overturned clay lids were tested as potential nesting sites for Osmia inermis Zetterstedt, but only 3% of lids had nesting evidence. Our results suggest that certain artificial nests have potential for encouraging communities of cavity-nesting bees, but further study on nest design and handling protocols is needed.