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A survey of hospital antimicrobial stewardship programs was performed to validate core element achievement data from the National Healthcare Safety Network’s (NHSN) Patient Safety Component Annual Survey. In total, 89% of hospitals met all 7 core elements, compared to only 68% according to the NHSN survey.
In this critical review, I focus on two things. First, I respond to Stang’s interpretation of Descartes, according to which Descartes’ endorsement of his ontological argument commits him to possibilism, the doctrine that there are, or at least could be, non-existent individuals. My response consists in presenting a version of Descartes’ argument the acceptance of which does not require the acceptance of possibilism. The second thing I focus on is Stang’s claim that Kant distinguishes several kinds of real possibility. I raise worries about Stang’s formulations of various doctrines of real possibility, and I preliminarily explore how real essence and ground are connected with the various kinds of real necessity Stang’s Kant recognizes.
Most research on the social gospel, a religious interpretation that obliges people to care for the less fortunate and correct social inequalities, has focused on elite rhetoric. However, it is not clear the extent to which members of the public also adhere to this socioreligious philosophy. The moralistic tone of the 2010 health care reform debate has led many to argue that there is a revival of the social gospel. To what extent has this debate gained traction among citizens writ large? Which individuals will be most likely to be influenced by elite discourse that draws social gospel? Using two unique surveys and an experiment, we demonstrate that Social Gospel adherents have distinctive political attitudes. Specifically, they are more attentive to social policy issues and are more supportive of expanding the social safety net. Second, we demonstrate that elite rhetoric that draws from the Social Gospel tradition can influence policy preferences.
The focal article (Grand et al., 2018) addresses one of the most important issues across virtually all areas of science (Goldstein, 2010): the trustworthiness and credibility of a scientific discipline. Once these attributes are lost, it is difficult to regain them within a reasonable time frame, if ever. In contrast to previous articles on this topic (e.g., Kepes & McDaniel, 2013), the authors of the focal article provide a detailed review of the stakeholders surrounding industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology, including their potential effect on the robustness and trustworthiness of our scientific discipline. In essence, the focal article describes I-O psychology's ecosystem responsible for fostering robust and credible science. The authors should be commended for their comprehensive undertaking, and we have no substantive disagreements. However, implicitly, as with most articles on this vital topic, the focal article tends to take a bottom-up approach to decision making and change. The bottom-up approach is an emergent process where the individuals involved in the day-to-day activities are primarily responsible for the decision-making process and resulting change (Kindler, 1979). Thus, changes resulting from this process are incremental and typically involve making minor adjustments to existing processes (Bartunek & Moch, 1987).
Edward Van Roy's Siamese melting pot: Ethnic minorities in the making of Bangkok is a tour de force and one of the most important books on the history of Bangkok and late-modern Thai history ever to be published. It is clearly written and presented, it provides excellent maps, and brings to light little-known sources and surprising facts about the history of the most iconic neighbourhoods in the city. It exposes the histories of various Muslim, Mon, Lao, Vietnamese, Chinese, European, Indian, and other communities in late Ayutthaya and Bangkok, as well as highlights various ways of seeing Bangkok as a feudal city, a vibrant port-city, or a galactic polity. Van Roy also reveals the complexities of defining ethnicity and class in Bangkok's changing neighbourhoods. In this review article I will look closely at two issues Van Roy exposes that need some theoretical and critical interrogation: the ‘galactic polity/mandala’, and ‘ethnicity’. Then I will provide a short vignette about the Chettiar community in Bangkok and the idea of Hinduism in Bangkok history that both supports and supplements Van Roy's excellent research. I write this not to discount or criticise Van Roy's monumental achievement, but because I believe a book this important to the field deserves serious attention and engagement.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To assess the efficacy of exogenous administration of MSCs in animal models of HIE. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Adhering to the Systematic Review Protocol for Animal Intervention Studies, a systematic search of English articles was performed using MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Google Scholar. Search term items included mesenchymal stem/stromal cell, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, asphyxia, cerebral ischemia, and neonatology. We selected randomized and nonrandomized studies that examined in vivo neonatal models of induced HIE. We excluded studies that combined MSCs with an adjunct therapy. Data were collected on study specifics, MSC characteristics, and outcome measurements. The primary outcome was efficacy of MSC treatment, assessed by functional neurologic measures (cognitive, motor, sensory). Risk of bias was assessed using the SYRCLE’s risk of bias tool and we used the ARRIVE guidelines to describe the quality of study reporting. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: A total of 17 preclinical publications focusing on MSC therapy for HIE met our inclusion criteria. Fifteen of the studies (88%) induced HIE in rodents by ligating the common carotid artery followed by a period of hypoxic exposure. Nine (53%) studies derived their MSCs from rodent bone marrow, whereas the other investigators provided xenografts from human bone marrow or umbilical cord-derived MSCs. Range of MSC dose was between 0.25 and 3.5× 106 cells with 71% of the experiments transplanting the MSCs intranasally or intracerebral. Three studies (18%) administered multiple doses. The cylinder rearing test was the most common (73%) sensorimotor functional outcome performed in the first month following the establishment of HIE. All studies demonstrated a reduction in asymmetrical paw preference after receiving MSC therapy. Lesional size was assessed, using neuroimaging or histologic evaluations, and the majority of studies showed a decreased insult following MSC therapy. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: MSC treatment demonstrates improved functional and structural outcomes that are encouraging for future translational studies.
Ternary Fe-Co-Si B20 phase structure was formed by implanting Fe and Co ions consecutively into Si(100) substrate at 50 keV energy, each with a fluence of 1.0 × 1017 atoms/cm2 and post-thermal vacuum annealing at 500 oC for 60 minutes. An in-situ magnetic field was used to enhance the formation of the ternary phase in the Si substrate during the implantation process. The magnetic field of 0.05 T was applied perpendicular to the incoming ion beam direction and parallel to the substrate surface to form elongated clusters in the transverse direction of the sample. Prior to the implantation of ions, the implant ions depth profiles were simulated using a dynamic ion-solid interaction code (TRIDYN). The TRIDYN simulation predicted a saturation in the peak concentration of the Fe and Co ions at a fluence of 1.0 × 1017 atoms/cm2. XPS measurement at the peak concentration depth (40 nm) showed the presence of Fe (23 %) and Co (32 %) in the Si matrix. XRD characterization confirmed the presence of stable Fe-Co-Si B20 phase structure in the annealed samples implanted with the in-situ magnetic field.
Among the first to give serious attention to the use of discipline as an educational tool was Philippe Aries in Centuries of Childhood. Aries believes the systematic application of discipline in schools and colleges was a crucial factor in the transition from medieval to modern education. While others who have investigated student life during the fourteenth to eighteenth centuries have not accorded discipline such an important role, scholars such as Rashdall, Rait, Thorndike and Mullinger have acknowledged its anecdotal utility for conveying the style and flavor of education at a given institution. A midpoint in assessing the importance and meaning of student discipline is to view it as that part of the educative process whose form and function reflect the values and attitudes concerning student conduct that are held by the educational authorities of the time. The present paper is written in this latter vein in an attempt to understand the use of a particular form of discipline, namely corporal punishment, in light of the circumstances at a specific institution, Harvard College, during its founding century.
Most historical descriptions of the relationship between tutors and students in early American higher education have tended to emphasize elements of consensus and community. Historians such as Morison and Smith have suggested that the relationship was basically close and cordial, characterized by shared values and fostered by the small, homogeneous nature of the institution. While not discounting the basic validity of this description, current research has begun to examine what one scholar has characterized as the “rising curve of collective student disorder.” By focusing on conflict as opposed to consensus new insights are provided about collegiate institutions, their modes of reaction to and acceptance of change, and a truer picture of their effectiveness as agents of society emerges. Moreover, by this approach students themselves must be taken seriously as more than passive recipients but rather as a force in their own right of institutional and even societal change.
Increasingly, archaeological research in Amazonia is revealing complex precolonial occupation in areas around riverine confluences. In 2014, the first site-based archaeological investigations were undertaken in Gurupá, Pará, Brazil, a municipality that spans the region of the Xingu-Amazon confluence. The Portuguese controlled access to Amazonia from 1623 onward through a network of settlements organized around Gurupá. Results from extensive excavations of terra preta sites, landscape archaeology, and analysis of ceramic evidence suggest that this was also a precolonial crossroads. Carrazedo, once a booming historical town (Arapijó), sits atop a significantly larger terra preta site. Excavations in historical and precolonial sectors of Carrazedo found well-preserved remains, including a precolonial house terrace complex. The extent of terra preta and earthworks at Carrazedo indicate that the precolonial occupation was more intensive than the colonial-historical period occupation. Regional survey revealed colonial-historical period sites consistently overlying expansive precolonial sites, the density and extent of which suggest a major precolonial center at the Xingu-Amazon confluence. Overall, ecological and landscape modifications appear to have been more intense in the precolonial past than during later periods. Short- and long-distance settlement networks also differed during the two periods. This as-of-yet understudied region promises to shed new light on deep-time human-environment interactions and spatial organization in the humid tropics of Amazonia.
This work reports the growth of crystalline SrHfxTi1−xO3 (SHTO) films on Ge (001) substrates by atomic layer deposition. Samples were prepared with different Hf content x to explore if strain, from tensile (x = 0) to compressive (x = 1), affected film crystallization temperature and how composition affected properties. Amorphous films grew at 225 °C and crystallized into epitaxial layers at annealing temperatures that varied monotonically with composition from ~530 °C (x = 0) to ~660 °C (x = 1). Transmission electron microscopy revealed abrupt interfaces. Electrical measurements revealed 0.1 A/cm2 leakage current at 1 MV/cm for x = 0.55.
In June of 2015, the U.S. Supreme Court decided Obergefell v. Hodges. To say that decision represents a seismic shift in law as it pertains to homosexuals and homosexuality is an understatement. In Obergefell, Justice Kennedy crafted a majority decision that granted to gay and lesbian couples a fundamental right to marry, and stated unequivocally that laws which prohibit marriage or recognition of out-of-state marriages violate the dignity and humanity of same sex couples and their families. Obergefell is closely related to two other decisions authored by Justice Kennedy, Lawrence v. Texas and United States v. Windsor. In this trifecta of cases, Justice Kennedy authored three decisions that recognized the humanity and legal personage of homosexuals, finally granting a right to privacy (Lawrence), equality in allocation of federal rights (Windsor), and the fundamental right to marry (Obergefell). Without Lawrence, neither Windsor nor Obergefell would have turned out as they did. Justice Scalia was correct when he opined that the confluence of Lawrence and Windsor would open the door to marriage equality for the lesbian and gay community.
In all three opinions written by Justice Kennedy, he focuses on the idea that constitutional protections in the Fourteenth Amendment are grounded in conceptions of dignity of the individual and of the collective. The thread that ties or links liberty and equality is the dignity and self-worth of the individual. Dignity is not merely a moral canon but a legal principle embedded in conceptions of liberty and equality. Thus, legal personage is a reflection of this canon and principle.
IS SEXUAL AUTONOMY A FEMINIST SILVER BULLET?
In the re-write of the Lawrence opinion, Professor Ruthann Robson, writing as Justice Robson, rejects the theoretical construct deployed by Justice Kennedy. She raises an important concern; how do we define or unpack “dignity”? Simply put, she asks what is the meaning of dignity and does dignity provide the foundation for liberty and equality embedded in the Fourteenth Amendment. However, rather than interrogate the relationship between liberty and equality and conceptions of human dignity, Robson employs a different theory, that of sexual autonomy.
Sexual autonomy qua sexual autonomy as a philosophical concept or legal right has been seriously contested by feminist philosophers. Diane Teitjens Meyers and Marilyn Friedman examine conceptions of autonomy espoused or posited by philosophers such as John Rawls and Immanuel Kant.
The integration of dissimilar materials is highly desirable for many different types of device applications but often challenging to achieve in practice. The unrivalled imaging capabilities of the aberration-corrected electron microscope enable enhanced insights to be gained into the atomic arrangements across heterostructured interfaces. This paper provides an overview of our recent observations of oxide-semiconductor heterostructures using aberration-corrected high-angle annular-dark-field and large-angle bright-field imaging modes. The perovskite oxides studied include strontium titanate, barium titanate, and strontium hafnate, which were grown on Si(001) and/or Ge(001) substrates using the techniques of molecular-beam epitaxy or atomic-layer deposition. The oxide layers displayed excellent crystallinity and sharp, abrupt interfaces were observed with no sign of any amorphous interfacial layers. The Ge(001) substrate surfaces invariably showed both 1× and 2× periodicity consistent with preservation of the 2 × 1 surface reconstruction following oxide growth. Overall, the results augur well for the future development of functional oxide-based devices integrated on semiconductor substrates.
Wilhelm Friedrich Georg Roscher (1817–94) is generally remembered as a significant nineteenth-century German political economist and a contributor to the “German historical school of economics.” His work is usually placed in the context of a larger narrative about the development of economic thought. Yet intellectual historians have rarely noticed that, for Roscher, Staatswirthschaft or Nationalökonomie were subordinate to a larger science of politics, and few have engaged with the substance of his political thought (as opposed to his economics). The aim of this article is to provide an interpretation of Roscher as a political thinker, focusing especially on his account of the modern European state between the 1840s and the 1890s. In particular, it explores Roscher's concern that nineteenth-century Europe's economically advanced societies, characterized by an unstable combination of democratic sovereignty, deep socio-economic inequality and a centralized state apparatus, would soon find themselves at the mercy of “military tyranny” or “Caesarism.” It underlines the ways in which Roscher's preoccupation with ancient history fed into his estimation of nineteenth-century politics, and also examines his comparative assessment of democracy's prospects in Britain, France and the United States.
The construct validity of situational judgment tests (SJTs) is a “hot mess.” The suggestions of Lievens and Motowidlo (2016) concerning a strategy to make the constructs assessed by an SJT more “clear and explicit” (p. 5) are worthy of serious consideration. In this commentary, we highlight two challenges that will likely need to be addressed before one can develop SJTs with clear and explicit constructs. We also offer critiques of four positions presented by Lievens and Motowidlo that are not well supported by evidence.
The attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001 and subsequent military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq created a sharp increase in expressions of national pride and the invocation of “nation” in political discourse. Using the 1996 and 2004 General Social Surveys, we document these changing patterns of national pride, and ask how they affect conceptions of national identity. We report three main findings. First, the data corroborate the conventional wisdom that there was a greater expression of national pride than before September 11, 2001. Second, conceptions of American national identity became more nativist. Finally, the conventionally accepted distinction between patriots and nationalists has shrunk; patriots, like nationalists, are more likely to express nativist conceptions of national identity during a time of threat than they were pre-9/11. Our findings have important implications for research on group identification and national identity formation.