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There is an old adage in paediatric cardiology that, despite the high prevalence and wide spectrum of CHD, transposition of the great arteries does not occur in trisomy 21. We present a case of transposition of the great arteries, ventricular septal defect, and pulmonary stenosis in a patient with trisomy 21.
We focus on an active continental margin related to northwards subduction during the Eocene in which sedimentary melange (‘olistostromes’) forms a key component. Maastrichtian – Early Eocene deep-marine carbonates and volcanic rocks pass gradationally upwards into a thick succession (<800 m) of gravity deposits, exposed in several thrust sheets. The lowest levels are mainly siliciclastic turbidites and debris-flow deposits. Interbedded marls contain Middle Eocene planktonic/benthic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils. Sandstones include abundant ophiolite-derived grains. The higher levels are chaotic debris-flow deposits that include exotic blocks of Late Palaeozoic – Mesozoic neritic limestone and dismembered ophiolite-related rocks. A thinner sequence (<200 m) in one area contains abundant redeposited Paleogene pelagic limestone and basalt. Chemical analysis of basaltic clasts shows that some are subduction influenced. Basaltic clasts from unconformably overlying alluvial conglomerates (Late Eocene – Oligocene) indicate derivation from a supra-subduction zone ophiolite, including boninites. Taking account of regional comparisons, the sedimentary melange is interpreted to have formed within a flexurally controlled foredeep, floored by continental crust. Gravity flows including large limestone blocks, multiple debris flows and turbidites were emplaced, followed by southwards thrust imbrication. The emplacement was possibly triggered by the final closure of an oceanic basin to the north (Alanya Ocean). Further convergence between the African and Eurasian plates was accommodated by northwards subduction beneath the Kyrenia active continental margin. Subduction zone rollback may have triggered collapse of the active continental margin. Non-marine to shallow-marine alluvial fans prograded southwards during Late Eocene – Oligocene time, marking the base of a renewed depositional cycle that lasted until latest Miocene time.
New age data from Sr isotope analysis and both planktonic foraminifera and nannofossils are presented and discussed here for the Upper Eocene–Upper Miocene sedimentary rocks of the Değirmenlik (Kythrea) Group. New dating is also given of some Cretaceous and Pliocene sediments. In a revised stratigraphy the Değirmenlik (Kythrea) Group is divided into ten formations. Different Upper Miocene formations are developed to the north and south of a regionally important, E–W-trending syn-sedimentary fault. The samples were dated wherever possible by three independent methods, namely utilizing Sr isotopes, calcareous nannofossils and planktonic foraminifera. Some of the Sr isotopic dates are incompatible with the nannofossil and/or the planktonic foraminiferal dates. This is mainly due to reworking within gravity-deposited or current-affected sediments. When combined, the reliable age data allow an overall biostratigraphy and chronology to be erected. Several of the boundaries of previously defined formations are revised. Sr data that are incompatible with well-constrained biostratigraphical ages are commonly of Early Miocene age. This is attributed to a regional uplift event located to the east of Cyprus, specifically the collision of the Anatolian (Eurasian) and Arabian (African) plates during Early Miocene time. This study, therefore, demonstrates that analytically sound Sr isotopic ages can yield geologically misleading ages, particularly where extensive sediment reworking has occurred. Convincing ages are obtained when isotopic dating is combined with as many forms of biostratigraphical dating as possible, and this may also reveal previously unsuspected geological events (e.g. tectonic uplift or current activity).
To report trends in underweight, overweight and obesity in 12–15-year-old adolescents and examine changes in dieting behaviour, which have been less well documented.
Comparison of two independent representative cross-sectional surveys.
Weight and height were objectively measured in 1324 boys and 1160 girls in 1996 and 1274 boys and 1374 girls in 2007. Participants reported whether they were following any particular diet including a self-proposed or prescribed weight-reduction diet.
Overweight and obesity increased in girls from 15 % to 23 % and 2 % to 6 %, respectively. Increases were more modest in boys with overweight increasing from 13 % to 18 % and obesity from 3 % to 6 %. The proportion of underweight adolescents decreased from 9 % to 6 % in girls and 8 % to 5 % in boys. Evidence of social disparity was observed in girls from a manual socio-economic background, with overweight/obesity prevalence rates increasing from 21 % to 36 % compared with 15 % to 26 % in girls from a non-manual background. Despite these trends fewer adolescents, in particular girls, reported following weight-reduction diets (14 % of overweight/obese girls in 2007 v. 21 % in 1996; 8 % of boys in 2007 v. 13 % in 1996). Of these girls, the proportion from a manual background following weight-reduction diets decreased from 25 % to 11 %.
Overweight and obesity are continuing to increase in adolescents despite government and media awareness strategies. There also appears to be reduced dieting behaviour, despite increasing body weight, particularly in girls from manual socio-economic backgrounds.
This paper presents a series of measurements documenting changes in electrical and optical properties of thin palladium films. Palladium is deposited on the glass surface through plasma-assisted physical vapor deposition. This process produces highly uniform films with a surface variation of a few nanometers. The thicknesses of studied films range from 15 to 60 nm. The films are exposed to a constant flow of 2% hydrogen and 98% nitrogen mixture. During the exposure, film resistivity and its reflection properties in visible light were monitored. It is observed that the change in the film resistance during the hydrogen exposure depends on the film thickness. In particular, thicker depositions exhibit larger relative changes of the resistance. The reflectivity of the films in the white light changes during the hydrogen exposure as well. However, the change of the film reflectivity is observed to be independent of the deposition thickness. This paper presents observed measurements, their quantitative analysis and briefly discusses the use of findings in development of low-cost, single-use commercial grade hydrogen sensors.
Two important new directions in resource and environmental management are increased reliance on market mechanisms on the one hand, and on greater participation by local communities on the other. In fisheries, market-based management is found mainly in the “cap-and-trade” systems known as individual transferable quotas (ITQs). ITQs are effective in achieving certain economic goals but often with undesirable social costs, leading to the view that they are antithetical to community-based management. However, ITQ systems have been adapted to mitigate community losses. In addition, social resistance to ITQs has encouraged the development of innovative programs in community-based fisheries management.
The microstructural changes and the tensile behavior of laser processed A356-Al alloy matrix composites reinforced with 10 and 20 vol.% SiC particulates are characterized. The autogenous bead-on-plate welds were made using a pulsed CO2 laser operating at a peak power level of 3.2 kW. The pulse on-time was constant at 20 ms and the off-time was varied from 20 to 2 ms (duty cycles of 50–91%). The microstructure of the laser melted region was investigated by optical, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray microchemical analysis techniques. The extent of microstructural changes varied directly with duty cycle, i.e., being a maximum for the longest (91%) duty cycles. Pulsed laser processing produced partial to complete dissolution of SiC particles and sometimes resulted in the formation of aluminum carbide. The associated rapid cooling also produced a fine distribution of nonequilibrium complex precipitates. In addition, the laser energy modified the SiC surface both physically and chemically. The results of tensile tests indicated that the modified SiC and the distribution of fine nonequilibrium precipitates enhance the mechanical properties of the laser processed composites. Optimum changes in microstructure and mechanical properties were obtained in the composites processed with intermediate (67 and 74%) duty cycles; therefore pulsed processing appears to be a strong candidate for successful joining of these MMCs.
When our mutual life companies began their business in 1843, they had no American table of mortality to guide them in determining the premiums of insurance that ought to be charged at the different periods of life. There were no American statistics public or private, good, bad, or indifferent, to which they could refer, except the mortuary reports of cities, and these were so imperfect and unreliable as to be utterly useless, except to encourage the opinion that the chances of long life were about the same here as in the countries from which our people had emigrated. It was known that the numbers of the dying, as reported by our city registers, were below the real deaths; that the ages were full of errors; that the boundaries of the mortuary limits were constantly changing; that residents of the city were often buried in the country, and sometimes country people were interred in town; that the population was fluctuating; that the immigration from the rural districts and from foreign countries was large and irregular; that the census of the population, whether taken by the United States, or by the states, or by the cities themselves, was full of errors; that the ages of the living, both among males and females, were wrongly reported, sometimes intentionally, but always carelessly and thoughtlessly; and that these errors in the numbers and ages of the people and of the deaths were so numerous that no confidence could be placed in the ratio of the living and the dying at any particular age, while this ratio at all ages is an indispensable element in determining the proper premiums to be charged in any of the contracts made by our life companies.
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