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Over the centuries, Spanish historiography has attached great importance to the wars that Octavian launched at the start of the last third of the 1st c. B.C. against the population in the north of the Iberian peninsula. In this way he intended to bring an end to the long conquest of Iberia that had begun two centuries earlier in the hegemonic struggle with Carthage. Although the wars previously attracted the attention of European scholars, today they play little part in the historiography of the Early Roman Empire and even less in the biographies of Augustus, who suffered some of his worst military fortunes in this war, putting his very life in danger (Suet., Aug. 29.3 and 81.1; Hor., Carm. 3.14; Dio 53.25.5-7; Oros. 6.21.4). Even Departments of Ancient History in Spanish universities have failed to progress beyond well-worn exegesis of the written sources. This is because until just two decades ago all the information came from two historical sources: Florus and Orosius, on the one hand, and Dio Cassius, on the other (the relevant books of Livy being lost). Although they stress the importance of the conflict, these sources are excessively laconic; they have also been subjected to erudite speculations about place-names that have turned the military campaigns into a series of historiographic fictions.1
The modern antiquities market uses radiocarbon (14C) dating to screen for forged objects. Although this fact shows the potential and power of the method, the circumstances where it is applied can be questionable and call for our attention. Here we present an outline of a call to radiocarbon laboratories for due diligence and best practice approaches to the analysis of antique objects requested by non-research clients.
Unaccusative verbs have been the object of much study and research, especially regarding the causative alternation. While there have been many studies that analyze the causative alternation or the nature of the aspectual properties of the clitic se in Romance languages (see for example, Alexiadou et al., 2015; Basilico, 2010; De Cuyper, 2006; Kempchinsky, 2004; Nishida, 1994; Schäfer, 2008; Zagona, 1996), there are not many which provide a uniform account for the distribution of the clitics with the different types of unaccusative verbs in Spanish as a whole, whether they participate or not in the causative alternation. This chapter provides a uniform account for all unaccusative verbs in Spanish, and analyzes the distribution of obligatory PPs and clitics. The analysis adopted here is based on Hale & Keyser’s (2002) model, as developed in Zubizarreta & Oh (2007), which is summarized in Section 3.2, and Mayoral Hernández (2008, 2010).
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is common in patients diagnosed with advanced cancer (AC), with a prevalence of 16.5%. It is associated with great disability and worsened quality of life, increased number and intensity of physical symptoms, and lower survival. It is the main factor for the presence of suicidal ideation. Antidepressants show modest efficacy, and response requires several weeks. Ketamine has demonstrated a fast and robust antidepressant effect in subanesthetic doses. This effect may prove useful in patients with AC, MDD, and suicidal risk.
We report a case of a patient with advanced cervical cancer who presented with uncontrollable pain, MDD, and a suicide attempt.
A 39-year-old woman diagnosed with cervical cancer stage IVB presented to the Emergency Department after a suicide attempt by hanging. Upon evaluation by the palliative care psychiatrist, she reported intense pain, unresponsive to analgesics, and had a history of persistent suicidal ideation. Antidepressant treatment was started (sertraline 50mg/d) after a single dose of ketamine hydrochloride IV (0.5 mg/kg) was administered. Treatment response was measured using the Brief Edinburgh Depression Scale before and after the intervention. The depressive symptoms decreased by 17% on day 1, 39% on day 3, and 72% on day 17.
Significance of results
This case report shows ketamine's efficacy as an augmentation agent alongside conventional antidepressant treatment in patients with AC. Moreover, it shows rapid response in suicidal ideation that has not been achieved with treatment as usual. More clinical trials are needed to support the potential benefit and safety of ketamine in patients with AC, MDD, and persisting suicidal ideation.
We explore the ability of anisotropic permeable substrates to reduce turbulent skin friction, studying the influence that these substrates have on the overlying turbulence. For this, we perform direct numerical simulations of channel flows bounded by permeable substrates. The results confirm theoretical predictions, and the resulting drag curves are similar to those of riblets. For small permeabilities, the drag reduction is proportional to the difference between the streamwise and spanwise permeabilities. This linear regime breaks down for a critical value of the wall-normal permeability, beyond which the performance begins to degrade. We observe that the degradation is associated with the appearance of spanwise-coherent structures, attributed to a Kelvin–Helmholtz-like instability of the mean flow. This feature is common to a variety of obstructed flows, and linear stability analysis can be used to predict it. For large permeabilities, these structures become prevalent in the flow, outweighing the drag-reducing effect of slip and eventually leading to an increase of drag. For the substrate configurations considered, the largest drag reduction observed is
20–25 % at a friction Reynolds number
Direct numerical simulations of turbulent channels with rough walls are conducted in the transitionally rough regime. The effect that roughness produces on the overlying turbulence is studied using a modified triple decomposition of the flow. This decomposition separates the roughness-induced contribution from the background turbulence, with the latter essentially free of any texture footprint. For small roughness, the background turbulence is not significantly altered, but merely displaced closer to the roughness crests, with the change in drag being proportional to this displacement. As the roughness size increases, the background turbulence begins to be modified, notably by the increase of energy for short, wide wavelengths, which is consistent with the appearance of a shear-flow instability of the mean flow. A laminar model is presented to estimate the roughness-coherent contribution, as well as the displacement height and the velocity at the roughness crests. Based on the effects observed in the background turbulence, the roughness function is decomposed into different terms to analyse different contributions to the change in drag, laying the foundations for a predictive model.
Evidence of herbivory on Laurasian Nymphaeaceae leaves from Lower Cretaceous (Upper Albian) deposits is presented for the first time. The types of damage on leaves consist of both hole feeding and margin feeding, which were found on foliar remains of the taxa Ploufolia cerciforme and Aquatifolia cf. fluitans. Within the first category of damage, the Damage Type 78 (DT78) type on Ploufolia leaves and type DT02 on Aquatifolia foliar lamina were recorded. The second category of damage has only been identified in Ploufolia leaves, and it corresponds to type DT12. The subsequent palaeoichnologic interpretation made it possible to compare these records with damage caused by the extant water lily pest to make a possible palaeoecological interpretation.
Superhydrophobic surfaces are able to entrap gas pockets in between surface roughness elements when submerged in water. These entrapped gas pockets give these surfaces the potential to reduce drag due to the overlying flow being able to locally slip over the gas pockets, resulting in a mean slip at the surface. In this work we assess the separate effects that surface slip and surface texture have on turbulence over superhydrophobic surfaces. We show that the direct effect of surface slip does not modify the dynamics of the overlying turbulence, which remains canonical or smooth-wall like. The surface drag is governed by the difference between two virtual origins, the virtual origin of the mean flow and the virtual origin experienced by the overlying turbulence, in an extension of the theory from Luchini, Manzo & Pozzi (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 228, 1991, pp. 87–109) for riblets. Streamwise slip deepens the virtual origin of the mean flow, while spanwise slip deepens the virtual origin perceived by the overlying turbulence. Drag reduction is then proportional to the difference between the two virtual origins. We decompose the near-wall flow into background-turbulence and texture-coherent components, and show that the background-turbulence component experiences the surface as homogeneous slip lengths. The validity of the slip-length model can then be extended to larger texture size
than thought in previous studies. For
, however, we observe that a nonlinear interaction with the texture-coherent flow develops that alters the dynamics of the background turbulence, exhibiting a modified distribution of turbulent energy across length scales. This has the effect of reducing the velocity increment
compared to that predicted using homogeneous slip lengths and sets the upper limit of applicability of slip-length models.
Depression in palliative advanced cancer patients is common, but often goes unrecognized. One of the first steps toward improving detection is the development of tools that are valid in the specific language and setting in which they are to be used. The Brief Edinburgh Depression Scale (BEDS) is a sensitive case-finding tool for depression in advanced cancer patients that was developed in the United Kingdom. There are no validated instruments to identify depression in Mexican palliative patients. Our aim was to validate the Spanish-language version of the BEDS in Mexican population with advanced cancer.
We conducted a cross-sectional study with outpatients from the palliative care unit at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología in Mexico City. The Mexican BEDS was validated against a semistructured psychiatric clinical interview according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, classification criteria for major depressive disorder. The interviewer was blind to the BEDS score at the time of the assessment.
Seventy subjects completed the scale and interview. Women represented 71.4% of the sample and median age of subjects was 56.5 years (range, 20–85 years). The prevalence of major depressive disorder according to the psychiatric interview was 20%. The most valid cutoff for defining a case of depression was a score ≥5 of 18 on the Mexican BEDS, which gave a sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 62.5%. The scale's Cronbach's alpha was 0.71.
Significance of results
Major depressive disorder is frequent in Mexican palliative patients. The Spanish-language Mexican version of the BEDS is the first valid case-finding tool in advanced cancer patients in this setting.
Throughout the tropics, hunting and fishing are critical livelihood activities for many Indigenous peoples. However, these practices may not be sustainable following recent socio-economic changes in Indigenous populations. To understand how human population growth and increased market integration affect hunting and fishing patterns, we conducted semi-structured interviews in five Kukama-Kukamilla communities living along the boundary of the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve, in the Peruvian Amazon. Extrapolated annual harvest rates of fish and game species by these communities amounted to 1,740 t and 4,275 individuals (67 t), respectively. At least 23 fish and 27 game species were harvested. We found a positive correlation between village size and annual community-level harvest rates of fish and a negative relationship between market exposure and mean per-capita harvest rates of fish. Catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) analyses indicated local depletion of fish populations around larger, more commercial communities. Catch-per-unit-effort of fish was lower in more commercial communities and fishers from the largest village travelled further into the Reserve, where CPUE was higher. We found no effect of village size or market exposure on harvest rates or CPUE of game species. However, larger, more commercial communities targeted larger, economically valuable species. This study provides evidence that human population growth and market-driven hunting and fishing pose a growing threat to wildlife and Indigenous livelihoods through increased harvest rates and selective harvesting of species vulnerable to exploitation.
There is an increasing interest in the generation of well-defined nanoparticles (NPs) not only because of their size-related particular properties, but also because they are promising building blocks for more complex materials in nanotechnology.
Here, we will shortly introduce the gas-phase synthesis technology that has evolved rapidly in the last years and allows the fabrication of complex NPs with controllable and tuneable chemical composition and structure while keeping very good control over the size distribution. We will also address some limitations of the technology (stability over time, production yield, etc.) and discuss possible solutions.
This chapter gives an original response to one of the central questions asked in this book: to what extent does the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) impact domestic political and legal systems and what are its implications? More specifically, how might the CJEU increase the impact of its rulings and legal mandates in national judiciaries and legal systems? This question is crucial if we understand that national courts are the key decentralised enforcers of the European Union (EU) law responsible for ensuring the effectiveness of EU law and the rulings and mandates imposed by the Court. EU scholars have already offered several legalist and institutionalist responses to why national courts participate in this process of legal integration in the EU and, most importantly, why they follow the mandates and rulings from the CJEU. This chapter innovates in this regard by introducing trust between judges as a new mechanism for enhancing the cooperation and compliance by national courts with the CJEU jurisprudence and EU legal mandates. The chapter describes the conditions under which national judges trust the CJEU to identify how the Court can promote trust in its role as a supreme adjudicator in the EU law system.
Dipetalonema caudispina (Molin, 1858) and D. gracile (Rudolphi, 1809) (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae) are two of six known species of filarial nematodes that parasitize Neotropical non-human primates. Adult filariae were collected from the thoracic and abdominal cavities of 38 of 44 specimens of Sapajus macrocephalus (Spix, 1823) and nine of ten specimens of Cebus albifrons (Humboldt, 1812) (Primates: Cebidae), distributed in the Yavarí-Mirín river basin and used locally for human consumption. Co-occurrence of D. caudispina and D. gracile is reported for the first time, with a prevalence of 18.5% (10 of 54 hosts examined). Our finding of D. caudispina and D. gracile in cebids from the Peruvian Amazon constitutes a new geographical record for both filariae, two new host records for D. caudispina, and the first report of D. gracile in S. macrocephalus. In addition, we provide morphometric data for D. caudispina, complementing the original description, as well as scanning electron microscopy details on the structure of the area rugosa and number of caudal papillae in males.
We conduct minimal-channel direct numerical simulations of turbulent flow over two-dimensional rectangular bars aligned in the spanwise direction. This roughness has often been described as
-type, as the roughness function
is thought to depend only on the outer-layer length scale (pipe diameter, channel half-height or boundary layer thickness). This is in contrast to conventional engineering rough surfaces, named
-type, for which
depends on the roughness height,
. The minimal-span rough-wall channel is used to circumvent the high cost of simulating high Reynolds number flows, enabling a range of bars with varying aspect ratios to be investigated. The present results show that increasing the trough-to-crest height,
, of the roughness while keeping the width between roughness bars,
, fixed in viscous units, results in non-
-type behaviour although this does not necessarily indicate
-type behaviour. Instead, for deep surfaces with
, the roughness function appears to depend only on
in viscous units. In these situations, the flow no longer has any information about how deep the roughness is and instead can only ‘see’ the width of the fluid gap between the bars.
Superhydrophobic surfaces can retain gas pockets within their microscale textures when submerged in water. This property reduces direct contact between water and solid surfaces and presents opportunities for improving hydrodynamic performance by decreasing viscous drag. In most realistic applications, however, the flow regime is turbulent and retaining the gas pockets is a challenge. In order to overcome this challenge, it is crucial to develop an understanding of physical mechanisms that can lead to the failure of superhydrophobic surfaces in retaining gas pockets when the overlying liquid flow is turbulent. We present a study of the onset of failure in gas retention by analysing direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces coupled with the deformation of air–water interfaces that hold the gas pockets. The superhydrophobic surfaces are modelled as periodic textures with patterned slip and no-slip boundary conditions on the overlying water flow. The liquid–gas interface is modelled via a linearized Young–Laplace equation, which is solved coupled with the overlying turbulent flow. A wide range of texture sizes and interfacial Weber numbers are considered in this study. Our analysis identifies flow-induced upstream-travelling capillary waves that are coherent in the spanwise direction as one mechanism for failure in retention of gas pockets. To confirm physical understanding of these waves, a semianalytical inviscid linear analysis is developed; the wave speeds obtained from the space–time correlations in the DNS data were found to match with the predictions of the semianalytical model. The magnitude of the pressure fluctuations due to these waves was found to increase with decreasing surface tension, and increase with a much stronger dependence on the slip velocity, when all numbers are reported in wall units. Based on a fitted scaling, a threshold criterion for the failure of superhydrophobic surfaces is developed that is based on estimates of the onset condition required for the motion of contact lines. The second contribution of this work is the development of boundary maps that identify stable and unstable zones in a parameter space consisting of working parameter and design parameters including texture size and material contact angle. We provide a brief description of previously identified failure modes of superhydrophobic surfaces, namely the stagnation pressure and shear-driven drainage mechanisms. In an overlay map, the stable and unstable zones due to each mechanism are presented. For various input conditions, we provide scaling laws that identify the most critical mechanism limiting the stability of gas retention by superhydrophobic surfaces.