To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), the cryogenic infrared space telescope recently pre-selected for a ‘Phase A’ concept study as one of the three remaining candidates for European Space Agency (ESA's) fifth medium class (M5) mission, is foreseen to include a far-infrared polarimetric imager [SPICA-POL, now called B-fields with BOlometers and Polarizers (B-BOP)], which would offer a unique opportunity to resolve major issues in our understanding of the nearby, cold magnetised Universe. This paper presents an overview of the main science drivers for B-BOP, including high dynamic range polarimetric imaging of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in both our Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Thanks to a cooled telescope, B-BOP will deliver wide-field 100–350
m images of linearly polarised dust emission in Stokes Q and U with a resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and both intensity and spatial dynamic ranges comparable to those achieved by Herschel images of the cold ISM in total intensity (Stokes I). The B-BOP 200
m images will also have a factor
30 higher resolution than Planck polarisation data. This will make B-BOP a unique tool for characterising the statistical properties of the magnetised ISM and probing the role of magnetic fields in the formation and evolution of the interstellar web of dusty molecular filaments giving birth to most stars in our Galaxy. B-BOP will also be a powerful instrument for studying the magnetism of nearby galaxies and testing Galactic dynamo models, constraining the physics of dust grain alignment, informing the problem of the interaction of cosmic rays with molecular clouds, tracing magnetic fields in the inner layers of protoplanetary disks, and monitoring accretion bursts in embedded protostars.
Psychiatric disorders are often considered the leading cause of violence. This may be due to a stereotype created by media and general opinion.
The Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) was used to evaluate the severity of aggressive and violent behaviors in 400 patients who attended a post-acute psychiatric service in Milan from 2014 to 2016 and suffered from different psychiatric disorders. The psychopathological clinical picture was evaluated by Clinical Global Impression (CGI). The study also assessed the possible correlation between epidemiologic and sociodemographic factors, clinical variables, and aggression and violence.
Of the total number of subjects, 21.50% showed a MOAS score >0, 11.50% presented mild aggression (0–10 MOAS weighted score), 9% moderate aggression (11–20), and 1% severe aggression (MOAS >20). With respect to violent behaviors, 16% of patients showed a score >0 in one MOAS subscale other than verbal aggression according to violence definition. The severity of clinical picture seemed to be related to higher weighted MOAS score. Multivariate testing of different sociodemographic and clinical variables showed that violence was related to unemployment status, and significantly correlated to compulsory admission (TSO), suicide attempts (TS), and personality disorders, while the severity of clinical psychiatric picture seemed to play a secondary role.
Results have shown that personality disorders and sociodemographic factors, including economic factors, seem to be major determinants of violence among patients diagnosed with mental disorders.
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of domestic violence (DV) on women and their children. The records of women who were admitted to one of two types of shelter (an emergency shelter [n = 834] and a medium-long stay shelter [n = 84]) for victims of DV in Bizkaia (Spain) from 2006–2015 were analyzed. The results showed that up to 80% of the women had mental health problems. In about 20% of cases, a problematic mother-child relationship was identified. Inadequate parenting was present in around 35% of cases. Around 80–90% of the children had witnessed the abuse suffered by their mother, and more than half had been direct victims of some type of abuse. The findings point to actions that shelters can take to address the needs of DV victims. They also highlight the need for separate interventions targeting the needs of children, as well as mothers.
This investigation surveyed the potential and established outcomes for future 19-passenger fixed-wing commuter transport aircraft concepts employing battery-based Voltaic-Joule/Brayton motive power systems with no additional electrical energy drawn from generators mechanically coupled to thermal engines. The morphological approach was that of a tri-prop (two on-wing podded turbo-props and one aft-fuselage mounted electric motor configured as a pusher-on-pylon installation). A Battery System-level Gravimetric Specific Energy (referred to as “battery energy density”) of at least 500 Wh/kg yielded 39%, 25% and 10% block fuel reductions for 150-nm (Design Service Goal), 430-nm (85th percentile) and 700-nm (maximum range) stage lengths, respectively. All quoted comparisons are against a suitably projected turbo-prop only year-2030 aircraft. In contrast to the reference Beech 1900D, block fuel reductions of up to 44-49% were predicted, which could facilitate a significantly lower deficit in relation to the Advisory Council for Aviation Research and Innovation in Europe (ACARE) Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda (STRIA) 55% target for year 2030. This investigation also indicated that, in the future, suitably flexible hybrid-electric architectures could be fashioned allowing possibility for the aircraft to complete any required city-pair operations (within the legitimate payload-range working capacity) irrespective of exchangeable batteries being available at a given station. Finally, it was also established, assuming such a tri-prop morphology, Normal conducting machines delivering maximum shaft power output of 1.1 MW would be required.
Over the last decade, DNA origami has matured into one of the most powerful bottom-up nanofabrication techniques. It enables both the fabrication of nanoparticles of arbitrary two-dimensional or three-dimensional shapes, and the spatial organization of any DNA-linked nanomaterial, such as carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, or proteins at ∼5-nm resolution. While widely used within the DNA nanotechnology community, DNA origami has yet to be broadly applied in materials science and device physics, which now rely primarily on top-down nanofabrication. In this article, we first introduce DNA origami as a modular breadboard for nanomaterials and then present a brief survey of recent results demonstrating the unique capabilities created by the combination of DNA origami with existing top-down techniques. Emphasis is given to the open challenges associated with each method, and we suggest potential next steps drawing inspiration from recent work in materials science and device physics. Finally, we discuss some near-term applications made possible by the marriage of DNA origami and top-down nanofabrication.
Structural DNA nanotechnology is revolutionizing the ways researchers construct arbitrary shapes and patterns in two and three dimensions on the nanoscale. Through Watson–Crick base pairing, DNA can be programmed to form nanostructures with high predictability, addressability, and yield. The ease with which structures can be designed and created has generated great interest for using DNA for a variety of metrology applications, such as in scanning probe microscopy and super-resolution imaging. An additional advantage of the programmable nature of DNA is that mechanisms for nanoscale metrology of the structures can be integrated within the DNA objects by design. This programmable structure–property relationship provides a powerful tool for developing nanoscale materials and smart rulers.
Blazar OJ287 exhibits large thermal flares at least twice every 12 years. The times of these flares have been predicted successfully using the model of a quasi-Keplerian eccentric black hole binary where the secondary impacts the accretion disk of the primary, creating the thermal flares. New measurements of the historical light curve have been combined with the observations of the 2015 November/December flare to identify the impact record since year 1886, and to constrain the orbit of the binary. The orbital solution shows that the binary period, now 12.062 years, is decreasing at the rate of 36 days per century. This corresponds to an energy loss to gravitational waves that is 6.5 ± 4 % less than the rate predicted by the standard quadrupolar gravitational wave (GW) emission. We show that the difference is due to higher order gravitational radiation reaction terms that include the dominant order tail contributions.
Observation of the terminus behavior of 38 North Cascade glaciers, Washington, U.S.A., since 1890 shows three different types of glacier response: (1) Continuous retreat from the Little Ice Age (LIA) advanced positions from 1890 to approximately 1950, followed by a period of advance from 1950 to 1976, and then retreat since 1976. (2) Rapid retreat from 1890 to approximately 1950, slow retreat or equilibrium from 1950 to 1976, and moderate to rapid retreat since 1976. (3) Continuous retreat from 1890 to the present.
Type 1 glaciers are notable for steeper slopes, extensive crevassing and higher terminusregion velocities. Type 2 glaciers have intermediate velocities, moderate crevassing and intermediate slopes. Type 3 glaciers have low slopes, modest crevassing and low terminusregion velocities. This indicates that the observed differences in the response time and terminus behavior of North Cascade glaciers in reaction to climate change are related to variations in specific characteristics of the glaciers. The response time is approximately 20–30 years on type 1 glaciers, 40–60 years on type 2 glaciers and a minimum of 60–100 years on type 3 glaciers. The high correlation in annual balance between North Cascade glaciers indicates that microclimates are not the key to differences in behavior. Instead it is the physical characteristics — slope, terminus velocity, thickness and accumulation rate — of the glacier that determine recent terminus behavior and response time. The delay between the onset of a mass-balance change and initiation of a noticeable change in terminus behavior has been observed on 21 glaciers to be 4–16 years. This initial response time applies to both positive and negative changes in mass balance.
Here we report a laboratory study of the effects of debris thickness, diurnally cyclic radiation and rainfall on melt rates beneath rock-avalanche debris and sand (representing typical highly permeable supraglacial debris). Under continuous, steady-state radiation, sand cover >50 mm thick delays the onset of ice-surface melting by >12 hours, but subsequent melting matches melt rates of a bare ice surface. Only when diurnal cycles of radiation are imposed does the debris reduce the longterm rate of ice melt beneath it. This is because debris >50 mm thick never reaches a steady-state heat flux, and heat acquired during the light part of the cycle is partially dissipated to the atmosphere during the nocturnal part of the cycle, thereby continuously reducing total heat flux to the ice surface underneath. The thicker the debris, the greater this effect. Rain advects heat from high-permeability supraglacial debris to the ice surface, thereby increasing ablation where thin, highly porous material covers the ice. In contrast, low-permeability rock-avalanche material slows water percolation, and heat transfer through the debris can cease when interstitial water freezes during the cold/night part of the cycle. This frozen interstitial water blocks heat advection to the ice–debris contact during the warm/day part of the cycle, thereby reducing overall ablation. The presence of metre-deep rock-avalanche debris over much of the ablation zone of a glacier can significantly affect the mass balance, and thus the motion, of a glacier. The length and thermal intensity of the diurnal cycle are important controls on ablation, and thus both geographical location and altitude significantly affect the impact of debris on glacial melting rates; the effect of debris cover is magnified at high altitude and in lower latitudes.
This study examined the role of community resilience and psychological resilience on depressive symptoms in areas on the Mississippi Gulf Coast that have experienced multiple disasters.
Survey administration took place in the spring of 2015 to a spatially stratified, random sample of households. This analysis included a total of 294 subjects who lived in 1 of the 3 counties of the Mississippi Gulf Coast at the time of both Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010. The survey included the Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) scale, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D).
There was a significant inverse relationship between psychological resilience and depressive symptoms and a significant positive relationship between community resilience and psychological resilience. The results also revealed that community resilience was indirectly related to depressive symptoms through the mediating variable of psychological resilience.
These findings highlight the importance of psychological resilience in long-term disaster recovery and imply that long-term recovery efforts should address factors associated with both psychological and community resilience to improve mental health outcomes. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:241–248)
Continuing a long project of investigations of the optical morphology of the M87 jet (see review in Nieto, 1983), we have obtained at the Cassegrainan focus of the CFH telescope in March 1983 three UV exposures with the wide-field electronographic camera (Lallemand et al., 1970). The aim was to achieve the same order of resolution as that of the photographic plates obtained by Nieto and Lelièvre (1982), but with a much higher signal to noise ratio.
Surveying the entire sky requires very efficient instrumentation, if the project has to be done in a relatively short period. In this is a review of the existing photographic surveys, it is demonstrated that photography, because of its very large format, is still the best existing technique for survey purposes.
Identification of the transient snowline (TSL) from high spatial resolution Landsat imagery on Lemon Creek Glacier (LCG), southeast Alaska, USA, and Mittivakkat Gletscher (MG), southeast Greenland, is used to determine snow ablation rates, the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) and the accumulation-area ratio (AAR). The rate of rise of the TSL during the ablation season on a glacier where the balance gradient is known provides a measure of the snow ablation rate. On both LCG and MG, snow pits were completed in regions that the TSL subsequently transects. This further provides a direct measure of the snow ablation rates for a particular year. TSL observations from multiple dates during the ablation season from 1998 to 2011 at LCG and 1999 to 2012 at MG were used to explore the consistency of the TSL rise and snow ablation rate. On LCG and MG the satellite-derived mean TSL migration rates were 3.8 ± 0.6 and 9.4 ± 9.1 m d−1, respectively. The snow ablation rates were 0.028 ± 0.004 m w.e. d−1 for LCG and 0.051 ± 0.018 m w.e. d−1 for MG estimated by applying a TSL–mass-balance-gradient method, and 0.031 ± 0.004 and 0.047 ± 0.019 m w.e. d−1 by applying a snow-pit–satellite method, illustrating significant agreement between the two different approaches for both field sites. Also, satellite-derived ELA and AAR, and estimated net mass-balance (Ba) conditions were in agreement with observed ELA, AAR and Ba conditions for LCG and MG.
Observations show that glaciers around the world are in retreat and losing mass. Internationally coordinated for over a century, glacier monitoring activities provide an unprecedented dataset of glacier observations from ground, air and space. Glacier studies generally select specific parts of these datasets to obtain optimal assessments of the mass-balance data relating to the impact that glaciers exercise on global sea-level fluctuations or on regional runoff. In this study we provide an overview and analysis of the main observational datasets compiled by the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS). The dataset on glacier front variations (∼42 000 since 1600) delivers clear evidence that centennial glacier retreat is a global phenomenon. Intermittent readvance periods at regional and decadal scale are normally restricted to a subsample of glaciers and have not come close to achieving the maximum positions of the Little Ice Age (or Holocene). Glaciological and geodetic observations (∼5200 since 1850) show that the rates of early 21st-century mass loss are without precedent on a global scale, at least for the time period observed and probably also for recorded history, as indicated also in reconstructions from written and illustrated documents. This strong imbalance implies that glaciers in many regions will very likely suffer further ice loss, even if climate remains stable.
The annual balance has been measured for ten North Cascade glaciers in 1983–84, 1984–85, 1985–86, and 1986–87 (1984, 1985, 1986, and 1987). Based on these data, an annual balance prediction method was designed and tested. Comparison of measured versus predicted annual balances indicates an accuracy of ±0.22–0.30 m. The method is based on annual measurement of the accumulation area ratio (AAR), and determination of the perennially constant activity index and area-altitude distribution on each glacier. The accumulation area ratio is determined from aerial and ground photographs at the end of the ablation season. The activity index is identified from observation of the rise of the snow line with time, compared to measured snow depths above the snow line. The AAR-activity index method was used to calculate the annual balance of 47 North Cascade glaciers in 1984, 1985, 1986, and 1987. The mean balance during the 4 year period was —0.33 m.
From the mass-balance records, it is apparent that North Cascade glaciers can be divided into six climatic sensitivity groups. Each glacier type responds differently to specific climatic conditions. The mass-balance variation for glaciers of the same type is small.
Since 1977, warmer, drier climatic conditions have prevailed in the North Cascades, resulting in the retreat of 42 of the 47 glaciers examined.
Since 1977 ablation-season temperature has been 1.1°C above the 1930–80 mean and winter precipitation has been 14% below the 1930–80 mean. In order to identify the effect of this climatic fluctuation on North Cascade glaciers, the North Cascade Glacier-Climate Project has monitored the terminus behavior of 107 glaciers between 1983 and 1988.
The 107 glaciers examined represent six climate sensitivity groups. Each group has a different sensitivity to the four primary climatic parameters: (1) ablation-season temperature, (2) accumulation-season precipitation, (3) summer cloud cover and (4) freezing levels during May and October precipitation events. A glacier’s sensitivity to each climatic parameter is determined by its geographic location and topographic position. Each sensitivity type has specific geographic and topographic characteristics, such as degree of radiational shading, orientation, altitude with respect to the local glaciation threshold, accumulation sources, and distance from the Cascade Crest. Accumulation sources are direct snowfall, wind drifting and avalanching.
Of the 107 glaciers examined, 91 had retreated significantly between 1983 and 1988 and three had advanced. Correlation of retreat rate and climatic sensitivity type indicates that the higher a glacier’s winter balance, the smaller the retreat rate. High-altitude accumulation zones, multiple accumulation sources and a northward orientation are all associated with higher winter balances. Retreat was greatest for glaciers with poor radiational shading, and only direct snowfall accumulation. Retreat rate was slowest for glaciers with multiple accumulation sources and a northward orientation, though not necessarily good radiational shading. Retreat rate increased with distance east of the Cascade Crest and retreat rate was high for low-altitude glaciers.
An analysis of the relationship between iceberg calving rates and water depth has been completed for 22 tidewater glaciers. A linear relationship provides reasonable accuracy, with a correlation coefficient of 0.85, for all tidewater glaciers examined, whether they be polar or temperate. The polar glaciers have a slightly lower calving rate for a given water depth. This relationship indicates a lower calving rate for water depths over 50 m than determined by Brown and others (1982). It is based only on glaciers or ice streams and cannot be applied to ice shelves.