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Positive symptoms are a useful predictor of aggression in schizophrenia. Although a similar pattern of abnormal brain structures related to both positive symptoms and aggression has been reported, this observation has not yet been confirmed in a single sample.
To study the association between positive symptoms and aggression in schizophrenia on a neurobiological level, a prospective meta-analytic approach was employed to analyze harmonized structural neuroimaging data from 10 research centers worldwide. We analyzed brain MRI scans from 902 individuals with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia and 952 healthy controls.
The result identified a widespread cortical thickness reduction in schizophrenia compared to their controls. Two separate meta-regression analyses revealed that a common pattern of reduced cortical gray matter thickness within the left lateral temporal lobe and right midcingulate cortex was significantly associated with both positive symptoms and aggression.
These findings suggested that positive symptoms such as formal thought disorder and auditory misperception, combined with cognitive impairments reflecting difficulties in deploying an adaptive control toward perceived threats, could escalate the likelihood of aggression in schizophrenia.
Even though AA 7075 is an aluminum alloy with high mechanical properties, it is not often applied in manufacturing. This is so, because it is considered as very difficult to produce defect free welded joints. This is so, because this alloy has a tendency to hot cracking. The metallurgical problems that appear during welding of AA 7075 have not been fully solved but they have been reduced by applying alloys such as: 4043 and 5356 as filler metals. However, in literature there is little information about the metallurgical effects of these types of filler metals applied in arc welded joints of AA7075. This is especially true for Tungsten Inert gas welding. Therefore, this work is focused in comparing the microstructure and Vickers microhardness in weldments of AA 7075 with ER4043, ER5356 and AA7075 as filler metals. Besides, a set of welded joints with the three different filler metals were quenched after welding in order to modify the final microstructure. The results were evaluated by microstructural analysis focused on the Heat Affected Zone and Vickers microhardness and they were compared among them.
The Altamira Yellowthroat Geothlypis flavovelata is endemic to north-eastern Mexico, with a restricted distribution due to the spatial arrangement of its major habitat: wetlands. Given the lack of information regarding this vulnerable and endemic landbird, here we describe and analyse the sites where we recorded it in Northern Veracruz, as well as its population density, and natural history information. Our results show that the average density of this endemic yellowthroat is 1.006 ind/ha, with more individuals recorded in Tecolutla when compared to Tuxpan. We found a strong association between the Altamira Yellowthroat and southern cat-tail Typha domingensis, although we found scenarios under which the presence of the cat-tail was not a determinant of Altamira Yellowthroat presence. In light of the strong anthropogenic pressures on wetlands in the region, the Altamira Yellowthroat has become highly vulnerable. Thus, if we aim to preserve this endemic species, together with other wetland-dependent species, it is crucial to moderate –and even stop– human pressures on these ecosystems and mitigate past damages.
We consider de Finetti’s problem for spectrally one-sided Lévy risk models with control strategies that are absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure. Furthermore, we consider the version with a constraint on the time of ruin. To characterize the solution to the aforementioned models, we first solve the optimal dividend problem with a terminal value at ruin and show the optimality of threshold strategies. Next, we introduce the dual Lagrangian problem and show that the complementary slackness conditions are satisfied, characterizing the optimal Lagrange multiplier. Finally, we illustrate our findings with a series of numerical examples.
This chapter seeks to trace the trajectories of two emblematic peacebuilding initiatives at the local level in order to investigate the similarities and differences in their hybridization logics. The initiatives are the Comunidad de Paz de San José de Apartadó [Peace Community of San José de Apartadó] and the Asamblea Constituyente de Tarso [Constituent Municipal Assembly of Tarsus]. The analysis of the trajectories of both these initiatives is based on the perspective of conflict transformation from knowledge of local circumstances in order to examine to what extent the concept of peace infrastructure is applicable to these two experiences. As long as the concept of “Infrastructures for Peace” refers to the networks of peacebuilding, it allows the analysis of the interactions between the local peacebuilding experiences and other actors and processes at different scales, from the very local to the international.
Colombia has embarked on one of the most complex and multifaceted efforts at building peace and delivering justice the world has ever seen. The sheer size and scope of the Colombian government’s agreement with the FARC guerrillas ensure the path will be neither easy nor short. In fact, there is more than one available path to peace and justice; those destinations may be accessed through a variety of new and novel trails, as well as well-worn roads. Some paths are narrow and difficult, while others “promise” a straight and wide transit to a brighter future. In this world of possibilities, the Colombian peace process offers no guarantees. The journeys are as diverse and difficult to traverse as Colombia’s geography. In this conclusion, we review the progress we have made in understanding how this journey will unfold, what challenges and opportunities may be waiting up ahead, and when and how the scholarly community can best explain how the future might look. More often than not, we must be content with posing the questions that we ought to pursue in the hope of finding these answers.
The Colombian government recently concluded a decades-long civil war by signing a peace agreement with the largest of its opposing guerrilla armies: Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC). It has also been involved in negotiations with the other major rebel group, Ejército Nacional de Liberación (National Liberation Army, or ELN). Both groups have been fighting the Colombian government since the early 1960s. Divisions in Colombian society over how to end the war with the FARC that bedeviled the protracted peace negotiations in Havana, Cuba, and led to the Colombian people’s initial rejection of the peace agreement are enduring challenges to a sustainable peace. These divisions are likely to reappear as the rebels demobilize, surrender their role in narcotics trafficking, and re-enter Colombian society and politics.
A commercial drinkable yogurt with and without 4% of added trehalose (as cell protectant) was spray-dried obtaining a powder with low water activity (aw). Total bacterial count in the powder was between 8.48–8.90 log cfu/g. The dried yogurt was stored: (i) at 38 °C and aw = 0.33; (ii) at 38 °C in hermetically sealed flasks (aw = 0.21/0.22); (iii) in a cyclic temperature chamber (10–20 °C) in hermetically sealed flasks (aw = 0.21/0.22). Whole milk was then fermented by adding an inoculum of spray-dried yogurt after storage under these different conditions. The kinetics of acidification showed the presence of a lag time which was strongly dependent on storage conditions. The data was fitted with a logistic type equation from which the lag time was calculated. To evaluate structural differences among samples, Fourier Transform Infrared spectra (FTIR) were recorded. Partial Least Squares (PLS) models enabled a good correlation between lag time of fermentation and FTIR spectra. The lag time for yogurt powder stored at aw about 0.21/0.22 and cyclic temperature 10–20 °C remained approximately constant over the 12 weeks of storage, while all the other conditions resulted in a dramatic increase. The addition of trehalose had a small influence on lag time and, therefore, as a protectant of lactobacilli.
For decades a bitter civil war between the Colombia government and armed insurgent groups tore apart Colombian society. After protracted negotiations in Havana, a peace agreement was accepted by the Colombian government and the FARC rebel group in 2016. This volume will provide academics and practitioners throughout the world with critical analyses regarding what we know generally about the post-war peace building process and how this can be applied to the specifics of the Colombian case to assist in the design and implementation of post-war peace building programs and policies. This unique group of Colombian and international scholars comment on critical aspects of the peace process in Colombia, transitional justice mechanisms, the role of state and non-state actors at the national and local levels, and examine what the Colombian case reveals about traditional theories and approaches to peace and transitional justice.
For parasites in natural systems, the most common pattern of spatial distribution is aggregation among hosts. The main causes of such aggregation are variable exposure of hosts to parasites and heterogeneity in host susceptibility. The objective of this study was to determine if there are differences in the aggregation pattern of two species of ectoparasitic flies between the Pantanal and Cerrado regions of Brazil on the bat Artibeus planirostris. We collected the ectoparasites from bats captured between 2002 and 2017 with mist nets in 21 sites in the Pantanal and 15 sites in the surrounding plateaus. The results showed that the aggregation of ectoparasitic flies in Pantanal was more pronounced than in Cerrado. The discrepancy aggregation index (D) of the bat fly Megistopoda aranea was 0.877 in Pantanal and 0.724 in Cerrado. The D values of Aspidoptera phyllostomatis was even higher, with 0.916 and 0.848 in the Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively. Differences in the shelters used may be the main factor shaping variation in aggregation, since the Pantanal does not have rock formations, with only foliage, crowns and hollow tree trunks. These differences likely affect host exposure to the parasites, leading to an increase in parasite aggregation.
To determine whether (-)-epicatechin (Epi) could decrease visceral adipose tissue and improve the metabolic profile of male offspring rats, after maternal obesity was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD).
Maternal obesity in albino Wistar rats was induced with a HFD, whereas male offspring were fed with chow diet throughout the study. Eight male offspring per group, from different litters, were randomly assigned to the experimental or to the control groups. In the experimental group, Epi was administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg of body weight to the male offspring twice daily for two weeks, beginning at postnatal day (PND).
Weight of visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte size, and several metabolic parameters.
Epi administration in the male offspring induced a significant decrease in the amount of visceral fat (11.61 g less, P < 0.05) and in the size of adipose cells (28% smaller, P < 0.01). Besides, Epi was able to decrease insulin, leptin, and Homeostasis Model Assessment -Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) (P < 0.05), as well as triglycerides, when the experimental group was compared to the untreated male offspring of obese rats (P < 0.01).
Epi administration can reverse the negative effects that maternal obesity has on the male offspring. This could be because Epi reduces the amount of visceral fat and improves metabolic profile.
Immune system markers may predict affective disorder treatment response, but whether an overall immune system marker predicts bipolar disorder treatment effect is unclear.
Bipolar CHOICE (N = 482) and LiTMUS (N = 283) were similar comparative effectiveness trials treating patients with bipolar disorder for 24 weeks with four different treatment arms (standard-dose lithium, quetiapine, moderate-dose lithium plus optimised personalised treatment (OPT) and OPT without lithium). We performed secondary mixed effects linear regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, smoking and body mass index to investigate relationships between pre-treatment white blood cell (WBC) levels and clinical global impression scale (CGI) response.
Compared to participants with WBC counts of 4.5–10 × 109/l, participants with WBC < 4.5 or WBC ≥ 10 showed similar improvement within each specific treatment arm and in gender-stratified analyses.
An overall immune system marker did not predict differential treatment response to four different treatment approaches for bipolar disorder all lasting 24 weeks.
Estudiamos el imperialismo incaico en el contexto de las formaciones socioterritoriales del Colesuyu durante la época prehispánica tardía (siglos quince y dieciséis). Por su poblamiento con alto grado de multietnicidad e imbricación socioterritorial, además de su heterogeneidad biogeográfica entre el Pacífico y el Altiplano, esta región de los Valles Occidentales de los Andes Centro-Sur planteó un reto geopolítico para su integración imperial. Nos interesamos aquí por el caso de los Altos de Arica, que los archivos coloniales describen como un espacio multiétnico, con complejos sistemas de asentamiento interdigitados, extendidos entre el altiplano de Carangas y el litoral de Arica. A partir de un catastro arqueogeográfico, complementado con datos de excavaciones y dataciones, analizamos el proceso de ordenamiento incaico del valle precordillerano de Belén (ca. 3.000 m snm), el cual era conocido como Tocoroma en los archivos coloniales y constituía la principal isla del archipiélago carangas en la vertiente occidental andina del 18° S. Evidenciamos la producción de un paisaje agrícola imperial en el valle y discutimos la función nodal de Tocoroma-Belén en el contexto de la integración socioterritorial de la transecta Arica-Carangas. Asimismo, el estudio confirma el protagonismo del Tawantinsuyu en la estructuración de los archipiélagos verticales de los Andes Centro-Sur, además de documentar la diversidad de los dispositivos de hegemonía imperial implementados para este fin.
We prove that generic fiber-bunched and Hölder continuous linear cocycles over a non-uniformly hyperbolic system endowed with a
-Gibbs measure have simple Lyapunov spectrum. This gives an affirmative answer to a conjecture proposed by Viana in the context of fiber-bunched linear cocycles.