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Engineers who operate under constraints and obligations established by codes of ethics or professional responsibility maintained by professional organizations of which they are members and by state government authorities view these constraints and obligations, at times, as limitations or barriers. It is important to recognize, however, that these codes can also work to the benefit of the engineers governed by their terms. The codes of ethics of professional organizations and state authorities can serve a defensive and empowering function for engineers by providing a basis for preserving legal rights of the engineers and by reducing their risk of personal liability based on misconduct. Engineers should understand thoroughly the ethical obligations established by these codes and should identify the provisions of the codes that they can apply in their daily practice to help establish and document their personal defenses against potential future claims of misconduct.
This study investigated the position of adduction thread attachment, pulling direction and fixation position in revision arytenoid adduction surgery performed in two patients with left vocal fold palsy in whom satisfactory speech improvement had not been obtained by arytenoid adduction and type 1 thyroplasty.
Revision arytenoid adduction surgery was performed with the vocal fold in the midline position in both cases. A type 1 thyroplasty procedure was subsequently added in one case because of worsened quality of speech following arytenoid adduction.
Results and conclusion
Although the arytenoid adduction procedure is conceptually well established, there is still room for debate concerning the actual surgical procedures used. The technique described in this report is effective, suggesting that it is worthy of recognition as an index procedure.
Recently, multinational enterprises (MNEs) actively use regional trade agreements (RTAs) all over the world. In particular, there is a growing number of MNEs of which the overseas affiliates trade with third countries (i.e., neither home country nor host country) under RTA preferential schemes. For example, the White Paper on International Economy and Trade 2014 by the Japanese government introduces several case studies on Japanese affiliates in Southeast Asia using preferential schemes when trading with China, India, or Korea. Their use in trading with China or Korea is especially important since Japan has not yet concluded any RTA schemes with China and Korea. Namely, through trading via their overseas affiliates, MNEs enjoy preferential trade with countries with which their home country does not have preferential access.
In the academic literature, such export to third countries by MNEs is called the export platform foreign direct investment (FDI). This branch of research is motivated by the growing importance of platform-FDI activities. For instance, export sales accounted for over 40 per cent of total sales by foreign affiliates of Japanese MNEs in 2009, and export sales to third markets represented over 30 per cent of the export sales. Despite its empirical importance, there have been only a few studies on export platform FDI. Ekholm et al. (2007) is one of the pioneering studies and considers various types of export platform FDI according to the destination market of the overseas plant. The above-mentioned feature indicates that overseas affiliates by such export platform FDI enjoy preferential trade in their export.
In this study, we empirically identify significant firm characteristics in the use of preferences in export platform FDI. Specifically, we investigate the correlation of preference use with the share of “originating inputs”, intensity of exports to the third country, and experience of preference use in exporting to other third countries. For example, if the export intensity is highly and positively correlated with preference use, the absolute magnitude of preferential exports will play a significant role in that use. We can also decompose “originating inputs” into labour inputs, originating material inputs, and other originating inputs. As a result, in order to directly find the bottleneck in preference use in export platform FDI, we just examine the correlation of preference use with firm performance indicators rather than its determinants, such as more fundamental firm characteristics including firm productivity.
Photochromic (PC) ZnO nanoparticles are synthesized for the first time by using a VHF plasma enhanced CVD apparatus. The prepared ZnO film changes from transparent to PC state under UV irradiation; on being subjected to heat treatment, it changes back to transparent state. There is a threshold temperature for attaining the PC phase. The Debye-Waller factor of Zn atoms is specifically large for the PC ZnO. The ZnO nanoparticles contain carbon as impurity. The effects of C-O bonds on the ZnO crystal structure and density of states (DOS) are simulated based on density-functional theory. The results reveal that the crystal structure is slightly distorted and a sufficient DOS for PC light absorption is formed in the band gap.
We present ALMA band 7 data of the extreme OH/IR star, OH 26.5+0.6. In addition to lines of CO and its isotopologues, the circumstellar envelope also exhibits a number of emission lines due to metal-containing molecules, e.g., NaCl and KCl. A lack of C18O is expected, but a non-detection of C17O is puzzling given the strengths of H217O in Herschel spectra of the star. However, a line associated with Si17O is detected. We also report a tentative detection of a gas-phase emission line of MgS. The ALMA spectrum of this object reveals intriguing features which may be used to investigate chemical processes and dust formation during a high mass-loss phase.
The SPICA mid- and far-infrared telescope will address fundamental issues in our understanding of star formation and ISM physics in galaxies. A particular hallmark of SPICA is the outstanding sensitivity enabled by the cold telescope, optimised detectors, and wide instantaneous bandwidth throughout the mid- and far-infrared. The spectroscopic, imaging, and polarimetric observations that SPICA will be able to collect will help in clarifying the complex physical mechanisms which underlie the baryon cycle of galaxies. In particular, (i) the access to a large suite of atomic and ionic fine-structure lines for large samples of galaxies will shed light on the origin of the observed spread in star-formation rates within and between galaxies, (ii) observations of HD rotational lines (out to ~10 Mpc) and fine structure lines such as [C ii] 158 μm (out to ~100 Mpc) will clarify the main reservoirs of interstellar matter in galaxies, including phases where CO does not emit, (iii) far-infrared spectroscopy of dust and ice features will address uncertainties in the mass and composition of dust in galaxies, and the contributions of supernovae to the interstellar dust budget will be quantified by photometry and monitoring of supernova remnants in nearby galaxies, (iv) observations of far-infrared cooling lines such as [O i] 63 μm from star-forming molecular clouds in our Galaxy will evaluate the importance of shocks to dissipate turbulent energy. The paper concludes with requirements for the telescope and instruments, and recommendations for the observing strategy.
We report the investigation on the properties of a novel Te precursor (i-C3H7)2Te and its effectiveness in fabricating MoTe2. The vapor pressure of the precursor was obtained by measuring the pressure as a function of its temperature in a sealed chamber. As a result it showed a high vapor pressure of 552.1 Pa at room temperature. The decomposition of the precursor was also investigated using DFT calculation. It was shown that the most likely reaction during the course of the decomposition of (i-C3H7)2Te is (i-C3H7)2Te → H2Te + 2 C3H7. The effectiveness of the precursor on the fabrication of MoTe2 was also investigated. Sputter-deposited MoO3 was tellurized in a quartz-tube furnace at the temperature up to 440°C. The resulting film showed that the 80% of the original MoO3 was tellurized to form MoTe2. It was also shown that further optimization of tellurization is required in order to prevent formation of metal Mo and elemental Te.
IR spectroscopy in the range 12–230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA’s large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z ~ 6.
The physical processes driving the chemical evolution of galaxies in the last ~ 11Gyr cannot be understood without directly probing the dust-obscured phase of star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei. This phase, hidden to optical tracers, represents the bulk of the star formation and black hole accretion activity in galaxies at 1 < z < 3. Spectroscopic observations with a cryogenic infrared observatory like SPICA, will be sensitive enough to peer through the dust-obscured regions of galaxies and access the rest-frame mid- to far-infrared range in galaxies at high-z. This wavelength range contains a unique suite of spectral lines and dust features that serve as proxies for the abundances of heavy elements and the dust composition, providing tracers with a feeble response to both extinction and temperature. In this work, we investigate how SPICA observations could be exploited to understand key aspects in the chemical evolution of galaxies: the assembly of nearby galaxies based on the spatial distribution of heavy element abundances, the global content of metals in galaxies reaching the knee of the luminosity function up to z ~ 3, and the dust composition of galaxies at high-z. Possible synergies with facilities available in the late 2020s are also discussed.
MoS2(1−x)Te2x thin films were fabricated by high-temperature co-sputtering deposition and post-deposition tellurization annealing using novel Te precursor (i-C3H7)2Te for the first time. As a result, high crystal quality MoS2(1−x)Te2x (6.5 nm) were successfully fabricated with the Te concentration x ranging from 0.48 to 0.61 and band gap value from 0.80 to 0.87 eV. From the obtained band gap values of MoS2(1−x)Te2x, the bowing parameter b was determined to be 1.06 eV. When exploited in device use, if the required band gap value is known, the required composition can be calculated with the bowing parameter. We have also shown the compatibility of co-sputtering to alloy fabrication since the composition ratio can be easily controlled just by adjusting the radio frequency (RF) sputter power on different targets. The fabrication method can be applied to different transition metal dichalcogenide materials as well.
Supernova remnants (SNRs) are powerful particle accelerators. As a supernova (SN) blast wave propagates through the circumstellar medium (CSM), electrons and protons scatter across the shock and gain energy by entrapment in the magnetic field. The accelerated particles generate further magnetic field fluctuations and local amplification, leading to cosmic ray production. The wealth of data from Supernova 1987A is providing a template of the SN-CSM interaction, and an important guide to the radio detection and identification of core-collapse SNe based on their spectral properties. Thirty years after the explosion, radio observations of SNR 1987A span from 70 MHz to 700 GHz. We review extensive observing campaigns with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), and follow-ups with other radio telescopes. Observations across the radio spectrum indicate rapid changes in the remnant morphology, while current ATCA and ALMA observations show that the SNR has entered a new evolutionary phase.
The dust produced by supernovae is an important topic for understanding supernova physics and the chemical evolution of galaxies. Recent ALMA observations of SN 1987A have allowed us to peer into the inner ejecta to the cool dust, with spatial resolution from 0.″3 at ~300 GHz down to 0.″09 at ~680 GHz – an improvement over the previous 300 GHz Cycle 0 observations at 0.″69. Comparison of the dust location and morphology with other multiwavelength emission presents an interesting picture of the role dust plays in the ejecta. The mm-FIR SED is compared to radiative models to study the dust composition 30 years after the initial explosion. Fits to the ring emission also probe the drift of the center of the system over time.
Supernova (SN) 1987A has provided a unique opportunity to study how SN ejecta evolve in 30 years time scale. We report our ALMA spectral observations of SN 1987A, taken in 2014, 2015 and 2016, with detections of CO, 28SiO, HCO+ and SO, with weaker lines of 29SiO.
We find a dip in the SiO line profiles, suggesting that the ejecta morphology is likely elongated. The difference of the CO and SiO line profiles is consistent with hydrodynamic simulations, which show that Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities causes mixing of gas, with heavier elements much more disturbed, making more elongated structure.
Using 28SiO and its isotopologues, Si isotope ratios were estimated for the first time in SN 1987A. The estimated ratios appear to be consistent with theoretical predictions of inefficient formation of neutron rich atoms at lower metallicity, such as observed in the Large Magellanic Cloud (about half a solar metallicity).
The deduced large HCO+ mass and small SiS mass, which are inconsistent to the predictions of chemical model, might be explained by some mixing of elements immediately after the explosion. The mixing might have made some hydrogen from the envelope to sink into carbon and oxygen-rich zone during early days after the explosion, enabling the formation of a substantial mass of HCO+. Oxygen atoms may penetrate into silicon and sulphur zone, suppressing formation of SiS.
Our ALMA observations open up a new window to investigate chemistry, dynamics and explosive-nucleosynthesis in supernovae.
Core-collapse supernovae are expected to be efficient producers of dust, and recent Herschel and ALMA observations have revealed up to 1 M⊙ of cold dust in the inner ejecta of SN 1987A. The formation time scale, spatial distribution and clumpiness, and the importance of the different heating sources of the dust remain poorly understood. We have started a project to make detailed 3D dust radiative transfer models for SN 1987A, based on a combination of the latest observational constraints and input from 3D hydrodynamical models and dust formation models. Preliminary results seem to indicate the need for large, micron-sized dust grains, and a relatively large dust mass.
We report the synthesis of MoS2(1-x)Te2x by co-sputtering deposition and effect of mixture on its bandgap. The deposition was carried out at room temperature, and the sputtering power on individual MoS2 and MoTe2 targets were varied to obtain films with different compositions. Investigation with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the formation of Mo-Te and Mo-S bonds after post-deposition annealing (PDA), and one of the samples exhibited composition ratio of Mo:S:Te = 1:1.2:0.8 and 1:1.9:0.1 achieving 1:2 ratio of metal to chalcogen. Bandgap of MoS1.2Te0.8 and MoS1.9Te0.1 was evaluated with Tauc plot analysis from the extinction coefficient obtained by spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. The obtained bandgaps were 1.0 eV and 1.3 eV. The resulting bandgap was lower than that of bulk MoS2 and higher than that of bulk MoTe2 suggesting mixture of both materials was achieved by co-sputtering.
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin films were fabricated by two-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using (t-C4H9)2S2 and the effects of temperature, gas flow rate, and atmosphere on the formation were investigated in order to achieve high-speed low-temperature MoS2 film formation. From the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations, it was confirmed that c-axis orientation of the pre-deposited Mo film has a significant involvement in the crystal orientation after the reaction low temperature sulfurization annealing and we successfully obtained 3 nm c-axis oriented MoS2 thin film. From the S/Mo ratios in the films, it was revealed that the sulfurization reaction proceeds faster with increase in the sulfurization temperature and the gas flow rate. Moreover, the sulfurization under the H2 atmosphere promotes decomposition reaction of (t-C4H9)2S2, which were confirmed by XPS and density functional theory (DFT) simulation.
The competitive influence of the root system of the exotic grass Urochloa brizantha and the widespread forb Leonotis nepetifolia on the emergence, survival and early growth of the seedlings of eight tropical heliophilous herbaceous species, six early-successional woody species and five late-successional woody species from Brazil, grown in 3500-cm3 pots and in greenhouse without light restriction were assessed. The density of fine-root systems produced by the forb and the grass in pots were 6.8 cm cm−3 soil and 48.1 cm cm−3 soil, respectively. Seedlings survival of the heliophilous herbaceous, early- and late-successional woody species were 86%, 70% and 100% in presence of the forb root system and 12%, 14% and 100% in competition with grass root system, respectively. The competitive pressure applied by the grass root system on seedling growth of the heliophilous herbaceous, early- and late-successional woody species were 2.4, 1.9 and 1.4 times greater than the forb root system. Total root length of the heliophilous herbaceous, early- and late-successional woody species grown without competitors were 13, 33 and 5 times greater than in competition with forb, and were 66, 54 and 6 times greater than in competition with grass root system, respectively. The averages of fine-root diameter of plants grown without competitors were 209 μm for the heliophilous herbaceous, 281 μm for early-successional trees and 382 μm for late-successional trees. The root system of the forb did not avoid seedling establishment of most plant species, but the grass root system hampered more the establishment of heliophilous herbaceous and early-successional woody species than the seedling establishment of late-successional woody species. The different density of root systems produced in soil by the forb and the grass, and the distinct root traits (e.g. root diameter and root tissue density) of the early- and late-successional plant species can explain the differences in the establishment of seedlings of plant species belonging to different groups of tropical succession when exposed to below-ground competition.
It is yet well understood how mass-loss rates from evolved stars depend on metallicities. With a half of the solar metallicity and the distance of only 50 kpc, the evolved stars of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) are an ideal target for studying mass loss at low metallicity. We have obtained spectra of red-supergiants in the LMC, using the Hershel Space Observatory, detecting CO thermal lines fro J=6–5 up to 15–14 lines. Modelling CO lines with non-LTE Radiative transfer code suggests that CO lines intensities can be well explained with high gas-to-dust ratio, with no obvious reduction in mass-loss rate at the LMC. We conclude that the luminosities of the stars are primary factors on mass-loss rates, rather than the metallicity.
Twenty-six years after the explosion, we conducted a molecular line survey for supernova 1987A, using the ALMA observatory. The detection of molecules in the ejecta can uncover evidence of mixing and dynamics in the early days after the supernova explosion, as well as of molecular chemistry that took place in the last 25 years.
It is still not well understood to what extent the macroscopic mixing occurred after the supernova explosion. Molecules can provide a new tool to probe and test the extent of mixing: macroscopic mixings stir the elements from different layers of nuclear-reaction zones in the stellar core, opening the possibilities to form molecules that were composed of elements from different nuclear-burning zones, which the ALMA can detect. Additionally, the ALMA measured the line profiles of molecules, which unveiled the dynamics of ejecta. The high sensitivity observations of molecules can open a new window to determine SN explosion mechanisms and allow us to probe macroscopic mixing after the explosion.