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The suspended provisions of Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTTP will not substantially affect the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Chapter 17 on State-owned enterprises (SOEs). As a consequence, the original TPP scheme remains an important treaty model and poses complex questions notwithstanding a growing literature. This article discusses TPP but unlike current writings which focus on comparative treaty methods of SOE regulation, we focus on how TPP/CPTPP will actually operate, paying attention to how its framers have defined an SOE not least in how they have viewed complex crossholdings, excluded non-profits, and preserved a role for State monopolies. Our answers differ from some of the existing literature – particularly on complex cross-holdings. We also provide detailed illustrations of how TPP's non-discrimination, commercial basis, and non-commercial assistance rules might work and comment on the chances of a rule cascade triggered by TPP, particularly in the current state of heightened Sino-American rivalry and allegations of State control in China's economy.
Trace element analyses by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence measurements were made using synchrotron radiation from a dedicated electron storage ring at the Photon Factory in Japan. The continuum or the monochromatic beam was used for excitation. A crystal monochromator or two types of mirror systems were used for monochromatic excitation. A high signal to background ratio was attained with the crystal monochromator, while the highest absolute detectability was achieved with the mirror system. The minimum detection limita obtained from thin samples are of the order of 0.1 ppm or less than 0.1 pg. Furthermore the signal to background ratio was significantly improved by using an X-ray mirror as a sample support in which, external total reflection of exciting X-rays occured.
Precision lattice parameter measurement by the X-ray diffraction method of Bond  has been examined as a substitutional method for IR in determining the oxygen concentration in silicon single crystals. Asymmetric 444 CuKai reflections were measured for undoped (100) oriented silicon wafers to obtain the correlation curve between the silicon lattice parameter and oxygen concentration. Precise adjustment of the optical system and computer fitting in determining the peak position allow a minute lattice dilation of silicon due to oxygen to be detected by the Bond method. The precision of this measurement system was of the order of 10-6. The lattice expansion of silicon by dissolved oxygen was determined to be at the rate of 3.2X10-24 atoms of oxygen per cm3. Furthermore, the oxygen concentrations of heavily Sb-doped silicon wafers were determined nondestructively.
An experiment using artificial snow was conducted to clarify the influences of temperature and normal load on temporal variations in the shear strength of snow. Artificial snow consisting of dendritic crystals was allowed to accumulate to ∼60 cm depth for the experiment. The shear strength, temperature and weight of the overlying snow were measured at three different depths in the accumulated snow. For the measurement of shear strength, the shear frame index (SFI) was found using a shear frame by placing weights with different masses on the snow contained within the frame. The measured SFI values were treated with the Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion to find the snow cohesion factor C and the internal friction factor tanϕ. The results highlighted similar trends for SFI and C values by which their rate of increase over time was greater with higher snow temperatures and normal load caused by overlying snow. This indicates that C contributes significantly to increased SFI values. tanϕ decreased over time with higher snow temperatures and increased with lower snow temperatures. In low-temperature conditions, in particular, it is likely that snow crystals are compacted but maintain their dendritic morphology.
Rain-on-snow events can cause wet snow avalanches. Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the change in snow strength with increasing water content through rainwater percolation. Snowpack was artificially prepared consisting of a thin ice layer and fine compacted snow, and rainfall (2mmh–1) was artificially applied 22–25.5 and 49–52 hours after the snowpack was formed. Snow hardness was measured with a push–pull force gauge to indicate the snow strength before and after each rain-on-snow event. After the first rainfall, the upper half of the snowpack became wet and a rapid decrease in snow hardness was observed. After the second rainfall the rainwater penetrated the ice layer, high water content was observed above the ice layer but the hardness exceeded that estimated from an empirical relationship between hardness and water content. Micrographs of the snow particles suggest that the delay in grain coarsening observed near the wetting front induces the harder than estimated snow condition.
We present observational results of the submillimeter H2O and SiO lines toward a candidate high-mass young stellar object Orion Source I using ALMA. The spatial structures of the high excitation lines at lower-state energies of >2500 K show compact structures consistent with the circumstellar disk and/or base of the northeast-southwest bipolar outflow with a 100 au scale. The highest excitation transition, the SiO (v=4) line at band 8, has the most compact structure. In contrast, lower-excitation transitions are more extended than 200 au tracing the outflow. Almost all the line show velocity gradients perpendicular to the outflow axis suggesting rotation motions of the circumstellar disk and outflow. While some of the detected lines show broad line profiles and spatially extended emission components indicative of thermal excitation, the strong H2O lines at 321 GHz, 474 GHz, and 658 GHz with brightness temperatures of >1000 K show clear signatures of maser action.
This paper deals with compressive strength vs temperature characteristics (-40 ºC to -2ºC), size effect (cross-sectional area of test specimen) and probability distribution of compressive strength and fracture toughness KIC (corresponding to notch effect in bending strength), of first year sea ice sampled from Saroma Lagoon. The main experimental results are as follows. (1) Temperature dependent compressive fracture modes: at temperatures of -20 ºC to 0ºC, crush fracture is dominant, and at temperatures of -40 ºC to -20 C, brittle fracture is dominant. (2) The larger the cross-sectional area of a test specimen, the lower the compressive strength becomes. It is inferred that the number of weak spots increases with increase in the cross-sectional area of the test piece, which thus becomes more susceptible to fracture. (3) The scatter of compressive strength can be approximated by a normal distribution curve. (4) The KIC values of sea ice are below 10 kg/cm2
cm, though they change slightly depending on the dimensions of test pieces, the relative angle between crystal growth direction and load direction, environmental condition (air or water), and testing method.
The Krasnosel’skiĭ–Mann (KM) iteration is a widely used method to solve fixed point problems. This paper investigates the convergence rate for the KM iteration. We first establish a new convergence rate for the KM iteration which improves the known big-
rate to little-
without any other restrictions. The proof relies on the connection between the KM iteration and a useful technique on the convergence rate of summable sequences. Then we apply the result to give new results on convergence rates for the proximal point algorithm and the Douglas–Rachford method.
John H. Jackson was indeed a great scholar in the field of international economic law. My association with John lasted for almost 40 years and he was one of my closest friends. There are many personal memories of him and I will mention only a few of them.
Based on XMM-Newton observations of M 87 and the Centaurus cluster, abundance profiles of various elements of the intracluster medium (ICM) are derived. The abundances of Si and Fe show strong decreasing gradients. In contrast, the O and Mg abundances are about half of the Si abundance at the center.
From the gas mass to stellar mass ratio and the comparison of Mg abundance with the stellar metallicity, the stellar mass loss from the central galaxies is indicated to be the main source of gas in the very central region of the clusters.
The observed O, Si and Fe abundance pattern determines the contribution of supernova (SN) Ia and SN II, with the abundance pattern of ejecta of SN Ia. Most of the Si and Fe of the ICM in the central region of the clusters comes from SN Ia which occured in the central galaxies. In order to explain the observed O/Si ratio of a half solar, SN Ia products should have similar abundances of Si and Fe, which may reflect dimmer SN Ia observed in old stellar systems.
We have analyzed ASCA data of about 30 early type galaxies, and studied their X-ray emitting ISM (InterStellar Medium) properties. Our study has been motivated by the apparently very low metallicity of the ISM, which cannot easily be reconciled with theoretical predictions. By carefully examining the abundance ratios and uncertainties in the Fe-L complex, we have concluded that the ISM abundances in X-ray luminous galaxies are in fact about 1 solar. Therefore, the severe discrepancy between the ISM and stellar abundance has been relaxed. The ISM metallicity of X-ray fainter galaxies are uncertain, but at least SNe Ia contribution to the ISM abundance is smaller than in the X-ray luminous ones.
Using ASCA, we have confirmed that the ISM of X-ray bright elliptical galaxies are surprisingly metal poor, as compared to the theoretical predictions. In fact the exact values of the derived metallicity depend considerably on the plasma emission codes. However, the overall metallicity cannot be larger than ∼ 1 solar. For low LX/LB galaxies, all the available plasma codes suggest abundances less than half a solar. The ASCA spectra may be compatible with somewhat higher metallicity if we assume there is an additional low-temperature component (e.g. kTe ∼ 0.3 keV). However, the derived abundance can not be over 1 solar. In particular, the Si abundance turns out to be < 1.5 solar, confirming the metal-poor nature of the ISM. These ASCA results are in severe contradiction with most of the SN Ia rate, particularly that of Tammann (1982). Considering further that a fairly long time (109–10yr) is needed for the stellar mass loss to accumulates into the ISM, it is suggested that the SN Ia rate has remained quite low throughout Hubble time.
It is very important to know the physical conditions of circumnuclear molecular gas in order to understand the nature of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), since the circumnuclear molecular gas in active galaxies might be directly affected by or is affecting the activity of nucleus. To investigate the physical conditions of the molecular clouds in detail, multi-line observations with millimeter arrays are essential.
In the Virgo cluster, we can perform a close study of the gas injection mechanism from galaxies into the cluster space and the interaction between the injected gas and the sorrouding cluster medium. In 1996 to 1997, we carried out mapping observations of a 2.°5 × 2.°5 area in the north-west region of the cluster. There are 16 pointings in total in this region, and the observed results are briefly reported here.
Fornax A (NGC 1316) is a radio galaxy with prototypical double lobes. Feigelson et al. (1995 ApJ 449, L149) and Kaneda et al. (1995 ApJ 454, L13) detected inverse Compton X-rays for the first time from its radio lobes, and unambiguously derived the lobe magnetic field intensity of 2-4 μG. Accordingly, the radio-emitting electrons in the lobes are inferred to have a Lorentz factor of 104, and hence a synchrotron life time of ~108 yr. This means that Fornax A was highly active at least 108 years ago.
Caregiver burden (CB) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Taiwan is becoming an urgent social issue as well as that in Japan. The comparison of CB may explain how caregiver feels burden in each country.
The participants were 343 outpatients with AD and their caregivers of Japan (n = 230) and Taiwan (n = 113). We assessed the CB using the Japanese and Chinese version of Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview (ZBI). The initial analysis was an exploratory factor analysis for each group to confirm the factor structure of ZBI. Then, the multiple-group structural equation modeling (MG-SEM) was used to assess the measurement invariance of ZBI such as configural, metric, and scalar invariances. Lastly, we compared the latent factor means of the ZBI between Japan and Taiwan.
In both groups, the confirmatory factor analysis extracted 3 factors which were labeled “Impact on caregiver's life”, “Embarrassed/anger”, and “Dependency”. The MG-SEM indicated an acceptable model fit, and established the partial scalar measurement invariance (comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.901, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.066). When we compared the latent factor means, the score of “Impact on caregiver's life” in Taiwanese caregivers was significantly higher than that in Japanese (p = 0.001). However, “Dependency” in Taiwanese caregivers was lower than that in Japanese (p < 0.001).
Partial measurement invariance allowed comparing the latent factor mean across two countries. The results of comparisons suggested that there may be differences in the way of feeling CB between Japan and Taiwan.
Under GATS, Mode I involves the supply of a service from the territory of one Member into the territory of any other Member. Few negotiators of the Uruguay Round would have imagined the significance that this mode has come to acquire, or that on-line gambling service would flourish so much as to raise a dispute between Members of the WTO. As the first precedent on Mode I of GATS, “US-Measures Affecting the Cross-Border Supply of Gambling and Betting Services” contains important suggestive interpretations of Members' Schedules as well as general exceptions of the GATS, including burden of proof. The authors review the reports of the Panel and Appellate Body, and explore the implications of the case beyond GATS.
Most cancer patients experience the time when a doctor must “break the bad news” to them, a time when it is necessary for patients to call upon their self-determination to aid in the battle with cancer. The purpose of our study was to clarify the percentage of times doctors deliver bad news to patients at the end of life in each of four different situations, and to define the most common recipients of this bad news. We compare these results for two timepoints: 2006 and 2012.
The study had a national cross-sectional design consisting of self-completed questionnaires sent to all hospitals that provide cancer care. We mailed them to hospital directors in January and February of 2012, requesting a reply. The results of the same survey in 2006 were employed as a point for comparison.
A total of 1224 questionnaires were returned during 2012. 1499 responses collected in 2006 were employed as reference data. Some hospital characteristics had changed over that interval; however, the new data obtained were representative for patients being treated in Japanese cancer care hospitals. In hospitals with 300–499, there were significant differences between 2006 and 2012 in the providing information about (“disclosure of cancer diagnosis,” “therapeutic options for treatment,” and “a life-prolonging treatment”). In addition, the likelihood of doctors delivering bad news to patients and family members (as opposed to family members only) at the end of life increased from 2006 to 2012.
Significance of Results:
Our results suggest that the overall incidence of bad news being disclosed has increased, especially in hub medical institutions for cancer care. Advanced treatment options or domestic legislation may have influenced the frequency or type of bad news.