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Mathematicians have long known that geometry is not absolute. Our understanding of what constitutes a 'space' has driven, and been driven by, significant applications inside and outside of mathematics. The workshop 'New Spaces in Mathematics and Physics', held in 2015 at the Institut Henri Poincaré, brought together many researchers to discuss various new notions of space in mathematics and theoretical physics, with particular attention given to often overlooked aspects of their subjects, conceptual reflections and historical perspectives. This volume and its companion New Spaces in Mathematics arise from their lectures and discussions. This volume covers a broad range of topics in mathematical physics, including noncommutative geometry, supergeometry, derived symplectic geometry, higher geometric quantization, intuitionistic quantum logic, problems with the continuum description of spacetime, twistor theory, loop quantum gravity, and geometry in string theory.
Mathematicians have long known that geometry is not absolute. Our understanding of what constitutes a 'space' has driven, and been driven by, significant applications inside and outside of mathematics. The workshop 'New Spaces in Mathematics and Physics', held in 2015 at the Institut Henri Poincaré, brought together many researchers to discuss various new notions of space in mathematics and theoretical physics, with particular attention given to often overlooked aspects of their subjects, conceptual reflections and historical perspectives. This volume and its companion New Spaces in Physics arise from their lectures and discussions. This volume covers a broad range of topics in mathematics, including diffeologies, synthetic differential geometry, microlocal analysis, topos theory, infinity-groupoids, homotopy type theory, category-theoretic methods in geometry, stacks, derived geometry, and noncommutative geometry.
Conscious patients undergoing regional anaesthesia are able to interact with caregivers and indicate when they are feeling pain and/or anxiety during surgery. Unconscious patients on the other hand, not only in the operating room but also in intensive care, need antinociception when a nociceptive stimulus is applied. In these patients, the dose of antinociceptive drugs cannot be adjusted or the effect of locoregional anaesthesia supplementing general anaesthesia cannot be determined by simply asking the patient. Thus, the clinician needs to rely on monitors of the nociception/antinociception (N/AN) balance to be able to provide adequate, that is personalized, antinociception.
Nowadays, modern Earth Observation systems continuously generate huge amounts of data. A notable example is the Sentinel-2 Earth Observation mission, developed by the European Space Agency as part of the Copernicus Programme, which supplies images from the whole planet at high spatial resolution (up to 10 m) with unprecedented revisit time (every 5 days at the equator). In this data-rich scenario, the remote sensing community is showing a growing interest toward modern supervised machine learning techniques (e.g., deep learning) to perform information extraction, often underestimating the need for reference data that this framework implies. Conversely, few attention is being devoted to the use of network analysis techniques, which can provide a set of powerful tools for unsupervised information discovery, subject to the definition of a suitable strategy to build a network-like representation of image data. The aim of this work is to provide clues on how Satellite Image Time Series can be profitably represented using complex network models, by proposing a methodology to build a multilayer network from such data. This is the first work to explore the possibility to exploit this model in the remote sensing domain. An example of community detection over the provided network in a real-case scenario for the mapping of complex land use systems is also presented, to assess the potential of this approach.
As part of the study of the early medieval cemetery at Broechem (Belgium), human bones from 32 cremation graves have been dated through radiocarbon (14C) analysis. It was noted that many of the dates were not in accordance with the chronological ranges provided by the characteristics of the cultural artifacts deposited in the graves. In fact, the human bones were “older” than the artifacts. Subsequently, a number of animal bones (in all cases from domestic pigs) was radiocarbon dated, yielding dates that were more consistent with the information from the cultural artifacts than the human bones. The dates obtained on human and pig bones from the same grave often differed around 100 radiocarbon years. This paper tries to find an explanation for the pattern observed, concentrating on two hypotheses: aquatic reservoir versus old wood effects. The evaluation takes into account additional radiocarbon dates derived from charcoal fragments of the funeral pyre, from both short-lived and long-lived taxa. A conclusive explanation for the anomalous radiocarbon dates could not be reached but clear suggestions can be put forward for future experimental work that will without doubt shed more light upon the interpretational problems raised.
Direct dates of pottery obtained from food crusts or other organic residues on the vessel surfaces can be affected by a reservoir effect and/or an old wood effect and therefore be unreliable. Hence, there is a need for alternative ways to directly date pottery. Moss is used as temper by several cultural groups of the late 6th to early 4th millennium cal BC in northwestern Europe. After the pottery is fired, charred moss remains are often preserved in the clay, so that relatively short-lived plant material with a direct chronological link to the pottery and human occupation is available for radiocarbon (14C) dating. In this study, charred moss temper is extracted for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dating from pottery of the Swifterbant Culture and Spiere group in the Scheldt river valley (Belgium). The moss dates are then compared to reference dates of organic macro-remains from the same sites and food crust dates with or without a reservoir effect of the same pottery. Eleven out of 13 moss dates are in line with the expected pottery age. The paired dates of moss temper and food crusts from the same potsherds confirm a freshwater reservoir effect (FRE) for the latter. We conclude that moss temper has great potential as a sample material for direct pottery dating. However, more research on the extraction and pretreatment of moss temper as well as on the reliability of moss dates is necessary in the future.
Although there is a plethora of cancer associated-factors that can ultimately culminate in death (cachexia, organ impairment, metastases, opportunistic infections, etc.), the focal element of every terminal malignancy is the failure of our natural defences to control unlimited cell proliferation. The reasons why our defences apparently lack efficiency is a complex question, potentially indicating that, under Darwinian terms, solutions other than preventing cancer progression are also important contributors. In analogy with host-parasite systems, we propose to call this latter option ‘tolerance’ to cancer. Here, we argue that the ubiquity of oncogenic processes among metazoans is at least partially attributable to both the limitations of resistance mechanisms and to the evolution of tolerance to cancer. Deciphering the ecological contexts of alternative responses to the cancer burden is not a semantic question, but rather a focal point in understanding the evolutionary ecology of host-tumour relationships, the evolution of our defences, as well as why and when certain cancers are likely to be detrimental for survival.
To investigate whether similar control processes are used during single and dual language production, we compared register switching (formal and informal speech in the same language) vs. language switching (French and English). The results across two experiments showed a positive correlation of overall register- and language-switch costs and similar formal French switch costs across the two switching tasks. However, whereas increasing the cue-to-stimulus interval resulted in a reduction of language-switch costs, register-switch costs were unaffected by the interval manipulation. This difference in switch-cost pattern indicates that control processes are not entirely identical during single and dual language production.
We are grateful to the editor of JCT for offering us the opportunity of outlining our views on the need for a new Greek reference grammar, to discuss our methodological principles, and to offer some thoughts on how the book may be useful as a teaching resource.
Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been associated with the development of metabolic syndrome-related diseases in offspring. According to epidemiological studies, father’s transmission of environmental effects in addition to mother’s can influence offspring health. Moreover, maternal prenatal dietary folic acid (FA) may beneficially impact offspring health. The objective is to investigate whether prenatal FA supplementation can overcome the deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to POPs on lipid homeostasis and inflammation in three generations of male rat descendants through the paternal lineage. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (F0) were exposed to a POPs mixture (or corn oil) +/− FA supplementation for 9 weeks before and during gestation. F1 and F2 males were mated with untreated females. Plasma and hepatic lipids were measured in F1, F2, and F3 males after 12-h fast. Gene expression of inflammatory cytokines was determined by qPCR in epididymal adipose tissue. In F1 males, prenatal POPs exposure increased plasma lipids at 14 weeks old and hepatic lipids at 28 weeks old and prenatal FA supplementation decreased plasma total cholesterol at 14 weeks old. Prenatal POPs exposure decreased plasma triglycerides at 14 weeks old in F2 males. No change was observed in inflammatory markers. Our results show an impact of the paternal lineage on lipid homeostasis in rats up to the F2 male generation. FA supplementation of the F0 diet, regardless of POPs exposure, lowered plasma cholesterol in F1 males but failed to attenuate the deleterious effects of prenatal POPs exposure on plasma and hepatic lipids in F1 males.
After the sharp transition to aridity that followed the “Green Sahara” episode 5500 years ago, human settlements took refuge in Egyptian oases, which have to varying extents been “Green Oases” for centuries. In that period, synchronous with the beginning of historical times, the desert’s aridity is generally regarded as broadly comparable to the current period. Natural and anthropogenic deposits studied during 13 excavation campaigns in Bahariya Oasis (Egyptian Desert) suggest that a fairly clear transition from a relatively green environment to much more arid landscapes occurred in the first millennia BCE and CE. This article aims at establishing the chronology of human occupations and environmental change within this period, by combining archaeological and radiocarbon data, using Bayesian modeling. It reveals that the drying up of the environment experienced by desert farmers occurred at some point between the reigns of Antoninus Pius and Caracalla (2nd–3rd century CE). The accuracy of the produced chronological models made it possible to highlight synchronisms between the end of this “Green Oasis” phase and comparable aridification phenomena on regional and interregional scales. Similar degradation processes on remote sites inside the Roman Empire might be explained by globalized anthropogenic agencies overlapping with a broader climatic drying.