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Agricultural production in Brazil has increased in recent decades. Despite this, the rural population continues to face income inequality. Policies targeting this issue, such as rural credit, have been implemented during this period. This study estimates the influence of credit on income inequality in Brazilian rural areas. Results suggest that the family farming credit program (PRONAF) is not associated with increase in inequality. However, access to rural credit from sources other than PRONAF has led to greater household income inequality. Results also indicate that greater levels of education and access to rural extension have boosted the effect of credit on income.
This research communication describes the influence of diet, mammary quarter position and milking process on the temperature of teats and udder of cows fed diets containing different lipid sources. Five primiparous cows were fed diets containing cottonseed, sunflower seed, soybeans or soybean oil as a source of lipids and a reference diet without the inclusion of lipid sources in a 5 × 5 Latin Square design. Milk yield was determined in the last five days of each period. Milk samples were collected for SCC analysis on the last two days of each experimental period. The images of the mammary gland were obtained using an infrared camera and were analyzed with appropriate computer software. Milk yield was 14.8% higher for cows fed soybeans as a source of lipids. Diets and somatic cell counts did not influence the temperature of teats and udder. The milking process reduced the temperature of teats and udder by 0.79°C. Rear teats and rear quarters had higher surface temperatures than front teats and fore quarters. Changes in temperature of teats and mammary quarters occurred as a function of the milking process and quarter position. However, the diet and the SCC did not influence the temperature of teats and mammary quarters in this experiment.
Background: Telemedicine has been defined as the use of technology to provide healthcare when the provider and patient are geographically separated. Use of telemedicine to meet the needs of specific populations has become increasingly common across Canada. The current study employs the Ontario Telemedicine Network (OTN) to connect the emergency departments of a community hospital system and a pediatric tertiary care hospital. OTN functions through a two-way video conferencing system, allowing physicians at the tertiary site to see and hear the patient being treated in the community hospitals. Aim Statement: The aim of this project is to ensure essential care is provided to CTAS 1 and 2 pediatric patients who present to Niagara Health emergency departments, to increase the number of appropriate patient transfers. Measures & Design: Data for this project include a) description of common diagnoses, b) time of call, c) occurrence of transfers, and d) professional perceptions of the technology. A descriptive design was used together with the implementation of quality improvement cycles as the intervention occurred. Quality improvement methodologies including plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles ensured continuous improvement to the process of OTN use and therefore patient safety throughout the study. Evaluation/Results: Since the intervention was employed on December 17, 2018 there have been a total of 19 cases for which 4 transfers were requested. Changes to the process were made including the addition of weekly technology tests and feedback to health professionals involved to garner further support for the use. Results have indicated that seizure was the most common diagnosis, accounting for 37% of cases. The majority of calls were placed after 19:00 hours with no calls being placed between 24:00 and 10:00. Discussion/Impact: Healthcare providers had positive perceptions of the technology agreeing that decision making between on-site and remote teams was timely and collaborative, as well as that patient care and outcomes were improved with its use. The results of this study will be used to determine the benefits of employing telemedicine in the emergency departments of other hospital systems.
There is a substantial proportion of patients who drop out of treatment before they receive minimally adequate care. They tend to have worse health outcomes than those who complete treatment. Our main goal is to describe the frequency and determinants of dropout from treatment for mental disorders in low-, middle-, and high-income countries.
Respondents from 13 low- or middle-income countries (N = 60 224) and 15 in high-income countries (N = 77 303) were screened for mental and substance use disorders. Cross-tabulations were used to examine the distribution of treatment and dropout rates for those who screened positive. The timing of dropout was examined using Kaplan–Meier curves. Predictors of dropout were examined with survival analysis using a logistic link function.
Dropout rates are high, both in high-income (30%) and low/middle-income (45%) countries. Dropout mostly occurs during the first two visits. It is higher in general medical rather than in specialist settings (nearly 60% v. 20% in lower income settings). It is also higher for mild and moderate than for severe presentations. The lack of financial protection for mental health services is associated with overall increased dropout from care.
Extending financial protection and coverage for mental disorders may reduce dropout. Efficiency can be improved by managing the milder clinical presentations at the entry point to the mental health system, providing adequate training, support and specialist supervision for non-specialists, and streamlining referral to psychiatrists for more severe cases.
Tuberculosis (TB) transmission in healthcare facilities is still a concern in low-income countries, where airborne isolation rooms are scarce due to high costs. We evaluated the use of single GeneXpert MTB/RIF, the molecular Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) DNA and resistance to rifampicin (RIF) test, as an accurate and faster alternative to the current criteria of 3 negative acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smears to remove patients from airborne isolation.
In this real-world investigation, we evaluated the impact of a single GeneXpert MTB/RIF on the decision making for discharging patients from respiratory isolation. We enrolled patients with suspected pulmonary TB in a public hospital that provides care for high-complexity patients in Brazil. We studied the performance, costs, and time saved comparing the GeneXpert MTB/RIF with AFB smears.
We enrolled 644 patients in 3 groups based on the number of AFB smears performed (1, 2, and 3, respectively) on respiratory specimens. GeneXpert MTB/RIF demonstrated good performance compared to AFB smear to rule out TB in all groups. The negative predictive value for AFB smear was 94% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90–0.97) and 98% (95% CIs, 0.94–0.99) for GeneXpert MTB/RIF in G3. The isolation discharge based on 3 AFB smears took 84 hours compared to 24 hours with GeneXpert MTB/RIF, which represents 560 patient-days saved in the isolation rooms.
A single GeneXpert MTB/RIF is a fast and strong predictor for TB absence in a high-complexity hospital, which is quite similar to results obtained in recent studies in low-burden settings. This molecular test may also increase patient rotation through isolation rooms, with a positive impact in the emergency room and infectious diseases wards.
The study of polyphenols’ effects on health has been gaining attention lately. In addition to reacting with important enzymes, altering the cell metabolism, these substances can present either positive or negative metabolic alterations depending on their consumption levels. Naringenin, a citrus flavonoid, already presents diverse metabolic effects. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of maternal naringenin supplementation during pregnancy on the tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in offspring’s cerebellum. Adult female Wistar rats were divided into two groups: (1) vehicle (1 ml/kg by oral administration (p.o.)) or (2) naringenin (50 mg/kg p.o.). The offspring were euthanised at 7th day of life, and the cerebellum was dissected to analyse citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (α-KGDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activities. Molecular docking used SwissDock web server and FORECASTER Suite, and the proposed binding pose image was created on UCSF Chimera. Data were analysed by Student’s t test. Naringenin supplementation during pregnancy significantly inhibited IDH, α-KGDH and MDH activities in offspring’s cerebellum. A similar reduction was observed in vitro, using purified α-KGDH and MDH, subjected to pre-incubation with naringenin. Docking simulations demonstrated that naringenin possibly interacts with dehydrogenases in the substrate and cofactor binding sites, inhibiting their function. Naringenin administration during pregnancy may affect cerebellar development and must be evaluated with caution by pregnant women and their physicians.
Helminth and protozoan infections are responsible for important diseases in grazing sheep, which can be especially threatening in an autochthonous breed at risk of extinction like the Churra Galega Mirandesa Portuguese sheep breed. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity, prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal parasites in these sheep and to assess the effects of deworming practices, cohabiting animals on the farm and feed management. Coprological qualitative and quantitative analysis (flotation, natural sedimentation and McMaster method) were used to identify and quantify gastrointestinal parasites and a questionnaire was designed and applied. A total of 512 faecal samples were collected from 49 flocks, and 49 replies to the questionnaire were received. Parasites were identified in 100% of the flocks, and in 97% of the samples. The genera or species that have been morphologically identified were: strongyle-type, Nematodirus spp., Skrjabinema spp., Moniezia expansa, Moniezia benedeni, Trichuris spp., Capillaria spp., Eimeria spp., Dicrocoelium spp. and Fasciola hepatica. This is the first report in Portugal of Skrjabinema spp. The burden of parasites’ oocysts and eggs per gram in faecal samples ranged, respectively, from 50 to 17,550 for Eimeria spp., and from 50 to 6250 for strongyle-type eggs. Factors affecting parasitic infections were evaluated using a multivariate logistic regression. Grazing time and a lack of anthelmintic treatment were positively associated with Nematodirus spp. infection. This study showed that there is a high prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal parasites in the Churra Galega Mirandesa sheep breed.
Human embryo studies have proposed the use of additional morphological evaluations related to the moment of the first cell divisions as relevant to embryo viability. Nevertheless, there are still not enough data available related to morphokinetic analysis and its relationship with lipid composition in embryos. Therefore, the aim of this study was to address the lipid profile of bovine embryos with different developmental kinetics: fast (four or more cells) and slow (two or three cells) at 40 h post-insemination (hpi), at three time points of in vitro culture (40, 112 and 186 hpi) and compare these to profiles of in vivo embryos. The lipid profiles of embryos were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry, which mainly detected pools of membrane lipids such as phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. In addition to their structural function, these lipid classes have an important role in cell signalling, particularly regarding events such as stress and pregnancy. Different patterns of lipids in the fast and slow groups were revealed in all the analyzed stages. Also, differences between in vitro embryos were more pronounced at 112 hpi, a critical moment due to embryonic genome activation. At the blastocyst stage, in vitro-produced embryos, despite the kinetics, had a closer lipid profile when compared with in vivo blastocysts. In conclusion, the kinetics of development had a greater effect on the membrane lipid profiles throughout the embryo culture, especially at the 8–16-cell stage. The in vitro environment affects lipid composition and may compromise cell signalling and function in blastocysts.
Low-income women are the group with the highest levels of obesity worldwide. In low-income settings, the use of predictive equations, which yield a measure of the individuals’ BMR, is a feasible approach to estimate the individuals’ total energy expenditure (TEE), using the factorial method (calculated-TEE = BMR × physical activity level), an important step of the obesity nutritional care. The present study aimed to identify the predictive equation that, in conjunction with metabolic equivalents of tasks (MET) data from accelerometers, yields the calculated-TEE with better agreement compared with the TEE measured by doubly labelled water (TEE-DLW). Forty-five women aged 19–45 years, with excess weight and mothers of undernourished children, were included. They received DLW to determine TEE (14 d); at the same time, they used triaxial accelerometers (7 d) to estimate their MET. The Bland–Altman method, paired-sample t tests, concordance correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error were used to assess the agreement. Maximum allowed differences were defined as 24 %, based on the within-variance coefficient of the energy intake of the sample. Eleven equations were studied. The calculated-TEE obtained by five equations showed non-significant bias: Dietary Reference Intake (Institute of Medicine (2005) Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids), FAO/WHO/UNU ((2001) Food and Nutrition Technical Report Series), Harris & Benedict ((1919) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA4, 370–373), Henry & Rees ((1991) Eur J Clin Nutr45, 177–185) and Schofield ((1985) Hum Nutr Clin Nutr39, 5–41). The mean percentage differences were –1·5, –0·8, 2·2, –2·2 and 2·0 %, respectively. Considering all parameters, FAO/WHO/UNU ((2001) Food and Nutrition Technical Report Series) equation performed slightly better than the others; nevertheless, no equation in conjunction with the estimated-MET showed a calculated-TEE with its CI for the Bland–Altman limits of agreement inside the pre-defined acceptable range.
The VISCACHA (VIsible Soar photometry of star Clusters in tApii and Coxi HuguA†) Survey is an ongoing project based on deep and spatially resolved photometric observations of Magellanic Cloud star clusters, collected using the SOuthern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope together with the SOAR Adaptive Module Imager. So far we have used >300h of telescope time to observe ∼150 star clusters, mostly with low mass (M < 104M⊙) on the outskirts of the LMC and SMC. With this high-quality data set, we homogeneously determine physical properties using deep colour-magnitude diagrams (ages, metallicities, reddening, distances, mass, luminosity and mass functions) and structural parameters (radial density profiles, sizes) for these clusters which are used as a proxy to investigate the interplay between the Magellanic Clouds and their evolution. We present the VISCACHA survey and its initial results, based on our first two papers. The project’s long term goals and expected legacy to the community are also addressed.
The objective was to determine the longitudinal associations between callous-unemotional (CU) and oppositional defiant (OD) behaviors from the first to fourth grades for Spanish children. Four possible outcomes were evaluated: (a) CU behaviors in the first grade predict increases in OD behaviors in the fourth grade, controlling for OD behaviors in the first grade; (b) OD behaviors in the first grade predict increases in CU behaviors in the fourth grade, controlling for CU behaviors in the first grade; (c) both unique effects are significant; and (d) neither unique effect is significant. A longitudinal panel model with two latent variables (CU and OD behaviors), three sources (mothers, fathers, teachers), and two occasions (spring of the first and fourth grades) was used to evaluate the four possibilities among 758 (54% boys) first grade and 469 (53% boys) fourth grade Spanish children. For mother-, father-, and teacher-reports, OD behaviors in the first grade predicted increases in CU behaviors in the fourth grade, after controlling for CU behaviors in the first grade, whereas CU behaviors in the first grade did not predict increases in OD behaviors in the fourth grade, after controlling for OD behaviors in the first grade. OD behaviors thus conferred independent vulnerability to increases in CU behaviors 3 years later among young children.
The sponges may be the oldest group of Metazoa, with a long and successful evolutionary history. Despite their intermittent fossil record quality, the group has been considered reliable for paleoecological and paleobiogeographic analyses because they have inhabited various types of aquatic environments, forming a significant part of benthic communities. We have presented a detailed description of a new species from the genus Teganiella, Teganiella finksi new species, which expands the chronologic range and classifies the genus as endemic to the paleoequatorial regions of Laurentia associated with arid climate conditions linked to hypersaline periods. Combining the paleoecological and paleoenvironmental features of the Teganiella species, our findings also suggest a trend toward more closed-inlet conditions, which may be related to competition and/or specific habitat supplies, for example, heavy metals such as vanadium, zinc, and molybdenum.
Hepatocytes constitute the majority of hepatic cells, and play a key role in controlling systemic innate immunity, via pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and by synthesizing complement and acute phase proteins. Leishmania infantum, a protozoan parasite that causes human and canine leishmaniasis, infects liver by establishing inside the Kupffer cells. The current study proposes the elucidation of the immune response generated by dog hepatocytes when exposed to L. infantum. Additionally, the impact of adding leishmanicidal compound, meglumine antimoniate (MgA), to parasite-exposed hepatocytes was also addressed. L. infantum presents a high tropism to hepatocytes, establishing strong membrane interactions. The possibility of L. infantum internalization by hepatocytes was raised, but not confirmed. Hepatocytes were able to recognize parasite presence, inducing PRRs [nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)1, NOD2 and Toll-like receptor (TLR)2] gene expression and generating a mix pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine response. Reduction of cytochrome P 450s enzyme activity was also observed concomitant with the inflammatory response. Addition of MgA increased NOD2, TLR4 and interleukin 10 gene expression, indicating an immunomodulatory role for MgA. Hepatocytes seem to have a major role in coordinating liver's innate immune response against L. infantum infection, activating inflammatory mechanisms, but always balancing the inflammatory response in order to avoid cell damage.
The insecticide chlorantraniliprole is recommended for integrated pest management programmes of caterpillar (Lepidoptera) pest species. This insecticide is considered harmless to parasitoids, but its selectivity may vary with the species of natural enemy, few of which were subjected to testing. Furthermore, in addition to the active ingredient, formulation adjuvants may improve insecticide efficiency, but also its impact on nontargeted organisms. Here the chlorantraniliprole effect and its interaction with adjuvant on the survival and qualitative parameters of progeny of the nontarget parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Delvare and LaSalle) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were studied. The treatments used were: chrolantraniliprole (T1), chlorantraniliprole+surfactant (T2), and deionised water (T3, control). Pupae of Diaphania hyalinata Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were subjected to these treatments for 24 hours and offered to the adult parasitoids. Chlorantraniliprole and chlorantraniliprole+surfactant did not elicit direct toxicity to female parasitoids. However, chlorantraniliprole and its combination with surfactant reduced the head capsule width of the female progeny. This insecticide alone also reduced emergence and the progeny metatibia length. Chlorantraniliprole did not induce mortality of P. elaeisis adults, but its negative impact on the emergence and progeny size of this parasitoid suggests an important sublethal effect to be considered.
The role of religion in conservation issues has been recognized at international level since the 1990s. Nowadays, there is little doubt about the importance of specifically addressing religious communities in conservation institutions and practices. This relationship between religion and environmentalism could be analysed from at least two different perspectives: first, from the policy and management level; and second, from the legal level. In the first case, the main concern is raised by the role of faith-based organizations in planning and implementing conservation policies. From the second perspective, the fundamental question addressed by legal scholars is the relationship between religious freedom rights and environmental protection, or environmental rights. This paper deals with the latter perspective and argues in favour of the possibility of considering the protection of sacred natural sites (SNS) through the right of worship as a common expression of the right to religious freedom. In this sense, I argue that the protection of this kind of place should be enhanced, given that religious freedom is a subjective right, which cannot be easily overridden as other land-based rights that are usually used as instruments for protecting sacred natural sites.
The engagement with environmental movements can be motivated by several different reasons, which can be assessed by an analysis of the different environmental discourses. Despite the fact that main environmental activism and policy at international level today is motivated or inspired by what could be considered as a materialistic world view – and in this sense, the object of environmental policy and law is nature, considered as a material foreground where the whole of humanity dwells, and where we all go looking for natural resources – this is obviously not the only motivation for engaging in environmental issues, and in some contexts not the best way to draw attention to environmental concerns.
For instance, in the beginning of the environmental movement, by the end of the 19th century and in the first decades of the 20th century in the United States, immaterial values, like beauty, contemplation, sublimity and spirituality were important motives of those considered as environmentalists, like Henry Thoreau, John Muir, Ralph Waldo Emerson, George Perkin Marsh. At that time, nature was not yet reduced to its quantitative and measurable aspects, at least in the conservation imaginary
A genetic linkage between W, (Cu, Mo)-mineralization and chlorite minerals, and the discrimination of different mineralization events in the magmatic-hydrothermal system of Borralha, northern Portugal, is discussed on the basis of textural relationships, crystal chemistry and stable isotopic data obtained from chlorite. Chlorite minerals were identified in assemblages with quartz, feldspars, tungstates and sulfides. X-ray diffraction studies of selected chlorite minerals shows a trioctahedral structural type. Electron probe micro-analyses identified four different compositions and associations: (1) Fe,Mn-chlorite with scheelite I; (2) Fe-chlorite with wolframite + scheelite II ± sulfide; (3) Fe,Mg-chlorite with molybdenite + bismuthinite; and (4) Mg,Fe-chlorite with chalcopyrite. The composition of Fe-chlorite (Al3.01Fe3+0.25Fe2+7.95Mn0.26Mg0.19)11.66(Si5.44Al2.56)8O20(OH)8 corresponds to daphnite and Fe,Mn-chlorite (Al2.69Fe3+0.02 Fe2+7.54Mn1.08Mg0.62)11.89(Si5.31Al2.68)4O20(OH)8 to a mixed composition between daphnite and amesite. The Fe,Mg-chlorite (Al2.89Fe3+0.24Fe2+6.42Mn0.21Mg2.08)11.84 (Si5.31Al2.79)8F0.31O20(OH)8 corresponds to ripidolite and Mg,Fe-chlorite (Al2.63Fe3+0.37Fe2+1.72Mn0.01Mg6.40Ca0.26)11.39(Si6.02Al1.98)8O20(OH)8 to pychnochlorite.
Chlorite geothermometry estimates a temperature for Fe,Mn-chlorite (scheelite I) from 400°C to 500°C, for Fe-chlorite (Mn-rich wolframite + scheelite II ± sulfide) from 250 to 350°C, for Fe,Mg-chlorite (Mo-mineralization) from 200°C to 250°C and for Mg,Fe-chlorite at ~150°C. Oxygen isotopes (V-SMOW) yielded values of +3.8 (1σ) (Fe-chlorite), +6.91 (1σ) (Fe,Mn-chlorite) and +1.5 (1σ) (Fe,Mg-chlorite). The calculated δ18OF of Fe- and Fe,Mg-chlorite is ~+3.75 (1σ) and +1.45 (1σ) for the mineralizing fluid, whereas for Fe,Mn-chlorite it is +8.17 (1σ). The δ18O data obtained from quartz in W- and Mo-mineralization yielded values of +12.6 and +11.4 (1σ), whereas for adularia δ18O is about +10 (1σ). These estimates allow us to conclude that the Fe,Mn-chlorite crystallized from a magmatic-hydrothermal fluid, whereas the Fe- and Fe,Mg-chlorite quartz and adularia resulted from a mixed contribution between meteoric and magmatic-hydrothermal fluid.
Previous work has identified associations between psychotic experiences (PEs) and general medical conditions (GMCs), but their temporal direction remains unclear as does the extent to which they are independent of comorbid mental disorders.
In total, 28 002 adults in 16 countries from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys were assessed for PEs, GMCs and 21 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders. Discrete-time survival analyses were used to estimate the associations between PEs and GMCs with various adjustments.
After adjustment for comorbid mental disorders, temporally prior PEs were significantly associated with subsequent onset of 8/12 GMCs (arthritis, back or neck pain, frequent or severe headache, other chronic pain, heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes and peptic ulcer) with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–1.5] to 1.9 (95% CI 1.4–2.4). In contrast, only three GMCs (frequent or severe headache, other chronic pain and asthma) were significantly associated with subsequent onset of PEs after adjustment for comorbid GMCs and mental disorders, with ORs ranging from 1.5 (95% CI 1.2–1.9) to 1.7 (95% CI 1.2–2.4).
PEs were associated with the subsequent onset of a wide range of GMCs, independent of comorbid mental disorders. There were also associations between some medical conditions (particularly those involving chronic pain) and subsequent PEs. Although these findings will need to be confirmed in prospective studies, clinicians should be aware that psychotic symptoms may be risk markers for a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Whether PEs are causal risk factors will require further research.