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The Tlahuica, a Nahua ethnic group, arrived in what is now western Morelos and conquered several preexisting towns circa a.d. 1100. Members of Tlahuica elite lineages took control of irrigable land and founded altepeme (small city-states). As population increased, segmentation occurred until there were 32 altepeme. The elite's control of the irrigable land was the basis for collecting tribute consisting of cotton cloth. The 32 altepeme in western Morelos became part of three señoríos (regional centers) comprised of multiple altepeme by a.d. 1400: Cuauhnahuac, Tlaquiltenango, and Xiutepec. Coatlan, located in the southwestern part of western Morelos, remained an independent polity separate from the three señoríos. The 32 altepeme were conquered by the Triple Alliance in the 1430s and 1450s, putting a halt to further conquests by these señoríos and leaving Coatlan as an independent buffer state between the Tlahuica señoríos and Chontal polities to the southwest. The Triple Alliance did not displace the local population in western Morelos or send colonists from the Basin of Mexico, as they did in non-Nahua provinces of the empire.
Financial institutions typically avoid projects that will have a significant adverse effect on cultural heritage because it creates unwelcome risk and can affect their reputation. For bank clients, adverse project effects on cultural heritage can result in reputation risk, impede access to finance and insurance, increase operational costs, and jeopardize on-time and on-budget delivery of projects. To address this risk, financial institutions implement environmental and social policy frameworks that include specific requirements for the consideration of cultural heritage. This article examines the place of cultural heritage in the lending practices of 25 of the world's largest private-sector banks and its relevance for heritage practitioners who may be retained to provide advice, review or undertake fieldwork, and prepare studies in keeping with the private-sector bank policies and external standards described. The article concludes with a recommended best practice for private-sector financial institutions, a call to action for heritage practitioners to advocate for robust safeguards, and a call for support of the UN's Sustainable Development Goals by both heritage practitioners and private-sector financial institutions.
Group treatment enables people with aphasia to practise communication skills outside the typical clinician–patient dyad. While there is evidence that this treatment format can improve participation in everyday communication, there is little evidence it impacts linguistic abilities. This project aimed to investigate the effects of ‘typical’ group treatment on the communication skills of people with aphasia with a focus on word retrieval in discourse.
Three people with aphasia took part in a 6-week group therapy programme. Each week focused on a different topic, and three topics also received a home programme targeting word retrieval. The six treated topics were compared with two control topics, with regard to language production in connected speech. Semistructured interviews were collected twice prior to treatment and twice following the treatment and analysed using (a) word counts; (b) the profile of word errors and retrieval in speech; (c) a measure of propositional idea density, and (d) perceptual discourse ratings.
Two participants showed no significant improvements; one participant showed significant improvement on discourse ratings.
This study provides limited support for group treatment, leading to improved communication as measured by semistructured interviews, even when supplemented with a home programme. We suggest that either group treatment, as implemented here, was not an effective approach for improving communication for our participants and/or that outcome measurement was limited by difficulty assessing changes in connected speech.
Following a legacy of four and a half centuries of literature written by foreign travelers landing on Haiti’s shores, Alejo Carpentier’s seminal novel about the Haitian Revolution is predicated upon Carpentier’s voyage to Haiti six years earlier. This article attends to the role of voyage in Carpentier’s The Kingdom of This World, revealing the ways in which Carpentier’s storytelling and rendering of Haiti in both the novel and its prologue, and his accompanying theory of the marvelous real, adhere to Eurocentric conceptions of time that reinscribe this neocolonial space as anachronistic space. Because Carpentier can only perceive Haiti in the past, he replicates the role of the imperial travel writer in fashioning metropolitan conceptions of colonial spaces and reproduces the imbalance of power between visitor/visited. This perspective reinforces a dominant Euro-American image of Haiti as a strange and magical object of consumption and fails to imagine it as an independent, post-revolution state.
Nearly 65 years ago, D.G. Harcourt developed the first of 74 life tables of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), on the Central Experimental Farm in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada and at nearby sites. This work is cited whenever authors discuss the life history of the diamondback moth and its parasitoids in Canada. Since Harcourt’s study, climate change, urbanisation, and crop diversity may have altered the population dynamics of both the diamondback moth and its natural enemy community in the original study area. To follow up on Harcourt’s work, we used two approaches to build life tables to describe mortality factors in the field and the natural enemies attacking diamondback moth in Ottawa: destructive sampling of mature cabbage, Brassica oleracea Linnaeus (Brassicaceae), plants similar to Harcourt’s approach and a modern sentinel-based approach with an enemy exclusion cage treatment. After 65 years, the primary parasitoids attacking diamondback moth remained the same, although more parasitoid diversity was revealed by the destructive sampling technique. Total mortality and parasitism levels also remained similar. In one notable difference, we attributed more diamondback mortality to predation. Overall, however, diamondback moth population dynamics have changed little in Ottawa in the decades since Harcourt’s studies.
Drawing has always been an integral part of the FRCS examination, be it as a method to understand a complex process during revision or as a tool for explanation in the viva itself. In order to use drawings in the viva exam the candidate must be able to draw, explain and answer questions simultaneously. Thus, practice and understanding are essential.
In this chapter, we have selected the drawings that we think are most useful, having recently been through the examination or taught on this subject for many years.
A zirconolite glass-ceramic material is a candidate wasteform for immobilisation of chlorine contaminated plutonium residues, in which plutonium and chlorine are partitioned to the zirconolite and aluminosilicate glass phase, respectively. A preliminary investigation of chlorine speciation was undertaken by analysis of Cl K-edge X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), to understand the incorporation mechanism. Cl was found to be speciated as the Cl- anion within the glass phase, according to the characteristic chemical shift of the X-ray absorption edge. By comparison with Cl K-edge XANES data acquired from reference compounds, the local environment of the Cl- anion is most closely approximated by the mineral marialite, in which Cl is co-ordinate to 4 x Na and/or Ca atoms.
Early modern women are often categorized by historians in relation to their marital status—whether they appeared as single, married, or widowed women. These identifications reflected the effects of marriage on women's legal and social status. Focusing on the records of the burgh and commissary courts of seventeenth-century Glasgow, this article shows how Scottish women's legal status existed instead on a “marital spectrum,” including liminal phases prior to the formation of marriage as well as overlapping phases following remarriage after the death of a spouse. This spectrum situates women's legal claims in relation to their marital career, allowing for a closer reading of women's legal activities. Court clerks working in Glasgow documented women's varied marital, familial, and legal identities within the court records, a Scottish practice that can shed new light on how women negotiated the boundaries of justice in early modern courts of law.
International climate law is often represented as a set of rules and institutions that scholars have tracked for nearly 30 years, whether to document them, assess their effectiveness, or prescribe reforms. This article, in contrast, adopts a critical perspective to uncover the everyday life of international climate law. From this viewpoint, international climate law is a purposive endeavour that is grounded in the small places where people create and live out the law. ‘International climate lawyers’ are among those who produce the law within these sites, and they propagate international climate law across multiple institutions. Using legal-ethnographic description, the article shows how lawyers operationalize the law in the United Nations climate regime, World Bank, and international human rights system. In each case, lawyers effect some overlapping aspirations for the law as well as legal techniques, but they also adapt their practices to the places where they work. In the process, they simultaneously build and diversify their professional community. Both in their field and community then, lawyers generate heterogeneity and homogeneity through the proliferation of international climate law. They do so on multiple registers, in terms of diverging ethical commitments, multivalent legal forms, and relative authority to speak the law, notably between institutions and the Global North and Global South. If lawyers reproduce sameness and difference in international climate law, moreover, this article suggests they may reify analogous traits in the broader field of international law, including persisting power relations.
Tropical forest regions in equatorial Africa are threatened with degradation, deforestation and biodiversity loss as a result of land-cover change. We investigated historical land-cover dynamics in unprotected forested areas of the Littoral Region in south-western Cameroon during 1975–2017, to detect changes that may influence this important biodiversity and wildlife area. Processed Landsat imagery was used to map and monitor changes in land use and land cover. From 1975 to 2017 the area of high-value forest landscapes decreased by c. 420,000 ha, and increasing forest fragmentation caused a decline of c. 12% in the largest patch index. Conversely, disturbed vegetation, cleared areas and urban areas all expanded in extent, by 32% (c. 400,000 ha), 5.6% (c. 26,800 ha) and 6.6% (c. 78,631 ha), respectively. The greatest increase was in the area converted to oil palm plantations (c. 26,893 ha), followed by logging and land clearing (c. 34,838 ha), all of which were the major factors driving deforestation in the study area. Our findings highlight the increasing threats facing the wider Littoral Region, which includes Mount Nlonako and Ebo Forest, both of which are critical areas for regional conservation and the latter a proposed National Park and the only sizable area of intact forest in the region. Intact forest in the Littoral Region, and in particular at Ebo, merits urgent protection.
On August 24, 2016, the Colombian government of President Juan Manuel Santos and leaders of the FARC rebel movement (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) signed a peace agreement designed to bring to an end the FARC insurgency that had lasted since 1964. One provision of the agreement was that it would be put to a vote in a plebiscite for Colombian citizens to ratify or reject. On October 2, 2016, the plebiscite was held and, surprisingly, 50.2 percent of voters rejected the agreement. Shortly thereafter, the Colombian government and FARC negotiated and signed a revised agreement and sent it directly to the Colombian legislature for ratification, bypassing a second referendum. Both houses of the Congress ratified the agreement, marking a formal end to the war between FARC and the government of Colombia.
This article presents a normative framework for the assessment of education policies and applies it to the issue of schools’ selecting their students on the basis of religious criteria. Such policies can be justified, and challenged, on many different grounds; public debate is not conducted in terms adequate to the task. The authors’ main objectives are to supplement with non-consequentialist considerations a recent, consequentialist, approach to the normative assessment of education policy proposed by Brighouse et al. (2016, 2018), and to apply the proposed framework to issues of school composition and selection. They argue, further, that policies allowing schools to select all their students on the basis of their parents’ religious affiliation cannot be justified.
In popular culture and scholarship, a consistent trope about Mormonism is that it features a propensity for violence, born of the religion's theocratic impulses and the antinomian tendencies of special revelation. Mormonism and Violence critically assesses the relationship of Mormonism and violence through a close examination of Mormon history and scripture, focusing on the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The Element pays special attention to violence in the Book of Mormon and the history of the movement, from the 1830s to the present.