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The growing need for multielement analytical capability is currently being emphasized by the ever broadening governmental regulations on metallic pollutants in water sources. These new regulations cover more elements and are more restrictive in the type and amounts allowable in waste water and natural sources. For example, the California Public Health Law of 1970 states that 0.01 ppm arsenic, 1.0 ppm barium, 0.01 cadmium, 0.05 ppm manganese and 5.0 ppm zinc are the limiting concentrations of these elements in drinking water. Monitoring programs, both for compliance-enforcement and general survey work, have become a greater burden on both governmental agencies and private inductries. While trace analysis in solutions presents certain difficulties to the analytical chemist, regardless of the technique used, the results of this study indicate that x-ray analysis provides a more useful analytical tool for routine work and offers multielement capability with minimal sample preparation.
DEMOCRATIC ECO-SOCIALIST ALTERNATIVES IN SOUTH AFRICA
Desné Masie, International economics and financial markets. She is currently a visiting scholar in international political economy at the School of Governance at the University of the Witwatersrand.,
Patrick Bond, Professor of Political Economy in the School of Governance at the University of the Witwatersrand.
The mid-2014 South African introduction of the ‘big fast results’ methodology behind Operation Phakisa (‘hurry up’ in Sesotho) – applied in the first instance to the ocean's ‘blue economy’ – followed President Jacob Zuma's 2013 visit to Malaysia, whose leaders applied the strategy to economic policy. The nomenclature, process and strategy reflected the increasing desperation and quickening of what might be considered an ‘extractivist’ metabolism (Martinez-Alier 2002) between global capital, local ruling classes, society and nature (Terreblanche 2017).
Though Zuma's (2014) stated objectives of ‘growing’ ocean-related economic activities – especially shipping, boat construction and offshore oil and gas exploration – are running afoul of global economics, the conversion of nature into capital and attempts at ‘deriving value’ – as Zuma (2014) put it – from ecosystem services are increasingly common internationally. But the Phakisa rush follows a period of upsurging fusions between what Jacklyn Cock (2004) calls ‘red, brown and green’ resistance movements, including mineworkers, fisherfolk, farmers, feminists and climate activists, to name a few of the more prominent, some of which aim to introduce strategies associated with ‘just transition’ philosophy.
Regardless of the capacity of bottom-up resistance, Phakisa soon appeared to be on the verge of failing due to the trajectory of crashing commodity prices from above, as China's growth slows and as the global North's financial speculators moved from one bubble to the next. Shipping, mining, smelting and petroleum industry firms were demolished in the world's main stock markets during 2015. Either this stage of world capitalist crisis would require from South Africa's elites a more intense extraction of the country's resource base, or an entirely new trajectory, aimed at accumulation via routes other than what Ben Fine and Zavareh Rustomjee (1996) termed the ‘minerals–energy complex’ (MEC).
Recall the exhortation from leading business publisher Peter Bruce to ‘please, mine more and faster and ship what we mine cheaper and faster’. Economic policy makers soon moved to the very depths of their terrain: the 3.5 kilometre deep trenches below the treacherous Agulhas Current offshore of Durban.
We report preliminary results relative to a balloon-borne search for the large-scale anisotropy carried out in 1980 by means of two far infrared photometers centered at 400 and 1100 microns. While these results are consistent with those obtained in an earlier flight, the second, shorter wavelength channel included in the 1980 work provides interesting insights into the influence of galactic dust on such far infrared observations.
Quantum fluctuations of the cosmic background have been measured in the 900 to 2000 micron range (H.P.B.W.) by means of a balloon-borne correlator operating between 5 and 150 Hz. Preliminary results indicate an upper limit √<dP2> ≤ 2.1 × 10−17 watt/(cm2 srad Hz)1/2, corresponding to the noise of a blackbody at a temperature T ≤ 3.1 K at 1σ.
We analyze the anisotropies in the extragalactic infrared background and in the source counts in standard cosmology perturbed by large-scale, small-amplitude density fluctuations. The dipole anisotropy of the diffuse background is connected to the dipole of the cosmic background radiation and of the source counts, and a full consistency with a large (≃ 7%) anisotropy in the IRAS source counts is found to imply a low density (Ω0 ≃ 0.2) universe, contrary to a previous claim. We analyze also higher order harmonics. Using the IRAS Low-Resolution All-Sky Maps we obtain an upper limit of 0.17MJy/sr on the dipole of the 100 μm background and show that it is consistent with a source-count anisotropy of 7% only for a low intensity, I ≤ 1.2 M Jy/sr, of the background itself.
The aim of the present research is to verify the immune status against tetanus in students and workers exposed to risk and to ascertain whether a decennial booster is necessary. Antibodies against tetanus were measured in 1433 workers and students of Padua University (Italy). The enrolment criterion was the ability to provide a booklet of vaccinations released by a public health office. The influence of age, gender, the number of vaccine doses, and the interval since the last dose was determined. Ten years after the last dose, the majority of subjects (95·0%) displayed an antibody titre above the protective level (⩾0·10 IU/ml), and half of these (49·1%) had a long-term protective level (⩾1·0 IU/ml). According to our data, titre depends on both the number of vaccine doses and the interval since the last dose (P < 0·0001). Five vaccine doses and an interval of at least 10 years since the last dose are predictive of a long-term protective titre in absence of a booster (1·97 IU/ml). These data suggest that when primary series are completed, a decennial booster is unnecessary for up to 20 years. Furthermore, we recommend measuring the antibody level before a new booster is given to prevent problems related to over-immunisation.
The possible presence of general extragalactic extinction has been studied by many authors. Extragalactic dust can be associated with a pregalactic star population and/or it can be ejected by galaxies during their evolution.
The motion of the earth with respect to the distant matter frame produces a spectral distortion in the observed background radiation given by
The second-order approximation in β gives (de Bernardis et al., 1989) 2 where α≅(dlnI/dln v) = (v/I)(dI/dv). The first term in cosθ of equation (2) is the usual dipole anisotropy, the second constant term is the equivalent of the transverse Doppler effect in special relativity, and the third term is the quadrupole anisotropy. It is interesting to note that the quadrupole term is zero in the Rayleigh-Jeans region of the blackbody spectrum: Q ≈ 1/2(3–α)(2–α)β2cos2θ.
The study of the anisotropies of the submillimeter relict radiation (RR) can provide important arguments to select among different theoretical scenarios (Panek and Rudak 1988). However, interstellar dust (ISD) emission is present in this spectral region and its patchy distribution can heavily contaminate anisotropy measurements. For example, the most sensitive measurement of CBR anisotropies has been reported so far in a broad band around 1 mm (Melchiorri et al. 1981): the detection of anisotropy is statistically very significant, but its cosmological origin is questionable.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are pervasive and multifactorial neurodevelopmental conditions, characterized by impairments in social communication and interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests or activities. Treatment options to ameliorate symptoms of ASDs are limited. Heterogeneity complicates the quest for personalized medicine in this population. Our aim was to investigate if there are baseline characteristics of patients that moderate response or trial design features that impede the identification of efficacious interventions for ASDs.
Literature searches of EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO identified 43 studies for qualitative assessment of baseline characterization of participants and 37 studies for quantitative analysis of moderators of treatment response. Criteria included blinded randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in paediatric ASD, with at least 10 participants per arm or 20 overall, of oral treatments, including pharmacological interventions and dietary supplements.
Random-effects meta-analysis of 1997 participants (81% male) identified three moderators associated with an increase in treatment response: trials located in Europe and the Middle-East; outcome measures designated primary status; and the type of outcome measure. Inconsistent reporting of baseline symptom severity and intellectual functioning prevented analysis of these variables. Qualitative synthesis of baseline characteristics identified at least 31 variables, with only age and gender reported in all trials. Biological markers were included in six RCTs.
Few trials reported adequate baseline characteristics to permit detailed analysis of response to treatment. Consideration of geographical location, baseline severity and intellectual function is required to ensure generalizability of results. The use of biological markers and correlates in ASD trials remains in its infancy. There is great need to improve the application of baseline characterization and incorporation of biological markers and correlates to permit selection of participants into homogeneous subgroups and to inform response to treatment in ASD.
In the 1998-99 flight, BOOMERanG has produced maps of ∼4% of the sky at high Galactic latitudes, at frequencies of 90, 150, 240 and 410 GHz, with resolution ≳ 10'. The faint structure of the Cosmic Microwave Background at horizon and sub-horizon scales is evident in these maps. These maps compare well to the maps recently obtained at lower frequencies by the WMAP experiment. Here we compare the amplitude and morphology of the structures observed in the two sets of maps. We also outline the polarization sensitive version of BOOMERanG, which was flown early this year to measure the linear polarization of the microwave sky at 150, 240 and 350 GHz.
We show how estimates of parameters characterizing inflation-based theories of structure formation localized over the past year when large scale structure (LSS) information from galaxy and cluster surveys was combined with the rapidly developing cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, especially from the recent Boomerang and Maxima balloon experiments. All current CMB data plus a relatively weak prior probability on the Hubble constant, age and LSS points to little mean curvature (Ωtot = 1.08±0.06) and nearly scale invariant initial fluctuations (ns = 1.03±0.08), both predictions of (non-baroque) inflation theory. We emphasize the role that degeneracy among parameters in the Lpk = 212 ± 7 position of the (first acoustic) peak plays in defining the Ωtot range upon marginalization over other variables. Though the CDM density is in the expected range (Ωcdmh2 = 0.17 ± 0.02), the baryon density Ωbh2 = 0.030 ± 0.005 is somewhat above the independent 0.019 ± 0.002 nucleosynthesis estimates. CMB+LSS gives independent evidence for dark energy (ΩΛ = 0.66 ± 0.06) at the same level as from supernova (SN1) observations, with a phenomenological quintessence equation of state limited by SN1+CMB+LSS to wQ < −0.7 cf. the wQ=−1 cosmological constant case.
BOOMERanG has recently resolved structures on the last scattering surface at redshift ˜ 1100 with high signal to noise ratio. We review the technical advances which made this possible, and we focus on the current results for maps and power spectra, with special attention to the determination of the total mass-energy density in the Universe and of other cosmological parameters.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) include a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with early onset in childhood. ASDs should be considered lifelong clinical entities, although there is a certain variability in developmental trajectories, and therefore should be considered of great interest also for adulthood psychiatrists. A few studies have been carried out to explore the clinical picture and course development of these disorders during adulthood, or their relationship with other mental disorders. Indeed, ASDs often share overlapping features with other disorders, such as schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive, mood, and personality disorders, and as a result misdiagnoses often occur. The aim of this review is to summarize the available literature on ASDs in adulthood with a specific focus on the clinical picture, course, and psychiatric comorbidity. It is proposed that a careful diagnostic screening for ASDs in adults would contribute to clarifying the relationship with comorbid psychiatric disorders, while improving the possibility of treatment and outcome of such conditions.
A model is developed for describing mixing of several species under high-pressure conditions. The model includes the Peng–Robinson equation of state, a full mass-diffusion matrix, a full thermal-diffusion-factor matrix necessary to incorporate the Soret and Dufour effects and both thermal conductivity and viscosity computed for the species mixture using mixing rules. Direct numerical simulations (DNSs) are conducted in a temporal mixing layer configuration. The initial mean flow is perturbed using an analytical perturbation which is consistent with the definition of vorticity and is divergence free. Simulations are performed for a set of five species relevant to hydrocarbon combustion and an ensemble of realizations is created to explore the effect of the initial Reynolds number and of the initial pressure. Each simulation reaches a transitional state having turbulent characteristics and most of the data analysis is performed on that state. A mathematical reformulation of the flux terms in the conservation equations allows the definition of effective species-specific Schmidt numbers
and of an effective Prandtl number
based on effective species-specific diffusivities and an effective thermal conductivity, respectively. Because these effective species-specific diffusivities and the effective thermal conductivity are not directly computable from the DNS solution, we develop models for both of these quantities that prove very accurate when compared with the DNS database. For two of the five species, values of the effective species-specific diffusivities are negative at some locations indicating that these species experience spinodal decomposition; we determine the necessary and sufficient condition for spinodal decomposition to occur. We also show that flows displaying spinodal decomposition have enhanced vortical characteristics and trace this aspect to the specific features of high-density-gradient magnitude regions formed in the flows. The largest values of the effective species-specific
numbers can be well in excess of those known for gases but almost two orders of magnitude smaller than those of liquids at atmospheric pressure. The effective thermal conductivity also exhibits negative values at some locations and the effective
displays values that can be as high as those of a liquid refrigerant. Examination of the equivalence ratio indicates that the stoichiometric region is thin and coincides with regions where the mixture effective species-specific Lewis number values are well in excess of unity. Very lean and very rich regions coexist in the vicinity of the stoichiometric region. Analysis of the dissipation indicates that it is dominated by mass diffusion, with viscous dissipation being the smallest among the three dissipation modes. The sum of the heat and species (i.e. scalar) dissipation is functionally modelled using the effective species-specific diffusivities and the effective thermal conductivity. Computations of the modelled sum employing the modelled effective species-specific diffusivities and the modelled effective thermal conductivity shows that it accurately replicates the exact equivalent dissipation.
SCAR, the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, is, like the IAU, a committee of ICSU, the International Council for Science. For over 30 years, SCAR has provided scientific advice to the Antarctic Treaty System and made numerous recommendations on a variety of matters. In 2010, Astronomy and Astrophysics from Antarctica was recognized as one of SCAR's five Scientific Research Programs. Broadly stated, the objectives of Astronomy & Astrophysics from Antarctica are to coordinate astronomical activities in Antarctica in a way that ensures the best possible outcomes from international investment in Antarctic astronomy, and maximizes the opportunities for productive interaction with other disciplines. There are four Working Groups, dealing with site testing, Arctic astronomy, science goals, and major new facilities. Membership of the Working Groups is open to any professional working in astronomy or a related field.