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Algorithms permeate our lives in numerous ways, performing tasks that until recently could only be carried out by humans. Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies, based on machine learning algorithms and big-data-powered systems, can perform sophisticated tasks such as driving cars, analyzing medical data, and evaluating and executing complex financial transactions—often without active human control or supervision. Algorithms also play an important role in determining retail pricing, online advertising, loan qualification, and airport security. In this work, Martin Ebers and Susana Navas bring together a group of scholars and practitioners from across Europe and the US to analyze how this shift from human actors to computers presents both practical and conceptual challenges for legal and regulatory systems. This book should be read by anyone interested in the intersection between computer science and law, how the law can better regulate algorithmic design, and the legal ramifications for citizens whose behavior is increasingly dictated by algorithms.
The themes of sedentarisation, urbanisation and state formation are fundamental ones in the archaeology of many diverse parts of the world but have been little explored in relation to early societies of the Saharan zone. Moreover, the possibility has rarely been considered that the precocious civilisations bordering this vast desert were interconnected by long-range contacts and knowledge networks. The orthodox opinion of many of the key oasis zones within the Sahara is that they were not created before the early medieval period and the Islamic conquest of Mediterranean North Africa. Major claims of this volume are that the ultimate origins of oasis settlements in many parts of the Sahara were considerably earlier, that by the first millennium AD some of these oasis settlements were of a size and complexity to merit the categorisation 'towns' and that a few exceptional examples were focal centres within proto-states or early state-level societies.
Ecologists and economists both use models to help develop strategies for biodiversity management. The practical use of disciplinary models, however, can be limited because ecological models tend not to address the socioeconomic dimension of biodiversity management, whereas economic models tend to neglect the ecological dimension. Given these shortcomings of disciplinary models, there is a necessity to combine ecological and economic knowledge into ecological-economic models. Gradually guiding the reader into the field of ecological-economic modelling by introducing mathematical models and their role in general, this book provides an overview on ecological and economic modelling approaches relevant for research in the field of biodiversity conservation. It discusses the advantages of and challenges associated with ecological-economic modelling, together with an overview of useful ways of integration. Although being a book about mathematical modelling, ecological and economic concepts play an equally important role, making it accessible for readers from very different disciplinary backgrounds.
Political sociology is a large and expanding field with many new developments, and The New Handbook of Political Sociology supplies the knowledge necessary to keep up with this exciting field. Written by a distinguished group of leading scholars in sociology, this volume provides a survey of this vibrant and growing field in the new millennium. The Handbook presents the field in six parts: theories of political sociology, the information and knowledge explosion, the state and political parties, civil society and citizenship, the varieties of state policies, and globalization and how it affects politics. Covering all subareas of the field with both theoretical orientations and empirical studies, it directly connects scholars with current research in the field. A total reconceptualization of the first edition, the new handbook features nine additional chapters and highlights the impact of the media and big data.
This book presents the first systematic appreciation of Ovid's extensive influence on, and affinity with, modern visual culture. Some topics are directly related to Ovid; others exhibit features, characters, or themes analogous to those in his works. The book demonstrates the wide-ranging ramifications that Ovidian archetypes, especially from the Metamorphoses, have provoked in a modern artistic medium that did not exist in Ovid's time. It ranges from the earliest days of film history (Georges Méliès's discovery of screen metamorphosis) and theory (Gabriele D'Annunzio's fascination with the metamorphosis of Daphne; Sergei Eisenstein's concept of film sense) through silent films, classic sound films, commercial cinema, art-house and independent films to modernism and the C.G.I. era. Films by well-known directors, including Ingmar Bergman, Walerian Borowczyk, Jean Cocteau, Alfred Hitchcock, Stanley Kubrick, Fritz Lang, Max Ophüls, Alain Resnais, and various others, are analyzed in detail.
This Handbook provides a contemporary and research-informed review of the topics essential to clinical psychological assessment and diagnosis. It outlines assessment issues that cross all methods, settings, and disorders, including (but not limited to) psychometric issues, diversity factors, ethical dilemmas, validity of patient presentation, psychological assessment in treatment, and report writing. These themes run throughout the volume as leading researchers summarize the empirical findings and technological advances in their area. With each chapter written by major experts in their respective fields, the text gives interpretive and practical guidance for using psychological measures for assessment and diagnosis.
The correspondence between composer John Cage and Peter Yates represents the third and final part of Cage's most significant exchanges of letters, following those with Pierre Boulez and with David Tudor. Martin Iddon's book is the first volume to collect the complete extant correspondence with his critical friend, thus completing the 'trilogy' of Cage correspondence published by Cambridge. By bringing together more than 100 letters, beginning in 1940 and continuing until 1971, Iddon reveals the dialogue within which many of Cage's ideas were first forged and informed, with particular focus on his developing attitudes to music criticism and aesthetics. The correspondence with Yates represents precisely, in alignment with Cage's fastidious neatness, the part of his letter writing in which he engages most directly with the last part of his famous tricolon, 'composing's one thing, performing's another, listening's a third'.
The chapter addresses the role and content of Spanish constitutional identity. It first considers the stance of the Spanish Constitutional Court. In this regard, Spain joins the list of EU Member States whose constitutional courts do not accept the principle of primacy’s effectiveness in EU law vis-à-vis the Constitution. In order to contain the unlimited scope of that principle, the Constitutional Court has come up with an original and controversial distinction between the primacy of EU law and the supremacy of the Constitution. It also acknowledges that there is a core of the Constitution – its constitutional identity – that falls outside the scope of primacy. Its content lies in the respect for state sovereignty, for basic constitutional structures, and for the system of core values and principles in the Constitution, where fundamental rights acquire their own substantive nature. The chapter also examines the role of constitutional identity in the context of the Catalan secessionist movement. It considers that ensuring the state’s territorial integrity is an indispensable part of constitutional identity, whilst providing an obligation incumbent on the EU under Art. 4(2) TEU.
People make comprehension easier by predicting upcoming language. We might therefore expect prediction to occur during the extremely difficult task of simultaneous interpreting. This paper examines the theoretical and empirical foundations of this premise. It reviews accounts of prediction during comprehension in both monolinguals and bilinguals, and discusses these theories in light of experimental data (e.g., using the visual-world paradigm). It considers how these accounts may be applied to the unique and ecologically valid context of simultaneous interpreting, when two languages are used concurrently, one overtly engaging the comprehension system, and the other overtly engaging the production system. It then posits a role for the production system in prediction during comprehension and develops a theoretical framework for prediction-by-production in simultaneous interpreting that has implications for our understanding of prediction during language comprehension.
For families of smooth complex projective varieties, we show that normal functions arising from algebraically trivial cycle classes are algebraic and defined over the field of definition of the family. In particular, the zero loci of those functions are algebraic and defined over such a field of definition. This proves a conjecture of Charles.
A high prevalence of asthma has been documented among the inhabitants of Tristan da Cunha, an isolated island in the South Atlantic. The population derives from just 28 founders. We performed lung function testing, including methacholine inhalation challenge, allergen skin prick testing, and collected DNA from essentially all of the current island population (269 individuals), and genotyped a panel of 43 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported as associated with asthma and atopy. We carried out a mixed-model association analysis using the known pedigree. There were 96 individuals diagnosed as asthmatic (36%), and heritability estimates were similar to those from nonisolated population samples (multifactorial threshold model, h2 = 48%). The first component from a genetic principal components analysis using the entire SNP panel was nonlinearly associated with asthma, with the maximum risk to those intermediate to reference (Human Genome Diversity Project) European and African samples means. The single most strongly associated SNP was rs2786098 (p = 5.5 × 10−5), known to regulate the gene DENND1B. This explained approximately one-third of the trait heritability, with an allelic odds ratio for the A allele of 2.6. Among A/A carriers, 10 out of 12 individuals were asthmatic. The rs2786098*A variant was initially reported to decrease the risk of childhood (atopic) asthma in European but slightly increase the risk in African-descended populations, and does significantly alter Th2 cell function. Despite an absence of overall association with this variant in recent asthma genome wide association studies meta-analyses, an effect may exist on the particular genetic background of the Tristan da Cunha population.
The Trondheim radiocarbon (14C) laboratory has evolved from a traditional radiocarbon decay counting laboratory to an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) facility primarily measuring 14C. This evolution required adjustments in sample preparation and data handling to match the capacity of the AMS system and reduction in sample sizes to about 1 mgC. We summarize here the steps involved in dating a sample at the National Laboratory for Age Determination in Trondheim, Norway. These include the structure of our sample database for information handling, sample cleaning procedures for different sample types, our reduction systems, both an automated EA-based system for regular use and a manual system for more challenging samples, and data evaluation. We will also briefly summarize the capabilities of our isotope-ratio mass spectrometer.
This study evaluated the effects of oocyte meiosis inhibitors roscovitine (ROS) and butyrolactone I (BL-I) on in vitro production of bovine embryos. Bovine oocytes were maintained in pre in vitro maturation (pre-IVM) with 25 µM ROS or 100 µM BL-I for 24 h to delay meiosis and for 24 h in in vitro maturation (IVM). Following this treatment, the nuclear maturation index was evaluated. All embryos degenerated following this procedure. In the second set of experiments, oocytes were maintained for 6 or 12 h in pre-IVM with the following three treatments: ROS (25 µM or 12.5 µM), BL-I (100 µM or 50 µM) or a combination of both drugs (6.25 µM ROS and 12.5 µM BL-I). Oocytes were cultivated for 18 or 12 h in IVM. When a meiosis-inducing agent was used during pre-IVM for 24 h, more degenerated oocytes were observed at the end of the IVM period. This effect decreased when the meiotic blocking period was reduced to 6 or 12 h. No significant differences were observed in the blastocyst production rate of oocytes in pre-IVM for 6 h with ROS, BL-I, or ROS + BL-I compared with that of the control group (P > 0.05). However, inhibition of oocytes for 12 h resulted in decreased embryo production compared with that in the controls (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the post-vitrification embryo re-expansion rate between the study groups, showing that the meiotic inhibition for 6 or 12 h did not alter the embryo cryopreservation process.
Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) is a nozzle-free printing technology that can be used for two- and three-dimensional printing. In LIFT, a laser pulse creates an impulse inside a thin film of material that results in the formation of a liquid jet. We experimentally study LIFT of viscoplastic materials by visualizing the process of jetting with high-speed imaging. The shape of the jet depends on the laser energy, focal height, surface tension and material rheology. We theoretically identify the characteristic jetting velocity and how it depends on the control parameters, and define non-dimensional groups to classify the regimes of jetting. Based on the results, we propose the optimal conditions for printing with LIFT technology.
Rewriting logic is naturally concurrent: several subterms of the state term can be rewritten simultaneously. But state terms are global, which makes compositionality difficult to achieve. Compositionality here means being able to decompose a complex system into its functional components and code each as an isolated and encapsulated system. Our goal is to help bringing compositionality to system specification in rewriting logic. The base of our proposal is the operation that we call synchronous composition. We discuss the motivations and implications of our proposal, formalize it for rewriting logic and also for transition structures, to be used as semantics, and show the power of our approach with some examples.