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This book argues that core concepts in EU citizenship law are riddled with latent fissures traceable back to the earliest case law on free movement of persons, and that later developments simply compounded such defects. By looking at these defects, not only could Brexit have been predicted, but it could also have been foreseen that unchecked problems with EU citizenship would potentially lead to its eventual dismantling during an era of widespread populism and considerable challenges to further integration. Using a critical constructivist approach, the author painstakingly outlines the 'temple' of citizenship from its foundations upwards, and offers a deconstruction of concepts such as 'worker', the role of non-economic actors, the principle of equal treatment, and utterances of citizenship. In identifying inherent fissures in the concept of solidarity and post national identification, this book poses critical questions and argues that we need to reconstruct EU citizenship from the bottom up.
Between 1981 and 2016, thousands of American and Australian Vietnam War veterans returned to Việt Nam. This comparative, transnational oral history offers the first historical study of these return journeys. It shows how veterans returned in search of resolution, or peace, manifesting in shifting nostalgic visions of 'Vietnam.' Different national war narratives shaped their returns: Australians followed the 'Anzac' pilgrimage tradition, whereas for Americans the return was an anti-war act. Veterans met former enemies, visited battlefields, mourned friends, found new relationships, and addressed enduring legacies of war. Many found their memories of war eased by witnessing Việt Nam at peace. Yet this peacetime reality also challenged veterans' wartime connection to Vietnamese spaces. The place they were nostalgic for was Vietnam, a space in war memory, not Việt Nam, the country. Veterans drew from wartime narratives to negotiate this displacement, performing nostalgic practices to reclaim their sense of belonging.
Digital platforms controlled by Alibaba, Alphabet, Amazon, Facebook, Netflix, Tencent and Uber have transformed not only the ways we do business, but also the very nature of people's everyday lives. It is of vital importance that we understand the economic principles governing how these platforms operate. This book explains the driving forces behind any platform business with a focus on network effects. The authors use short case studies and real-world applications to explain key concepts such as how platforms manage network effects and which price and non-price strategies they choose. This self-contained text is the first to offer a systematic and formalized account of what platforms are and how they operate, concisely incorporating path-breaking insights in economics over the last twenty years.
The Cambridge Companion to the Rule of Law introduces students, scholars, and practitioners to the theory and history of the rule of law, one of the most frequently invoked-and least understood-ideas of legal and political thought and policy practice. It offers a comprehensive re-assessment by leading scholars of one of the world's most cherished traditions. This high-profile collection provides the first global and interdisciplinary account of the histories, moralities, pathologies and trajectories of the rule of law. Unique in conception, and critical in its approach, it evaluates, breaks down, and subverts conventional wisdom about the rule of law for the twenty-first century.
The culmination of a long-lasting and impressive research program, this book summarizes the relationship between economic development with income on the one hand and the evolution of institutions on the other; the transition of countries from one economic and social system to another. The author considers the transitions of two types of institutions: The first is external; it is legal-administrative systems with staff and buildings. The political system and the economic system are considered. The second consists of traditions and beliefs. Here corruption and religiosity are considered. Contrary to the claim that institutions are causal to development, this book demonstrates that the main direction of causality is from income to institutions. As countries get wealthy, they become secular democracies with low corruption and a mixed economic system. In this impressive coda, Paldam shows that the evolution of institutions is not causal to the economic growth process but rather follows it.
Health systems are fluid and their components are interdependent in complex ways. Policymakers, academics and students continually endeavour to understand how to manage health systems to improve the health of populations. However, previous scholarship has often failed to engage with the intersections and interactions of health with a multitude of other systems and determinants. This book ambitiously takes on the challenge of presenting health systems as a coherent whole, by applying a systems-thinking lens. It focuses on Malaysia as a case study to demonstrate the evolution of a health system from a low-income developing status to one of the most resilient health systems today. A rich collaboration of multidisciplinary academics working with policymakers who were at the coalface of decision-making and practitioners with decades of experience, provides a candid analysis of what worked and what did not. The result is an engaging, informative and thought-provoking intervention in the debate. This title is Open Access.
The wave equation, a classical partial differential equation, has been studied and applied since the eighteenth century. Solving it in the presence of an obstacle, the scatterer, can be achieved using a variety of techniques and has a multitude of applications. This book explains clearly the fundamental ideas of time-domain scattering, including in-depth discussions of separation of variables and integral equations. The author covers both theoretical and computational aspects, and describes applications coming from acoustics (sound waves), elastodynamics (waves in solids), electromagnetics (Maxwell's equations) and hydrodynamics (water waves). The detailed bibliography of papers and books from the last 100 years cement the position of this work as an essential reference on the topic for applied mathematicians, physicists and engineers.
Procedure induced anxiety affects the majority of children undergoing medical intervention and has been directly linked to behaviour disturbances, psychological trauma, phobias and symptoms of PTSD. Despite this, there is currently no formal training relating to the management of procedure induced anxiety for medical personnel caring for children. A distillation of more than eighty years of research, this textbook examines the nature, prevalence and consequences of anxiety in children, alongside evidence-based strategies for its effective management. Designed as a training manual, it includes a comprehensive account of positive and negative aspects of behaviour that contribute to the successful management of anxious children. Chapters cover topics such as non-verbal and verbal communication, enhanced communication management strategies, support of children with autistic spectrum disorder, ADHD, learning difficulties, the use of premedication and the role that families play. Essential reading for anaesthetists and paediatricians and a valuable resource for any practitioner working with children.
The Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE) is an internationally accepted tool for assessing the needs of older people. Needs are assessed in twenty-four areas of life and cover a broad range of health, social and psychological domains. Two items that measure the needs of those who care for the older person are also included. The CANE is suitable for use in research, clinical practice and for evaluating health and social services provided to older people. It has been used for over twenty years in a range of settings, populations and countries. This book outlines the evidence for its use in effectively measuring the needs of older people across primary care, community, inpatient and care home settings. Both the full version CANE and short version (CANE-S) are included, along with a detailed manual and scoring guidance. The assessment forms are freely available to download from researchintorecovery.com/can and cambridge.org.
Harry agreed, albeit reluctantly, to try living in London for a year. In May 1869 he and Georgina, accompanied by a servant maid and three pugs, left Beaumaris and took the train to the capital. Georgina was to stay with her mother in Stratford Place, and Harry with Freddy Warre, whilst they looked for lodgings.
By this time a great plan was beginning to evolve in Georgina's mind. Since her theatrical ambitions had been thwarted, she would become a music teacher instead. She had already achieved some success with her first pupil, a sickly, nervous girl called Gwendoline Jones, the daughter of a clergyman and goddaughter to Georgina's friend Catherine Wynne Jones. In 1866 Catherine had brought Gwen to see Georgina. The girl, who was said to have ‘a great taste for music’, had already had some lessons with Manuel García at the Royal Academy of Music in London and wished to become a professional singer. Her neighbours all thought that she had ‘such a sweet voice’ and sang ‘so charmingly’. Georgina, as ‘the great musical oracle of the county’ was asked to hear her sing. She agreed to do so, and gave her opinion that Gwen's talent was ‘very mediocre’ and ‘needed cultivation’. The girl was, moreover, ‘very unattractive in appearance’ and had ‘no more manner than might be expected of a Welsh goat’. Nevertheless, Catherine begged her friend to take the girl under her wing, to help her with her singing and to sing with her. Flattered by this request, and wishing to please the older woman who had been kind to her, Georgina agreed.
During the first few months of 1867 Gwen came for a lesson every few days – rather more often than she was really wanted. But she soon fell ill and returned to her parents, suffering (it was said) from ‘hysteria’. Two years later, just before the Weldons left Beaumaris, Gwen turned up again, apparently recovered, and told Georgina that she wished to settle in London, to study singing seriously, and to become a professional singer. She begged Georgina to recommend a suitable master. Georgina suggested that they should try Alberto Randegger, a well-known music teacher and composer, who had recently been appointed professor of singing at the Royal Academy.
After resting for a day, Georgina returned to Tavistock House on the afternoon of 4 April, accompanied by Villiers and a friend, ‘dear old’ Professor Lloyd Birkbeck. The door was opened by James Bell, the broker's man and caretaker put into the house on Harry's behalf, and they pushed their way in. All around them were boxes full of Georgina's belongings which Ménier was about to carry off with the help of André Sauvadet, who was waiting outside in a hansom cab. Suddenly, Ménier himself emerged from the basement, where he and his Hungarian ‘secretary’ Alexander de Barathy were busy packing up more of Georgina's possessions. On seeing Georgina, Ménier ‘turned as pale as a ghost’ and rushed out of the house without a word, leaving his mistress, Olive Nicholls, behind. ‘Cheer up Madam’, Bell told Georgina, ‘I never saw a party run away from his debtor before.’ Georgina felt some sympathy for the girl, ‘the erring and deluded victim of this old scamp, this old and dirty Don Juan’, but she ordered her to leave the house. The girl went, threatening ‘You will not be here long’. But Bell (‘a pleasant old man’) was prepared to let Georgina stay and she remained in Tavistock House, receiving visits from Harry's London lawyer, James Neal, ‘a fool’, and the broker, Washington Hirschfield, ‘a fanfaron [braggart]’, both of whom were anxious to find out what was going on.
That evening Georgina wrote to Angèle to tell her what had happened:
I have thrown Ménier out. I stopped everything. They were carrying everything away – bed linen, beds, coverlets, your velvet dress! Don't worry. I will have my revenge. I will avenge you! The house is full of putains [whores]. I am exhausted – dead – but too happy to have saved something. Everything is ruined: the magnificent ceiling in the music room has a hole big enough for three men to get through. It's dreadful. They have stolen everything. God knows how much has gone. The gas has been cut off. I’ll have to pay 300 francs [£12]. They wanted to take my piano to pay the taxes.
Georgina Thomas was born on 24 May 1837, a day of general rejoicing throughout Great Britain. Church bells rang; schools and shops were closed; and there were firework displays, tea parties and public dinners with speeches and toasts. It was ‘a day that the old would talk about for a long time, and the young would never forget’. This had, however, nothing whatsoever to do with Georgina, who happened to share her birthday with the young heir to the throne, Princess Victoria. In May 1837 Victoria turned eighteen and, under the provisions of the Regency Bill of 1831, attained her ‘royal majority’. This meant that she was able to rule alone, in her own right, when her uncle William IV died, less than a month after her birthday. The knowledge that she had been born on such an important day gave Georgina a ‘vague idea of superiority and of relationship to the Royal Family’ from an early age. This feeling was reinforced by the erroneous belief that the Thomases were descended from Edward III and would be entitled to claim the throne of England ‘if anything should happen to the reigning family’.
Georgina was the second daughter of Morgan Thomas of Gate House in the parish of Mayfield in Sussex and his wife, Louisa Frances Dalrymple. An elder sister, Cordelia, died of whooping cough when she was just seventeen months old, a few weeks after Georgina's birth. Morgan and Louisa had convinced themselves that their second child would be the longed-for son who was to continue the family line, and they made no attempt to hide their disappointment when the new baby turned out to be a girl. Georgina always felt that her parents had been dissatisfied with her since the day of her birth, somehow blaming her for her sister's early death. As Louisa wept beside Cordelia's empty cot, Georgina (with, as she later wrote, her habitual lack of tact) ‘kicked and screamed with life and joy’.
The Thomas family was of Welsh origin. There is no evidence for their supposed royal descent, but they could trace their ancestry back in the male line to one Traherne ap Thomas, who was living at Lletty Mawr in Llannon, Carmarthenshire, in 1597.
Georgina arrived at Sillwood House late in the evening on 16 November 1904. This was to be her base for the remaining years of her life, though she spent most of her time in London until 1912 when illness finally prevented her from travelling. The original intention seems to have been for her to rent a flat, but it was not long before she took over the whole house. Whilst she was away, Grace Ashford and her younger sister Annie acted as caretakers and housekeepers. Occasional lodgers helped to subsidise the household expenses.
Georgina travelled to Paris for the last time in mid May 1905, returning to Brighton two months later to prepare for a new round of legal actions. One evening she and Annie Ashford went to the theatre to see Ellen Terry in Alice-Sit-by-the-Fire, a comedy written especially for the actress by J.M. Barrie. Georgina was critical of her old friend, whom she had not seen for nearly twenty years: ‘Ellen charming, fascinating, but as she [has] grown so stout, and being so tall, she is ponderous, and the way her figure is strapped up is a marvel. It does not look natural. I would not do it. She blacks up her eyes too much.’ On the following day the two women spent two hours together and ‘jabbered our heads off’.
In the second week of October, Georgina sent nine cases and baskets and an armchair to the Salisbury Hotel, just off Fleet Street, where she had rented a room. It was only ten minutes’ walk from the Royal Courts of Justice, and very convenient. When the Courts reopened, she vowed that she would not go near ‘the beastly place’ – but she was there almost every day. She was soon involved in a convoluted series of claims against everyone who had had anything to do with the biography of Gounod published in the previous year. She also renewed her attacks on the booksellers and librarians, W.H. Smith. They had all, she claimed, contributed to holding her up to ‘hatred, ridicule and contempt’, and had forced her once again ‘into that litigation which has occasioned her to be contemptuously treated in Courts of Justice and elsewhere, and unjustly twitted and bantered and spoken of and “at” as though she were a low designing courtezan, a common scold, without either talent, birth, education or reputation’.
Georgina's ‘At Homes’ at Tavistock House had continued throughout September 1879. The room was almost always full, due to the publicity generated by her appearances at the Aquarium and in the police courts. The programmes were the usual mixture of readings and lectures (mainly by the hostess) and musical items. The takings, however, remained low. Georgina claimed that she was raising money to support her orphanage, but members of the audience may well have wondered what had happened to the orphans themselves. Most of them were still in France and Georgina quickly disposed of the only one left in London, ‘that little wretch’ Tommy, who was ‘planted’ at a place where he would be ‘trained on board ship’. Georgina was only too pleased to see him go.
As Rivière had deprived her of her Benefit Concert, Georgina decided to hold one of her own. On 5 November, the day of the cancelled concert at Covent Garden, she booked St James's Hall for St Cecilia's Day, 22 November. She sent a circular to the members of the choir, informing them
As you all know, I work for my orphanage and the reform of an iniquitous system which has broken my life and, well-nigh, my heart. I have no desire and no pleasure in public singing myself, and I have the sense to know that I am too old to dream of making a career. The choir is a great pleasure to me, and I entertain a sincere feeling of affectionate regard towards many of its members. I am, however, advised there are several backbiting, slanderous tongues among them. I am in a most extraordinarily difficult position, the target for lies, and, till now, the victim of injustice in its most cruel and cowardly form. I have to contend against public and private pique; against hundreds of thousand pounds sterling a year, which are able to buy up the very courts where justice is supposed to be meted out to the subjects of this realm, and the newspapers which are supposed to give fair play.
Apart from one or two ‘turncoats’, the choir remained loyal. Georgina received numerous letters of support and most of the singers still came to rehearsals.
Georgina would no doubt have been pleased by the number of publications that took notice of her death, though she would not have been happy with everything that was written. Back in 1902 she had complained about the fact that her name did not appear in Who's Who, either in her own right or under her husband's name. She had even written her own entry:
Weldon, Georgina. Vocalist, composer, musical conductor, educationalist; trained Gounod's Choir, Mrs Weldon's Choir; founded Mrs Weldon's Orphanage. Celebrated through her successful agitation of Copyright Laws, Married Women's Property, Lunacy Laws and Litigation in person; also for Criminal Court of Appeal. Gained her suit for RCR (1882), against Forbes Winslow, MD, Sir Henry de Bathe, Gounod, Rivière and many others, being awarded heavy damages during 1884–86. Contributed many letters and articles on Spiritualism, Musical Reform, Education etc. Recreation: Requires none.
To which she added:
I have no hesitation in saying that my work has been more useful, more brave, more loyal, more arduous, more painful and more ungrateful than any woman's work recorded in Who's Who. Why, therefore, honor me by singling me out for boycottage? I bravely, laboriously, successfully – as a torpedo among men of war – steered my way alone and blew all calumnies and insinuations to blazes. I believe myself to be the bravest woman in the world.
The obituary in the Daily Telegraph paid more attention to Georgina's friendship with Gounod, which ‘has been described as romantic’ but ‘turned to woeful discord’, and to her fame as a litigant: ‘A handsome woman, proud of her abilities and strong of will, she rather courted than avoided law suits’. The notice in the Daily Mirror was headed ‘A Famous Woman Litigant who Liked the Way Fish was Cooked’, and told how the ‘aged litigant’ had described her time in Holloway Gaol as the happiest days of her life because ‘the way they cooked fish there was a dream’. She was, the journalist added, ‘the most celebrated woman litigant in the history of the British Law Courts’.
By the mid 1860s the relationship between Georgina and her husband was beginning to change. In the early days of their marriage Harry had been ill at ease with his wife's old friends, some of whom made it clear that they thought him their social inferior. He had been reluctant to go anywhere without Georgina. Now he was more self-confident: he had friends of his own and was elected to the Garrick Club in 1867. Harry had previously been inclined to jealousy, tearing the photographs of Georgina's former admirers out of her album, but in the summer of 1866 he did not complain when she spent hours alone with John Brett whilst the artist sketched her. Nor did he object to Georgina staying with Freddy Warre in his new house at 44 Great Ormond Street. It is probably significant that Freddy never married – or came anywhere near doing so. Harry never seems to have seen him as a threat. Freddy was a good friend to Georgina, running errands and buying presents for her. Both were fond of knick-knacks, which they called ‘grabs’, and they wrote silly, teasing letters to each other. Freddy called Georgina ‘Grabkins’ or ‘Georgina Graspall’ and frequently referred to her strong acquisitive streak. He was only too well aware of Georgina's somewhat imperious nature, telling her ‘Sometimes I wish I was your pardner [sic], and then I should be fed and led about like a slave.’ Georgina took all this in good part, and she continued to confide in Freddy and enjoy his visits.
Fred Clay was another close friend. Like Freddy Warre, he teased Georgina and did not take her too seriously, addressing her in one letter as ‘Wondrous Madarme! Ray of Light from Realms above! You ‘eavenborn Female.’ Harry showed no signs of jealousy of Fred Clay either. Much more dangerous was Henry Thompson, who paid Georgina more attention than was entirely proper. He took her to the theatre in London without Harry and brought her chocolate truffles and champagne. Thompson and Georgina began a regular correspondence after she returned to Wales in October, and his gift of a box of marrons glacés on New Year's Day was received with rather more enthusiasm than Harry's aluminium saucepan.
When Georgina Weldon died in 1914, she bequeathed all her papers to her friend Lise Gray, fearing that they would be burnt if she left them to her relations. There were hundreds of letters, together with manuscript memoirs, records of her innumerable lawsuits, and twenty-four journals, covering the years from 1852 to 1854, and from 1860 to 1913. Georgina had also published numerous articles, pamphlets and books, together with six volumes of ‘Mémoires Weldon’ – in reality a chaotic compilation of transcripts of letters and legal papers, interspersed with autobiography, all translated into French. In fact all her published works were largely autobiograpical.
The first book about Georgina was A Plaintiff in Person, which was written by her nephew Philip Treherne and published posthumously in 1923. Treherne, who was born in 1872, first visited Georgina in 1893, and he saw her often after that. His biography is uncritical, and he is at his best when recounting his personal reminiscences of his notorious aunt, especially during her latter years.
Lise Gray died in 1923 and her niece, Marjory Pegram, inherited sixty-five packing cases full of Georgina's books and papers, which had remained in a furniture repository in Brighton since Georgina's death. It was, as she wrote, ‘an awe-inspiring sight’. Miss Pegram then spent many years sorting and arranging the archive. She must have thrown a large proportion of the contents of the packing cases away, but much still remained. In the 1950s, she commissioned Edward Grierson to write a new biography. Grierson, a barrister and prolific writer of both fiction and non-fiction, was born a few weeks after Georgina's death. His book, Storm Bird, was published in 1959. It is a masterpiece of com-pression and remarkably fair, if one considers that he was a barrister working at a time when there were still lawyers around who remembered Georgina, by repute if not in person. Grierson is particularly good on her court cases, but seems rather to have lost interest towards the end of her life.
In the mid 1970s Marjory Pegram went into a care home and her family decided to dispose of Georgina's papers.
For many years, commercial speech was summarily excluded from First Amendment protection, without reason or logic. Starting in the mid-1970s, the Supreme Court began to extend protection but it remained strictly limited. In recent years, that protection has expanded, but both Court and scholars have refused to consider treating commercial speech as the First Amendment equivalent of traditionally protected expressive categories such as political speech or literature. Commercial Speech as Free Expression stands as the boldest statement yet for extending full First Amendment protection to commercial speech by proposing a new, four-part synthesis of different perspectives on the manner in which free expression fosters and protects expressive values. This book explains the complexities and subtleties of how the equivalency principle would function in real-life situations. The key is to recognize that as a matter of First Amendment value, commercial speech deserves treatment equivalent to that received by traditionally protected speech.