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The Eglantine Table is an unmistakably aristocratic artefact that proclaims privilege, representing in exquisite form the wealth, leisure and entertainments that characterised life in society's highest ranks. It would be a mistake, however, to suppose that its elaborate imagery was originally viewed only by members of the Elizabethan social elite. Perhaps the people who saw it most frequently were the staff who kept Bess of Hardwick's great houses running by carrying messages, serving food and, most importantly, polishing furniture. Of course, we cannot know how many of them paused and peered at the music-in-marquetry, connecting it with their own experiences and interpreting it for themselves. Perhaps the individuals most likely to show such interest, given the chance, were instead the visiting musicians, most of them certainly from the lower and middling ranks of society, who regularly spent time in the house as performers and teachers. Their presence warns us against imagining the musical lives of Bess of Hardwick and her aristocratic associates as somehow sealed against the influence of wider society. The beauty and sophistication of the Table, rich with European influence, may seem to speak of such separation, but, if we look closely, its musical components also evoke the mutual influence of ‘high’ and ‘low’ culture in English music of the period.
Musicians of the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries were intermediaries par excellence. Many of them must have performed both in manor houses and alehouses, providing entertainment for anyone who was willing to reward them with money, food or drink (ale was sometimes referred to as ‘fiddlers’ wages’). Their names were not necessarily recorded – unless they were in trouble – but references to musicians crop up in many sources, including civic archives, churchwardens’ accounts, ecclesiastical court books and the records of expenditure kept by stewards in the mansions of the mighty. In the last of these environments, aristocrats and visiting musicians all had to negotiate a potentially difficult situation. Instruments such as lutes, viols and virginals were often represented by literary commentators as properly the preserve of the elite, but aristocratic practitioners were invariably taught to play by less privileged individuals who came to the house by appointment.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding Bacillus altitudinis spores to sows and/or offspring on growth and health indicators. On day (D) 100 of gestation, 24 sows were selected and grouped as: control (CON), fed with a standard diet; and probiotic (PRO), fed the standard diet supplemented with B. altitudinis WIT588 spores from D100 of gestation until weaning. Offspring (n=144) from each of the two sow treatments were assigned to either a CON (no probiotic) or PRO (B. altitudinis-supplemented) treatment for 28 days post-weaning (pw), resulting in four treatment groups: 1) CON/CON, non-probiotic supplemented sow/non-probiotic supplemented piglet; 2) CON/PRO, non-probiotic supplemented sow/probiotic-supplemented piglet; 3) PRO/CON, probiotic-supplemented sow/non-probiotic supplemented piglet; 4) PRO/PRO, probiotic-supplemented sow/probiotic-supplemented piglet. Bacillus altitudinis WIT588 was detected in the faeces of probiotic-supplemented sows and their piglets, and in the faeces and intestine of probiotic-supplemented piglets. Colostrum from PRO sows had higher total solids (P=0.02), protein (P=0.04), and true protein (P=0.05), and lower lactose (P<0.01) than colostrum from CON sows. Maternal treatment improved offspring feed conversion ratio at D0-14 pw (P<0.001) and increased offspring bodyweight at D105 and D127 pw (P=0.01), carcass weight (P=0.05) and kill-out percentage (P<0.01). It also increased small intestinal absorptive capacity and impacted the haematological profile of sows and progeny. Little impact of post-weaning treatment was observed on any of the parameters measured. Overall, the lifetime growth benefits in the offspring of B. altitudinis-supplemented sows offer considerable economic advantages for pig producers in search of alternatives to in-feed antibiotics/zinc oxide.
Parkinson's psychosis can be very challenging to manage, with limited treatment options available. There is a good evidence base to support the use of clozapine, but practical obstacles often prevent its use. There is a drive nationally to set up services so that people with Parkinson's psychosis can access treatment with clozapine in a timely manner and, where possible, with initiation in the community. The authors describe their experiences in setting up clozapine services specifically for this patient group in England and offer a practical approach to the assessment of Parkinson's psychosis. They also outline the evidence base in relation to treatment options and share their experiences of prescribing clozapine for Parkinson's psychosis.
Mass casualty incidents (MCIs) have gained increasing attention in recent years due multiple high-profile events. MCI preparedness improves the outcomes of trauma victims, both in the hospital and prehospital settings. Yet most MCI protocols are designed for high-income countries, even though the burden of mass casualty incidents is greater in low-resource settings.
Hôpital Universitaire de Mirebalais (HUM), a 300-bed academic teaching hospital in central Haiti, developed MCI protocols in an iterative process after a large MCI in 2014. Frequent MCIs from road traffic collisions allowed protocol refinement over time. HUM’s protocols outline communication plans, triage, schematics for reorganization of the emergency department, clear delineation of human resources, patient identification systems, supply chain solutions, and security measures for MCIs. Given limited resources, protocol components are all low-cost or cost-neutral. Unique adaptations include the use of 1) social messaging for communication, 2) mass casualty carts for rapid deployment of supplies, and 3) stickers for patient identification, templated orders, and communication between providers.
These low-cost solutions facilitate a systematic response to MCIs in a resource-limited environment and help providers focus on patient care. These interventions were well received by staff and are a potential model for other hospitals in similar settings.
Colleges and universities around the world engaged diverse strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic. Baylor University, a community of ˜22,700 individuals, was one of the institutions which resumed and sustained operations. The key strategy was establishment of multidisciplinary teams to develop mitigation strategies and priority areas for action. This population-based team approach along with implementation of a “Swiss Cheese” risk mitigation model allowed small clusters to be rapidly addressed through testing, surveillance, tracing, isolation, and quarantine. These efforts were supported by health protocols including face coverings, social distancing, and compliance monitoring. As a result, activities were sustained from 1 August to 8 December 2020. There were 62,970 COVID-19 tests conducted with 1,435 people testing positive for a positivity rate of 2.28%. A total of 1,670 COVID-19 cases were identified with 235 self-reports. The mean number of tests per week was 3,500 with approximately 80 of these positive (11 per day). More than 60 student tracers were trained with over 120 personnel available to contact trace, at a ratio of one per 400 university members. The successes and lessons learned provide a framework and pathway for similar institutions to mitigate the ongoing impacts of COVID-19 and sustain operations during a global pandemic.
The processes and planning involved in choosing and attempting to die by a particular method of suicide are not well understood. Accounts from those who have thought about or attempted suicide using a specific method might allow us to better understand the ways in which people come to think about, plan and enact a suicide attempt.
To understand from first-person accounts the processes and planning involved in a suicide attempt on the railway.
Thematic analysis was conducted of qualitative interviews (N = 34) undertaken with individuals who had contemplated or attempted suicide by train.
Participants explained how they decided upon a particular method, time and place for a suicide attempt. Plans were described as being contingent on a number of elements (including the likelihood of being seen or interrupted), rather than being fixed in advance. Participants mentally rehearsed and evaluated a particular method, which would sometimes involve imagining in detail what would happen before, during and after an attempt. The extent to which this involved others (train drivers, partners, friends) was striking.
By giving people free reign to describe in their own words the processes they went through in planning and undertaking a suicide attempt, and by not interpreting such accounts through a lens of deficit and pathology, we can arrive at important insights into how people come to think and feel about, plan and enact a suicide attempt. The findings have implications in terms of understanding suicide risk and prevention more broadly.
The past few decades have seen the burgeoning of wide-field, high-cadence surveys, the most formidable of which will be the Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST) to be conducted by the Vera C. Rubin Observatory. So new is the field of systematic time-domain survey astronomy; however, that major scientific insights will continue to be obtained using smaller, more flexible systems than the LSST. One such example is the Gravitational-wave Optical Transient Observer (GOTO) whose primary science objective is the optical follow-up of gravitational wave events. The amount and rate of data production by GOTO and other wide-area, high-cadence surveys presents a significant challenge to data processing pipelines which need to operate in near-real time to fully exploit the time domain. In this study, we adapt the Rubin Observatory LSST Science Pipelines to process GOTO data, thereby exploring the feasibility of using this ‘off-the-shelf’ pipeline to process data from other wide-area, high-cadence surveys. In this paper, we describe how we use the LSST Science Pipelines to process raw GOTO frames to ultimately produce calibrated coadded images and photometric source catalogues. After comparing the measured astrometry and photometry to those of matched sources from PanSTARRS DR1, we find that measured source positions are typically accurate to subpixel levels, and that measured L-band photometries are accurate to $\sim50$ mmag at $m_L\sim16$ and $\sim200$ mmag at $m_L\sim18$. These values compare favourably to those obtained using GOTO’s primary, in-house pipeline, gotophoto, in spite of both pipelines having undergone further development and improvement beyond the implementations used in this study. Finally, we release a generic ‘obs package’ that others can build upon, should they wish to use the LSST Science Pipelines to process data from other facilities.
Reimbursement agencies are increasingly using patient preference data to evaluate health technologies. Discrete choice experiments (DCE) are commonly used to elicit patient preferences, but they require large sample sizes to obtain meaningful results. For this reason, it is often not possible to use DCE to elicit patient preferences in rare diseases. This study assessed a swing weighting method for eliciting preferences from a small sample: patients with immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) in the United States (US) and China.
Attributes and levels were selected based on a review of clinical studies and qualitative research on patients. Computer-assisted, interview-based swing weighting exercises were piloted in a focus group with five participants each from the US and China. Preferences were then elicited in interviews with twenty-five patients in the US and fifteen patients in China. Consistency tests were used to assess internal validity. Qualitative data were collected on the reasons for patients’ preferences.
Preference consistency: The weights for one attribute were elicited twice. The difference between initial and consistency test weights was not statistically significant (p < 0.1), although this may partly reflect the small sample sizes. Trade-offs: Qualitative data were used to demonstrate the validity of interpreting participants’ ratings as trade-offs. Using the partial value function for end-stage renal disease as an example, qualitative data demonstrated that patients were able to provide face-valid reasons for different shaped, non-linear preference functions. Robustness of treatment evaluation: Three hypothetical treatment profiles (using the attribute swings) were constructed. Preferences for these treatment profiles were robust to variations in patients’ preferences; all patients preferred one specific profile. This finding was not sensitive to changes in weights.
This study supports the feasibility of collecting valid and robust preference data from small groups of patients using swing weighting. Further work could be done to test the performance of swing weighting in larger sample sizes.
The Shahrizor Prehistory Project has targeted prehistoric levels of the Late Ubaid and Late Chalcolithic 4 (LC4; Late Middle Uruk) periods at Gurga Chiya (Shahrizor, Kurdistan region of northern Iraq), along with the Halaf period at the adjacent site of Tepe Marani. Excavations at the latter have produced new dietary and environmental data for the sixth millennium B.C. in the region, while at Gurga Chiya part of a burned Late Ubaid tripartite house was excavated. This has yielded a promising archaeobotanical assemblage and established a benchmark ceramic assemblage for the Shahrizor Plain, which is closely comparable to material known from Tell Madhhur in the Hamrin valley. The related series of radiocarbon dates gives significant new insights into the divergent timing of the Late Ubaid and early LC in northern and southern Mesopotamia. In the following occupation horizon, a ceramic assemblage closely aligned to the southern Middle Uruk indicates convergence of material culture with central and southern Iraq as early as the LC4 period. Combined with data for the appearance of Early Uruk elements at sites in the adjacent Qara Dagh region, this hints at long-term co-development of material culture during the fourth millennium B.C. in southeastern Iraqi Kurdistan and central and southern Iraq, potentially questioning the model of expansion or colonialism from the south.
To provide insights into the attributes of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) research within the context of economic evaluations for a potential national health technology assessment process in South Africa, and make evidence generation recommendations.
A systematic review was conducted in January 2019 using Medline, the Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection and the South African SciELO collection via the WoS Platform, and in the Cochrane Library. No time restrictions were applied. Duplicate records were removed before first- and second-pass screening by two reviewers working independently.
The review identified 123 publications representing 104 studies since the first-published article appeared in 1996. Only eight studies were randomized controlled trials, most were cross-sectional (n = 54). The EQ-5D, SF-36, and WHOQOL-BREF were the most used HRQoL instruments (n = 35, n = 23, and n = 10, respectively). Instruments were frequently administered in multiple languages, reflecting the cultural groups in which the study was conducted, with the English version of instruments used most often. Studies were predominantly conducted within the public health sector (n = 67), in the Western Cape province (n = 46), in adults (n = 92) and people with HIV (n = 24).
South African specific HRQoL studies have been conducted in a range of settings and populations using mostly generic HRQoL instruments in multiple languages. These studies may provide generalizable, real-world data due to their observational nature. However, more comparative and longitudinal studies should be conducted as this is preferred for economic evaluations and patient, disease, and treatment characteristics should be reported in full.
Monte Carlo simulations are commonly used in elemental quantification using energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Here, the Monte Carlo program MC X-ray was incorporated into the image processing software Dragonfly by Object Research Systems (ORS) as a simulation library. The simulation program has been transformed into a complete microscope simulator where the tools of Dragonfly allow complex voxel-based geometries to be constructed, and the electron beam and detectors can be freely placed inside the 3D space. Computation times of simulations have been improved drastically through new data structures and parallelization. Simulations of backscattered electron imaging and EDS mapping are presented here to demonstrate the capabilities of this new library.
This chapter reads the feminist fiction of the 1970s through its interrogation of the relationship between gender and the credit economy. The first section offers a theoretical account of the ways in which the languages of credit have been deeply gendered, in both the anthropological traditions of Mauss and the critical traditions of Marx. The second section explores the ways in which these gendered languages of both money and the gift were played out through liberal and conservative feminism of the 1970s, as women were being trained to understand the limits of their own place in a system of exchange. The final two sections examine how feminist fiction offered a counter-narrative. It explores both the rejection of accounting as strategy of selfhood in the consciousness-raising fiction of the 1970s and the articulation of a more radical alternative in the feminist science fiction of the decade.