To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
It is the practise for some farmers to supplement new season lambs with concentrates, often as a creep feed, in order to get them to market early before the price declines. This concentrate is usually based on cereals and would be high in n-6 fatty acids, diluting the beneficial effect of grass grazing which promotes the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content in the meat (Fisher et al., 2000). The purpose of this trial was to assess the addition of linseed to the concentrate, fed in a creep-feed system, which would maintain or enhance the n-3 fatty acid composition of the meat of animals fed concentrates at grass during the finishing period (Cooper et al., 2004).
Sheep systems on upland permanent pastures sown with Lolium perenne/Trifolium repens, have typically been relatively intensively managed, relying on inorganic fertilizers to maintain or increase animal output. However changes in the Common Agricultural Policy have resulted in the development of agri-environment schemes to deliver environmental goals from grasslands. These schemes encourage more extensive grazing systems, and change the emphasis from animal output to issues such as increasing biodiversity. Lower stocking densities provide increased opportunities for diet selection, the development of a heterogeneous habitat and associated changes in species composition. However, will more extensive management increase botanical diversity in upland sown swards? The experiment reported here describes the effect of more extensive management combining cessation of fertilizer and lower grazing intensity on vegetation change, stocking density and lamb output over 14 years.
Background: Measurement of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) competency is often resource intensive. A popular emerging alternative to independent observers’ ratings is using other perspectives for rating competency. Aims: This pilot study compared ratings of CBT competency from four perspectives – patient, therapist, supervisor and independent observer using the Cognitive Therapy Scale (CTS). Method: Patients (n = 12, 75% female, mean age 30.5 years) and therapists (n = 5, female, mean age 26.6 years) completed the CTS after therapy sessions, and clinical supervisor and independent observers rated recordings of the same session. Results: Analyses of variance revealed that therapist average CTS competency ratings were not different from supervisor ratings, and supervisor ratings were not different from independent observer ratings; however, therapist ratings were higher than independent observer ratings and patient ratings were higher than all other raters. Conclusions: Raters differed in competency ratings. Implications for potential use and adaptation of CBT competency measurement methods to enhance training and implementation are discussed.
Military personnel generally under-consume n-3 fatty acids and overconsume n-6 fatty acids. In a placebo-controlled, double-blinded study, we investigated whether a diet suitable for implementation in military dining facilities and civilian cafeterias could benefit n-3/n-6 fatty acid status of consumers. Three volunteer groups were provided different diets for 10 weeks. Control (CON) participants consumed meals from the US Military’s Standard Garrison Dining Facility Menu. Experimental, moderate (EXP-Mod) and experimental-high (EXP-High) participants consumed the same meals, but high n-6 fatty acid and low n-3 fatty acid containing chicken, egg, oils and food ingredients were replaced with products having less n-6 fatty acids and more n-3 fatty acids. The EXP-High participants also consumed smoothies containing 1000 mg n-3 fatty acids per serving, whereas other participants received placebo smoothies. Plasma and erythrocyte EPA and DHA in CON group remained unchanged throughout, whereas EPA, DHA and Omega-3 Index increased in EXP-Mod and EXP-High groups, and were higher than in CON group after 5 weeks. After 10 weeks, Omega-3 Index in EXP-High group had increased further. No participants exhibited changes in fasting plasma TAG, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, mood or emotional reactivity. Replacing high linoleic acid (LA) containing foods in dining facility menus with similar high oleic acid/low LA and high n-3 fatty acid foods can improve n-6/n-3 blood fatty acid status after 5 weeks. The diets were well accepted and suitable for implementation in group feeding settings like military dining facilities and civilian cafeterias.
A 1984 strain net on the Snowdome of Blue Glacier showed that the surface slope is a good estimator of ice flow direction and divide location. Topographic maps from 1939, 1952, 1957, 1979, and 1984 show that the flow divide migrates within a zone up to 350 m wide, in response to changes in east-west gradient in snowfall. This zone encloses 6% of the Blue Glacier accumulation area and up to 10% of the year-end residual snow. An ongoing 28-year mass-balance study has used an extreme, westerly divide, giving systematically high net balance estimates. The correct catchment area, for a given balance year calculation, depends on the future migration sequence of the ice divide, with a time constant of about 30 years.
Since its inception in 1975, the Northwest Avalanche Center (NWAC) has developed and produced micro- and mesoscale weather forecasts to support avalanche forecast and control needs for the Olympic and Cascades Mountains of Washington and Oregon, U.S.A. This paper describes NWAC’s array of data, observational results, and analytical techniques that make “avalanche weather” forecasting possible. In addition, NWAC’s operational program and the general terrain and climate of the area are described. A sample forecast is also included.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a metastrongyloid nematode found widely in the Asia-Pacific region, and the aetiological agent of angiostrongyliasis; a disease characterized by eosinophilic meningitis. Rattus rats are definitive hosts of A. cantonensis, while intermediate hosts include terrestrial and aquatic molluscs. Humans are dead-end hosts that usually become infected upon ingestion of infected molluscs. A presumptive diagnosis is often made based on clinical features, a history of mollusc consumption, eosinophilic pleocytosis in cerebral spinal fluid, and advanced imaging such as computed tomography. Serological tests are available for angiostrongyliasis, though many tests are still under development. While there is no treatment consensus, therapy often includes a combination of anthelmintics and corticosteroids. Angiostrongyliasis is relatively rare, but is often associated with morbidity and sometimes mortality. Recent reports suggest the parasites’ range is increasing, leading to fatalities in regions previously considered Angiostrongylus-free, and sometimes, delayed diagnosis in newly invaded regions. Increased awareness of angiostrongyliasis would facilitate rapid diagnosis and improved clinical outcomes. This paper summarizes knowledge on the parasites’ life cycle, clinical aspects and epidemiology. The molecular biology of Angiostrongylus spp. is also discussed. Attention is paid to the significance of angiostrongyliasis in Australia, given the recent severe cases reported from the Sydney region.
This study examines a recent legislative change in New Zealand social policy that provides for the partners of people engaging in welfare fraud to be prosecuted for the crime and to be jointly liable for the debt generated from the crime. This situation applies where the partner knew, or ought to have known, of the fraud. This approach may be contrasted with the treatment of the partners of those who engage in tax evasion, or other forms of financial crime, who are not liable for prosecution or any debt resulting from the offence.
Discrimination of those on welfare is well-established. The article highlights the extent to which welfare beneficiaries are now targeted for greater punitive measures in New Zealand and the increasing criminalisation of welfare in the country. The practices outlined appear to contravene the New Zealand Human Rights Act. Moreover, these practices are not aligned with the basic provisions of criminal law: that a guilty mind and a positive act are present for a crime to be committed. The study draws attention to issues of equity, knowledge of crime, and the construction of crime and criminals in the New Zealand justice system.
Few studies exist that address the relationship between the higher order factors of fluid (Go and crystallised (Gc) intelligence and Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) outcomes. In this study, for each of five cohorts, longitudinal data have been collected over a six-year span, consisting of results from standardised achievement and ability tests and ending with achievement outcomes.Two factors, interpreted as Gf and Gc, are derived from the standardised measures. In Year 7, these measures were the Progressive Achievement Test Mathematics (PAT Moths), Progressive Achievement Test Reading Comprehension (PAT Comprehension), and the jenkins Test of Nonverbal Ability. In Year 10, the measures were the subtests of the Differential Aptitude Test (DAT).These factors are investigated in order to identify whether they are differentially important in regard to VCE Performance. The standardised measures and final VCE results were collected at a Melbourne independent girls' school from 414 exiting Year 12 students, in 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002. Both Gf and Gc accounted for a significant amount of the variance in VCE performance, with Gc being the most significant indicator.
Background: A definitive diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS), as distinct from a clinically isolated syndrome, requires one of two conditions: a second clinical attack or particular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings as defined by the McDonald criteria. MRI is also important after a diagnosis is made as a means of monitoring subclinical disease activity. While a standardized protocol for diagnostic and follow-up MRI has been developed by the Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centres, acceptance and implementation in Canada have been suboptimal. Methods: To improve diagnosis, monitoring, and management of a clinically isolated syndrome and MS, a Canadian expert panel created consensus recommendations about the appropriate application of the 2010 McDonald criteria in routine practice, strategies to improve adherence to the standardized Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centres MRI protocol, and methods for ensuring effective communication among health care practitioners, in particular referring physicians, neurologists, and radiologists. Results: This article presents eight consensus statements developed by the expert panel, along with the rationale underlying the recommendations and commentaries on how to prioritize resource use within the Canadian healthcare system. Conclusions: The expert panel calls on neurologists and radiologists in Canada to incorporate the McDonald criteria, the Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centres MRI protocol, and other guidance given in this consensus presentation into their practices. By improving communication and general awareness of best practices for MRI use in MS diagnosis and monitoring, we can improve patient care across Canada by providing timely diagnosis, informed management decisions, and better continuity of care.