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Positive symptoms are a useful predictor of aggression in schizophrenia. Although a similar pattern of abnormal brain structures related to both positive symptoms and aggression has been reported, this observation has not yet been confirmed in a single sample.
To study the association between positive symptoms and aggression in schizophrenia on a neurobiological level, a prospective meta-analytic approach was employed to analyze harmonized structural neuroimaging data from 10 research centers worldwide. We analyzed brain MRI scans from 902 individuals with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia and 952 healthy controls.
The result identified a widespread cortical thickness reduction in schizophrenia compared to their controls. Two separate meta-regression analyses revealed that a common pattern of reduced cortical gray matter thickness within the left lateral temporal lobe and right midcingulate cortex was significantly associated with both positive symptoms and aggression.
These findings suggested that positive symptoms such as formal thought disorder and auditory misperception, combined with cognitive impairments reflecting difficulties in deploying an adaptive control toward perceived threats, could escalate the likelihood of aggression in schizophrenia.
Timely access to care services is crucial to support people with dementia and their family carers to live well. Carers of people with dementia (N = 390), recruited from eight countries, completed semi-structured interviews about their experiences of either accessing or not using formal care services over a 12-month period in the Access to Timely Formal Care (Actifcare) study. Participant responses were summarised using content analysis, categorised into clusters and frequencies were calculated. Less than half of the participants (42.3%) reported service use. Of those using services, 72.8 per cent reported timely access and of those not using services 67.2 per cent were satisfied with this situation. However, substantial minorities either reported access at the wrong time (27.2%), or feeling dissatisfied or mixed feelings about not accessing services (32.8%). Reasons for not using services included use not necessary yet, the carer provided support or refusal. Reasons given for using services included changes in the condition of the person with dementia, the service's ability to meet individual needs, not coping or the opportunity to access services arose. Facilitators and barriers to service use included whether participants experienced supportive professionals, the speed of the process, whether the general practitioner was helpful, participant's own proactive attitude and the quality of information received. To achieve timely support, simplified pathways to use of formal care services are needed.
In the present study, TiO2NT coatings grown on simulated body fluid-based electrolyte were investigated as drug delivery devices. Nanotubes (NTs) were grown over commercially pure Ti and Ti6Al4V alloy. Morphology analysis showed that NTs in alloy samples present an inner diameter of 10 nm smaller in average than NTs grown over pure Ti. The surface wettability in water decreased with the anodizing time for both substrates. The application of coatings as drug delivery devices has been studied through the incorporation of ciprofloxacin. To control the drug release, collagen was used as the diffusional barrier. It was observed the drug release follows a Fick’s kinetics. Bioactivity assays showed the absence of hemolytic activity. The concentration of the drug during the release interval remained below the toxic concentration limit, presenting a bacteriostatic activity. All coatings prepared presented a high antibacterial activity, being the area of inhibition of bacterial growth above 13 times the area of the implant.
The current drugs for Chagas disease treatment present several limitations
The sesquiterpene lactone goyazensolide (GZL) was evaluated regarding to cytotoxicity and trypanocidal activity against amastigotes, selectivity index (SI) in vitro, acute toxicity and anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity in vivo.
The in vitro cytotoxicity in H9c2 cells was observed at doses >250 ng mL−1 of GZL and the SI were of 52.82 and 4.85 (24 h) and of 915.00 and 41.00 (48 h) for GZL and BZ, respectively. Nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity were not verified. Treatment with GZL of mice infected with CL strain led to a significant decrease of parasitaemia and total survival at doses of 1 and 3 mg kg−1 day−1 by oral and IV, respectively. This last group cured 12.5% of the animals (negativation of HC, PCR, qPCR and ELISA). Animals infected with Y strain showed significant decrease of parasitaemia and higher negativation in all parasitological tests in comparison to BZ and control groups, but were ELISA reactive, as well as the BZ group, but mice treated with 5.0 mg kg−1 day−1 by oral were negative in parasitological tests and survived.
GZL was more active against T. cruzi than benznidazole in vitro and presented important therapeutic activity in vivo in both T. cruzi strains.
With respect to De Dreu and Gross's article, we comment on the psychological functions for attack and defense, focusing on associations between individual differences in psychopathic personality traits and the behavioral patterns observed in attack-defense conflicts. We highlight the dimensional nature of psychopathy and formulate hypothetical associations between distinct traits, their different behavioral outcomes, and associated brain mechanisms.
To investigate an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis caused by norovirus (NoV) in a long-term care facility (LTCF) in Portugal to describe and estimate its extent, and we implemented control measures.
Probable cases were residents or staff members in the LTCF with at least 1 of the following symptoms: (1) diarrhea, (2) vomiting, (3) nausea, and/or (4) abdominal pain between October 31 and December 8, 2017. Confirmed cases were probable cases with positive NoV infection detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the same genotype in stool specimens.
The outbreak was caused by NoV GII.P16-GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant and affected 146 people. The highest illness rates were observed in residents (97 of 335, 29%) and nurses (16 of 83, 19%). All 11 resident wards were affected. Data on cases and their working or living areas suggest that movement between wards facilitated the transmission of NoV, likely from person to person.
The delay in the identification of the causative agent, a lack of restrictions of resident and staff movement between wards, and ineffective initial deep-cleaning procedures resulted an outbreak that continued for >1 month. The outbreak ended only after implementation of strict control measures. Recommendations for controlling future NoV outbreaks in LTCFs include emphasizing the need to control resident’s movements and to restrict visitors, timely and effective environmental cleaning and disinfection, leave of absence for ill staff, and encouraging effective hand hygiene.
The maximisation of control power is considered for an aircraft with multiple control surfaces, with the force and moment coefficients specified by polynomials of the control surface deflections of degree two. The optimal deflections, which maximise and minimise any force or moment coefficient, are determined subject to constraints on the range of deflection of each control surface. The results are applied to a flying wing configuration to determine: (i/ii) the pitch trim, at the lowest drag for the fastest climb, and at the highest drag for the steepest descent; (iii) the maximum and minimum pitching moment; (iv) the maximum and minimum yaw control power and the fraction needed to compensate an outboard engine failure for several propulsion configurations; (v) the maximum and minimum rolling moment. The optimal use of all control surfaces has significant advantages over using just one, e.g. the range of drag modulation with pitch trim is much wider and the maximum and minimum available control moments larger.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Recently, the telecommunication market experiences an explosion in the subscribers of emergent high-debit services which require bandwidth that exceeds the one provided by actual copper based access networks . To cope with these demands and keep competitive, great efforts have been done to develop access networks based on optical technology, such as passive all-optical networks due to their intrinsic low cost . Sol-gel processing is suitable for the development of organic-inorganic hybrid (OIH) materials for the production of functional integrated optic (IO) devices in a cost effective way. Urea cross-linked OIH show acceptable transparency, mechanical flexibility and thermal stability [3-6]. The control over the refractive index is achieved by zirconium (IV) n-propoxide (ZPO) doping stabilized with methacrylic acid (MA) [3-5]. The combination in a single material of urea cross-linked OIH and ZPO allowed the preparation of UV written low losses planar waveguides  and low rugosity diffraction grating [4,5]. It has been demonstrated that MA acts not only as ZPO stabilizer but impacts directly on the photopolimerization properties as it contains a photopolymerizable group making the OIH easily UV patterned without photoinitiator . Moreover, it also impacts on the OHIs local structure as it forms a complex with ZPO, that originate ordered clusters dispersed within the OIH host [4,5]. Besides the potential of this OIH as IO components, the hybrid hosts are room-temperature efficient white light emitters lacking metal activator ions, presenting quantum yields as higher as 20 % . In this work, a series of OIH, so called di-ureasils, formed of a siliceous skeleton to which oligopolyether chains of different lengths are covalently grafted by means of urea bridges and modified by ZPO and MA will be prepared and characterized by X-ray and small angle X-ray diffractions, Raman, infrared, atomic force and photoluminescence spectroscopies. The use of the proposed OIH in the development of IO functionalities such as optical filters will be evaluated based on waveguide numerical simulation methods (beam propagation method). Waveguides will be written and characterized using the OIH aforementioned. The recording of a Bragg grating in the waveguides allow the implementation of a wavelength discrimination device with applications on optical filtering. The relevant properties of the devices, such as spectral rejection and insertion losses will be characterized.  S-J Park et al. Journal of Lightwave Tech. 22, 2004.  D.J. Shin et al., Journal of Lightwave Tech. 23, 2005.  C. Molina et al., J. Mater. Chem. 15, 3937, 2005.  R.A. Sá Ferreira et al., Proceedings of the International Conference on Telecomunications, 2006.  P.S. André et al. Proceedings ICTON, 1, We.C1.6, 223, 2006.  a) L.D. Carlos et al., Adv. Func. Mater. 11, 111, 2001; b) J. Chem. Phys. B. 108, 14924, 2004. Siemens SA and FCT (POCTI/CTM/59075/2004) is gratefully acknowledged.
Teaching “calm technology” and “smart materials” as prospective trends in product design is the motivation of the educational workshop presented in this paper. Materials can trigger creative thinking. Indeed, concepts can be generated ideas that come from the encounter with a material showing the material's unexpressed potential. However, a smart material is a complex hybrid object. It is a highly technical matter that requires years of R&D to be developed and matured. It is also a highly social matter, that blurs the traditional boundary between matter and function in a product, creates an experience, and enhances sensations. The workshop presented in this paper is an opportunity for the students to analyze the complexity of user experience related to ambient devices using smart materials. In order to provide a guideline to perform this analysis, an approach based on heuristic evaluation is proposed to the students.
The natural grasslands in South America have soils with low phosphorus (P) availability (1.0 to 7.5 mg kg−1), possibly altering the absorption and accumulation of P in grasses. We evaluated the chemical fractionation of P in the leaves of the most important grasses present in these grasslands to better understand the mechanisms involved in the storage of P. The grasses studied were Axonopus affinis and Paspalum notatum (fast tissue cycling and high nutrient demand) and Andropogon lateralis and Aristida laevis (slow tissue cycling and low nutrient demand). They were grown in pots filled with an Ultisol with two levels of P: control, and addition of 50 mg P kg–1. The main P fractions were the inorganic soluble (44%) and P in RNA (26%). Addition of P increased the total P concentration, following the order A. affinis (140%) > P. notatum (116%) > A. lateralis (81%) > A. laevis (21%). In conclusion, the species A. affinis and P. notatum responded to P fertilization with high variation and accumulating P in less-structural chemical forms, such as inorganic P. The species A. lateralis and A. laevis showed low variation in the concentration of P forms, with higher P concentrations in structural forms.
Little is known about the long-term effect of breastfeeding on dietary habits. We examined the association between breastfeeding duration and adherence to current dietary patterns of young women. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 587 healthy women aged ≤45 years, undergraduates or nutrition graduates. Maternal characteristics and breastfeeding duration [<6; 6–<12; ≥12 months (reference)] were recalled. Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and patterns were identified using factor analysis by principal component. Adherence to patterns was categorized in tertiles; the first (T1 = reference) was compared to T2 + T3 (moderate-to-high adherence). Logistic regression was performed considering the minimal sufficient adjustment recommended by the directed acyclic graph. Median age was 22 (interquartile range (IQR) 20; 27) years and body mass index (BMI) 22.2 (IQR 20.4; 25.0) kg/m2. The four dietary patterns identified (Processed, Prudent, Brazilian and Lacto-vegetarian) explained 27% of diet variance. Women breastfed for <6 months showed lower chance of moderate-to-high adherence to the Prudent pattern (odds ratio (OR) = 0.53, p = 0.04). Breastfeeding was not associated with the other patterns. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was directly associated with moderate-to-high adherence to the Processed pattern (OR = 2.01, p = 0.03) and inversely to the Prudent pattern (OR = 0.52, p = 0.02). Higher adherence to the Brazilian pattern was associated with proxies of low socioeconomic status and the Lacto-vegetarian pattern with the opposite. Confirmation in prospective studies of the association found in this study between breastfeeding with the Prudent pattern in adult offspring could suggest that early feeding practices influence long-term dietary habits, which could then affect the risk of nutrition-related diseases.
Consumption of certain berries appears to slow postprandial glucose absorption, attributable to polyphenols, which may benefit exercise and cognition, reduce appetite and/or oxidative stress. This randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled study determined whether polyphenol-rich fruits added to carbohydrate-based foods produce a dose-dependent moderation of postprandial glycaemic, glucoregulatory hormone, appetite and ex vivo oxidative stress responses. Twenty participants (eighteen males/two females; 24 (sd 5) years; BMI: 27 (sd 3) kg/m2) consumed one of five cereal bars (approximately 88 % carbohydrate) containing no fruit ingredients (reference), freeze-dried black raspberries (10 or 20 % total weight; LOW-Rasp and HIGH-Rasp, respectively) and cranberry extract (0·5 or 1 % total weight; LOW-Cran and HIGH-Cran), on trials separated by ≥5 d. Postprandial peak/nadir from baseline (Δmax) and incremental postprandial AUC over 60 and 180 min for glucose and other biochemistries were measured to examine the dose-dependent effects. Glucose AUC0–180 min trended towards being higher (43 %) after HIGH-Rasp v. LOW-Rasp (P=0·06), with no glucose differences between the raspberry and reference bars. Relative to reference, HIGH-Rasp resulted in a 17 % lower Δmax insulin, 3 % lower C-peptide (AUC0–60 min and 3 % lower glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (AUC0–180 min) P<0·05. No treatment effects were observed for the cranberry bars regarding glucose and glucoregulatory hormones, nor were there any treatment effects for either berry type regarding ex vivo oxidation, appetite-mediating hormones or appetite. Fortification with freeze-dried black raspberries (approximately 25 g, containing 1·2 g of polyphenols) seems to slightly improve the glucoregulatory hormone and glycaemic responses to a high-carbohydrate food item in young adults but did not affect appetite or oxidative stress responses at doses or with methods studied herein.
The human disaster is a permanent challenge for the Brazilian government because the difficulties faced are related to the lack of interface between public policies, resulting in fragile analyses of risk and non-prevention, being that annually several Brazilian lives are lost in disasters that continue to happen.
The article is the result of research and presents the analyses of health policy, actions, and programs developed to anticipate the fire victims of the Nightclub Kiss concert hall that took place in 2013 (Santa Maria, Brazil). The objective was to investigate and analyze the disasters and human disasters, especially the fire of Nightclub Kiss when 242 young people died. Causes and determinants were analyzed in order to subsidize public policies, in particular, the health policy.
A qualitative case study supported by the critical dialectic method with semi-structured interviews, focus group, documentary analysis, and bibliographic review.
The experiences accumulated throughout history show that disaster situations require public policies to be able to act readily, resolve, and pay attention to the needs of the population involved. Disasters are increasingly recurrent episodes and generate deep social consequences that mark human life. Managing a human disaster remains a challenge for the health policy in Brazil. The difficulties faced are related to the lack of interface with other public policies. The urgency to incorporate intervention/action strategies into health plans is important. Implementation of prevention and training programs, and adopting strategies and protocols for the whole network of attention is critical.
It is important to emphasize the importance of broadening the theoretical definitions by overcoming the divergences of the concepts adopted between the theoretical and operational field, by elaborating a review of the Brazilian legislation in order to broaden and contemplate the needs of different people.
The adsorption of intact liposomes on surfaces is of great importance for the development of sensors and drug delivery systems and, also, strongly dependent on the surface roughness where the liposomes are adsorbed. In this paper, we analyzed, by using atomic force microscopy in liquid, the evolution of the morphology of gold surfaces and of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) surfaces with different roughness during the adsorption of liposomes prepared with the synthetic phospholipid 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)]. Our results reveal the following. On smooth surfaces of Au only and Au with PAH, the liposomes open and deploy on the substrate, creating a supported-lipid bilayer, with the opening process being faster on the Au/PAH surface. On rough substrates of Au coated with polyelectrolyte multilayers, the liposomes were adsorbed intact on the surface. This was corroborated by power spectral density analysis that demonstrates the presence of superstructures with an average lateral size of 43 and 87 nm, in accordance with two and four times the mean liposome hydrodynamic diameter of about 21 nm. In addition, this work presents an adequate and effective methodology for analysis of adsorption phenomena of liposomes on rough surfaces.
Schizophrenia is a complex syndrome of unknown etiology and difficult to manage. Unconjugated bilirubin has been researched as a potential biological marker of this syndrome. The objective of this review article was to gather the studies published to date on the relationship between this molecule and schizophrenia. Broad inclusion criteria have been used (PRISMA) to include as many relevant studies as possible. Fourteen studies were selected: 3 analyzed the effects of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in animal models; 6 demonstrated an increased incidence of schizophrenia in patients with increased unconjugated bilirubin; 2 reported an increased incidence of the disease in patients with decreased unconjugated bilirubin; and 3 linked an increased incidence of schizophrenia with an increased excretion of the oxidative product of bilirubin, the so-called biopyrrins. Because of apparently contradictory reported results, the hypothesis that the relationship between schizophrenia and unconjugated bilirubin was not linear and that there was an inflammatory dysfunction explaining this was considered. The 2 most accepted models for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia are described, and the possible role of the molecule in each is clarified. The bilirubin buffer system and its role in antioxidant defense was explored. The average levels of unconjugated bilirubin in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder were also compared, having been hypothesized that these diseases could be different points of a same pathological spectrum. Finally, it was concluded that unconjugated bilirubin is a promising molecule that could be used as a possible biological marker for schizophrenia, and the necessity of subsequent efforts for its research was considered.
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate beliefs, attitudes and reproductive behaviours in relation to consanguinity in a population living in the backlands of north-eastern Brazil. Data were collected by face-to-face interview from 147 high school students aged 13–20 years and from 532 elderly individuals aged 60 years and over from Brejo dos Santos in the state of Paraíba in 2017. The frequency of consanguineous marriage was found to have increased over the generations, being 15.9% in the parents of the elderly participants, 17.1% in the elderly participants themselves and 20.5% in their descendants. Although 258 (50.9%) of the elderly interviewees opposed consanguineous union, 341 (65.3%) would approve of the marriage of their children with relatives. Both the young (n=108 or 78.3%) and elderly (n=398 or 80.4%) interviewees believed that consanguineous marriages were no more durable than non-consanguineous marriages (p=0.578). Additionally, 408 (82.4%) of the elderly individuals and 108 (80.6%) of the students recognized that spouses in consanguineous unions experience conflicts, just like other couples do (p=0.625). In both groups, the majority of the participants did not believe that consanguinity increased the risk of having children with disabilities. The regression of the two continuous variables ‘age’ and ‘positive attitudes score’ showed a significant correlation, suggesting that younger individuals are more susceptible to the influence of cultural factors contributing to consanguinity, such as the opinions of their parents and grandparents. The belief that consanguineous unions are more durable showed a significant difference between elderly individuals in consanguineous and non-consanguineous unions (p=0.001); the former were 2.42 more likely to believe that marriages between relatives contributes to marriage durability.
The effect of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was investigated in N719 dye thin films deposited on silicon wafer with a thin film of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) fabricated by laser ablation in an aqueous solution, using a NdYAG laser (λ = 1064nm). Optical absorption spectroscopy of the Ag-NPs colloidal solution shows an absorption peak at λ = 400nm, associated with a localized surface plasmon resonance in the Ag-NPs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals that these NPs have an approximately spherical shape, with their diameter being tunable by laser power intensity. Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed using low laser power to avoid damage to the N719 dye films. Thus, a small Raman signal is obtained. The Raman intensity was greatly increased when the N719 film was deposited on a substrate with a thin film of Ag-NPs due to the SERS effect. The process was also used in Rhodamine-B to clearly demonstrate the SERS effect obtained by the use of these NPs produced by laser ablation.
Leishmaniasis is considered a parasitic disease that still causes serious consequences for mankind, because it presents a high mortality rate worldwide. Considered multi-hosts, the parasites of the genus Leishmania are able of infecting a wide variety of animal species. The dog was considered the main source of infection of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), in the urban area. However, the role of other animal species in the epidemiological cycle of the disease, such as cattle, remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania spp. in 100 bovines (Bos taurus) from an area endemic for canine VL, using blood culture and molecular analysis. By the sequencing analysis, one sample showed 100% similarity with Leishmania infantum. The results provide the first case of L. infantum isolation in one bovine from the periurban areas of Bauru, state of São Paulo, Brazil.