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This paper studies the corona discharge power thresholds in microstrip bandpass filters (BPFs) and, in particular, is focused on a solution based on λ/2 cover-ended resonators to enhance their peak power handling capability (PPHC). First, a parametric analysis is carried out to evaluate the variation of the maximum electric field and the unloaded quality factor (Qu) as a function of the cover's geometrical dimensions (i.e. height, length, and width). Next, several microstrip BPFs centered at 1.6 GHz are designed, and their behaviors under moderate-to-high applied RF power signals are simulated to corroborate the previous study. A suitable number and size of covers are selected to enhance PPHC without barely degrading the filters’ electrical performance and, consequently, without hardly increasing the insertion losses. Finally, two third-order filters with covers and without covers (benchmark prototype) are manufactured, by way of illustration, and they are tested in the European High-Power RF Space Laboratory to validate the good performance of the proposed solution, where a PPHC enhancement of 3.1 dB at high pressures is achieved as compared to the benchmark prototype.
The aim of this study was to examine the acquisition and processing of multiple who- and which-questions in Romanian that display ordering constraints and involve exhaustivity. Toward that aim, typically developing Romanian children (mean age 8.3) and adults participated in a self-paced listening experiment that simultaneously investigated online processing and offline comprehension of multiple wh-questions. The study manipulated the type of wh-phrase (who/which) and the order in which these elements appear (subject–object [SO]/object–subject [OS]). The response to the comprehension question could address the issue of exhaustivity because we measured whether participants used an exhaustive or a non-exhaustive response. Our findings reveal that both children and adults slow down when processing who- as compared to which-phrases, but only adults show an online sensitivity to ordering constraints in who-questions. Accuracy is higher with multiple who- than which-questions. The latter pose more difficulties for comprehension, particularly in the OS order. We relate this to intervention effects similar to those proposed for single which-questions. The lack of intervention effects in terms of reaction times indicates that these effects occur at a later stage, after participants have heard the whole sentence and when they interpret its meaning.
On 31st January 2020, the Italian cabinet declared a 6-month national emergency after the detection of the first two COVID-19 positive cases in Rome, two Chinese tourists travelling from Wuhan. Between then and the total lockdown introduced on 22nd March 2020 Italy was hit by an unprecedented crisis. In addition to being the first European country to be heavily swept by the COVID-19 pandemic, Italy was the first to introduce stringent lockdown measures. The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak and related COVID-19 pandemic have been the worst public health challenge endured in recent history by Italy. Two months since the beginning of the first wave, the estimated excess deaths in Lombardy, the hardest hit region in the country, reached a peak of more than 23,000 deaths. The extraordinary pressures exerted on the Italian Servizio Sanitario Nazionale (SSN) inevitably leads to questions about its preparedness and the appropriateness and effectiveness of responses implemented at both national and regional levels. The aim of the paper is to critically review the Italian response to the COVID-19 crisis spanning from the first early acute phases of the emergency (March–May 2020) to the relative stability of the epidemiological situation just before the second outbreak in October 2020.
In the present analysis, we study effects of the radiation reaction (RR) on the dynamics of charged particles submitted to the action of localized longitudinal high-frequency carriers travelling at the speed of light. As the wave's crests and troughs keep overtaking particles, dissipative RR forces tend to drag particles alongside the wave in an effort to reduce the relative wave–particle speed. Particles of course never reach the phase velocity of the wave, but are instead driven to an ever-growing velocity, towards the speed of light, while in the wave localization region. We developed a modified average Hamiltonian formalism capable of describing the intricacies of the corresponding dynamics. The modified formalism agrees with simulations and is of particular usefulness in the study of optimum values for the localization length and maximum wave amplitude.
A recently recovered sacred music manuscript reveals that the eighteenth-cen-tury composer-compiler Durham Hills (1730–1771), from Newcastle upon Tyne, transmitted the largest trove of psalm tunes yet documented from England to colonial America. This finding is documented in Hills's manuscript tune book, The Cashaway Psalmody, compiled in 1770 in the remote Cheraws region of backcountry South Carolina. Its full title is THE CASHAWAY PSALMODY: Being a curious Collection of Psalm-Tunes in the Tenor-Part: Suited to all the Variety of Metres, in every different Version of the Psalms. Together with a Set of Particular Psalms and Hymns for various Occasions; as the Festivals of Christmas, Easter, Whitsuntide, etc. also for Fasts, Weddings, Burials, the Sacrament, and Musical Meetings. With large and plain Instructions for Singing by Notes. Collected from the Works of the best Composers of PSALMODY. By DURHAM HILLS, Teacher of Psalmody, 1770.
This robust period formulation introduces a complete professional English tune book, meticulously prepared by Hills as a fair copy ready for printing. Cashaway presents twenty-eight octavo pages of instructions on the gamut and clefs, notation, musical time, ‘pitching and gracing a tune’ and ‘concords and discords’, along with eighty-seven common psalm tunes without text, nineteen ‘particular psalms’ with text, forty-five texted ‘occasional hymns’ divided into Anglican liturgical and Evangelical devotional groups, and an index. Hills's collection of 152 tunes and sixty-three texts is a palimpsest of his musical experience, style and taste as accumulated in Newcastle, colonial Carolina and elsewhere. It embraces a great range of music and texts from the traditional Anglican psalters through the English country psalmody of the early eighteenth century, much of it from the North, and ultimately a new London theatrical style of hymn tune employed by Methodists and Dissenters in the Evangelical Revival. Each of these strands had its own story and consequent effect in enabling Hills to transmit through Cashaway no fewer than seventy-seven tunes from England into American colonial use, making it the largest single source of transatlantic tune migration yet documented.
The Last Judgment, the extraordinary conclusion to Christ's parousia, played a consequential role in Byzantine religious culture. However, the scarcity of biblical information and the lack of an official council-sanctioned theology of the afterlife resulted in the creation of varying and sometimes contradictory narratives. The most systematic treatment of questions pertaining to the Last Judgment is by Joseph Bryennios (d. c. 1430/1), a theologian and court preacher, in a series of two sermons. This paper offers a detailed investigation of Bryennios’ eschatological thought and discusses its sources and its importance as ‘official’ theology in the last decades of the empire.
Although language deficits have often been reported in schizophrenia, the specific relevance of single linguistic levels of processing is still under debate. Moreover, little is known about language disturbances in bipolar disorder.
The aims of this study were to:
1) investigate micro-linguistic (lexicon, morphology, syntax) and macro-linguistic (discourse coherence, pragmatics) dimensions of speech production and
2) evaluate syntactic comprehension skills in both schizophrenia and, for the first time, bipolar disorder.
A story telling task and a computer-based test of syntactic comprehension were administered to 30 Italian speaking DSM-IV patients suffering from schizophrenia, 30 participants with bipolar disorder and 30 healthy controls, comparable for age and educational level (p>0.05). Analysis of variance with post-hoc correction was performed to compare linguistic performance between groups.
In comparison to healthy participants, patients with schizophrenia had significantly impaired productivity, syntactic complexity and local/global discourse coherence and bipolar disorder subjects showed deficits in mean length of utterance (p< 0.05). Also, both groups of patients collected more grammatical errors than controls (p< 0.05), but they differed in regard to the grammatical type of construction they missed (passive-affirmative and active-negative, respectively).
Our results showed the presence of both micro and macro-linguistic deficits in linguistic production in schizophrenia, but not in bipolar disorder, suggesting that these abnormalities are specific for schizophrenia. On the contrary, syntactic construction comprehension was altered in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, potentially representing the target of innovative rehabilitation strategies.
Study focuses on the way patients are followed-up after discharge. This aims in determining continuity of follow up and possibly gaining insight in the need of patients for readmission; also, approaching the possible influence of follow-up on patients’ admission-free time interval.
Sample consists of patients admitted in our department from August 2007 until January 2008. Telephone structured interview was used to gather information. Questions focused on patients’ present follow up state and any re-admissions in a psychiatric ward. Answers were either given directly by patients or by a member of patients’ family. For information to be representative, three calls were made to each patient on different occasions; only then was the answer considered as valid for inclusion in the study.
Of 198 patients admitted, 105 (53%) could be reached.
Of those admitted, mean value of hospitalization time was 21.38 days. Specifically, among re-admitted patients, mean time of first hospitalization was 20.52 days. Among non re-admitted ones respective value was 21.73 days; upon comparison, no statistically significant difference was found (t-test).
Out of 105 reached: 73.3% are still being followed-up, 26.6% are not; 41.55% are followed-up in our outpatient ward whilst 36.3% visit private practices. 3.8% are followed-up at community primary mental health care services. 73.3% have not been readmitted ever since discharge
The majority of patients are followed up at our department's outpatient ward. Patients followed-up at private practices are less whereas much less are followed up at primary psychiatric community care services.
To measure symptomatic and functional remission in patients treated with risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI).
Stable patients with psychotic disorders requiring medication change were switched to open-label RLAI in the switch to risperidone microspheres (StoRMi) trial. In this post-hoc analysis of the trial extension, follow-up was ≤18 months. Symptomatic remission was based on improvement in positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) scores and global remission (best outcome) was based on symptomatic remission, functional level, and mental-health quality of life. Predictive factors were evaluated.
Among 529 patients from seven European countries, mean participation duration was 358.7 ± 232.4 days, with 18 months completed by 39.9% of patients. Symptomatic remission lasting ≥6 months occurred at some point during treatment in 33% of patients; predictors included comorbid disease, country, baseline symptom severity, baseline functioning, type of antipsychotic before switching, and duration of untreated psychosis. Best outcome occurred in 21% of patients; predictors included baseline symptom severity, baseline functioning, country, schizophrenia type, and early positive treatment course.
One in three patients with stable schizophrenia switching to RLAI experienced symptomatic remission, with combined symptomatic, functional, and quality-of-life remission in one in five patients. Symptomatic remission was predicted by better baseline symptom severity and country of origin, with a significantly greater likelihood of remission occurring among patients in Estonia/Slovenia compared with Portugal. Relapse was predicted by higher mode doses of RLAI, additional use of psychoactive medications, male gender, and country of origin, with relapse occurring most frequently in France and least frequently in Portugal. RLAI dose, additional use of psychoactive medications, and country of origin predicted best outcome, with best outcome occurring most frequently in Estonia/Slovenia and least frequently in Portugal.
Suicide is a serious public health problem. In the international literature there is evidence to support the notion that certain temperaments and personality traits are often associated with suicidal behavior. In this study, 150 psychiatric inpatients were investigated using the TEMPS-A, the MMPI-2 and the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) and evaluated for suicide risk through the critical items of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Statistical analysis, including linear regression analysis and multiple regression analysis, showed that suicide risk contributed to the prediction of hopelessness. Among the temperaments, only the Hyperthymic temperament, as a protective factor, and the Dys/Cyc/Anx temperament contributed significantly to the prediction of hopelessness. Irritable temperament and Social Introversion were protective factors for suicidal risk. Hopelessness and depression were associated with higher suicidal behavior and ideation, but, unexpectedly, depression as measured by the MMPI did not contribute significant to the multiple regression.. The present study indicated that, although suicidal psychiatric patients have MMPI-2’s profiles in the pathologic range, they exhibit several differences from nonsuicidal patients. Patients at risk of suicide have specific temperaments as well as personality and defense mechanism profiles. They are more social introverted, depressed and psychasthenic, and use hysterical and schizoid mechanisms more often. Generalizability of the findings was limited by the small sample size, mix of BPD-I, BPD-II, MDD and psychotic disorder patients.
This subanalysis of the Switch to Risperidone Microspheres (StoRMi) clinical trial, an international, 6-month, open-label investigation of long-term efficacy and safety of risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI), focuses on a subset of non-acute schizophrenic adult patients switching from oral or depot conventional antipsychotic.
Efficacy assessments included Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), quality of life, treatment satisfaction, hospitalization rates, and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs).
Patients switching from oral (n=100) or depot (n=565) conventional medication were identified. Total PANSS scores decreased by 15.3 +/- 17.5 (SD) points for patients switching from oral conventional (n=96) and 9.1 +/- 19.5 points for those switching from depot conventional medication (n=550) (P=0.0001 for both). Improvements were noted for patients switching from either oral or depot agents for PANSS subscales, GAF score, quality of life, and hospitalization. Treatment was completed by >70% of patients. About 25% of patients were satisfied with their treatment at baseline compared with about 70% at endpoint after switching to RLAI. Overall RLAI was well tolerated. The most frequent TEAEs (>5%) were: anxiety (11.0%), insomnia (9.0%), weight increase (6.0%), extrapyramidal disorder (5.0%), depression (5.0%) and disease exacerbation (5.0%) for patients switching from oral conventional, and weight increase (6.0%) and disease exacerbation (5.3%) for patients switching from depot conventional medication.
In this open-label study, patients with schizophrenia who were unsatisfactorily treated with oral or depot conventional antipsychotics showed improvement in symptom control, tolerability, and patient satisfaction after switching to RLAI.
Memory loss is the most common early symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD). For this study, we chose the hippocampi as regions of interest. The hippocampus, which is closely associated with memory processing, is known to be vulnerable to damage in the early stage of AD. We considered both inter-group (patients vs controls) and intra-group (right vs left hippocampus) comparisons. We examined seven patients meeting the DSM-III-R criteria of senile dementia and the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS — ADRDA) criteria of probable AD, and II aged controls. This study focused on the measurement of phosphorus 31 (31P) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy metabolites in each hippocampus. We found significant differences in phosphorus metabolites for both intra-group comparison (pH shifted towards relative alkalosis in the left hippocampus of patients) and inter-group consideration (reduced phosphodiesters [Pde]and elevated gamma adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the right hippocampus, higher inorganic phosphate (pHi) in the left hippocampus for patients as compared to controls). We suggest energy failure and membrane functional breakdown in patients compared to aged controls.
“Punding” is the term used to describe a stereotypic motor behavior, in which there is an intense fascination with repetitive purposeless movements, such as taking apart mechanical objects, handling common objects as if they were new and entertaining, constantly picking at oneself.As phenomenon with features of both impulsivity and compulsivity, punding neurobiology is questioned.
evaluate the pathophysiology of punding and specifically the glutamatergic role in this phenomenon, we screened a population of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients that attended an ambulatory for subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS).
We conducted a patient-and-caregiver-completed punding survey with 24 consecutive patients using a modified version of a structured interview, the UPDRS, the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory and the Sheehan Disability Scale.
Five (20.8%) of the 24 subjects were identified as punders, three men (60%) and two women.
The punders were comparable to the nonpunders in terms of age, disease duration, hour/night sleeping, obsessive compulsive symptoms, distress, total daily dose of L-dopa equivalent units, decrement in daily L-dopa equivalent units permitted by DBS and the impact of DBS on overall “on” and “off” motor function. The punder and nonpunder groups statisticallydiffered only with regard to time-distance from DBS implantation: on average the punders started bilateral STN DBS 1.96 years before the nonpunder group.
Punding, defined as a disinhibition of motor learning programs, may be induced by STN DBS, and its prevalence is much more common than previously suspected. In our sample punding was ego-syntonic, non-disruptive, “cue elicited” and characterized by low craving.
Four patients with DSM-IV bulimia nervosa were treated in a crossover trial with naltrexone alone, fluoxetine alone, and a fluoxetine-naltrexone combination. Three patients presented a complete remission when treated with the fluoxetine-naltrexone combination.
In the last ten years it has sought a connection between the psychoanalysis and the neuroscience. The meeting point between these two branches is the neuropsychoanalysis .
A literature search was conducted on March 2014. PubMed and Scopus databases were used to find studies for inclusion in the systematic review. The keywords used for the literature search were: ‘psychoanalysis”, ‘psychoanalytic psychotherapy”, ‘psychodynamic”, ‘psychodynamic psychotherapy”, ‘fmri”, ‘functional neuroimaging” and ‘functional magnetic resonance”. keywords were used together with the logical operator ‘and”. Only studies wich compared functional magnetic resonance imaging results before and after psychoanalytic psychotherapy in adult subjects were taken into account. Two (n=2) potentially relevant studies were obtained for the systematic review.
TYPE OF THERAPY
Buchheim et al. 2013
A female dysthymic patient with narcissistic traits
Standard long-term psychoanalysis with a frequency of two face-to-face sessions per week.
The results show the therapy hours modulated the attivaction of the ventrolateral and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the perigenual portion of the medial prefrontal cortex, the posterior cingulate and precuneus, the middle temporal gyrus, and the anterior tip of the inferior temporal gyrus, and the occipital/calcarine cortex.
Fischmann et al. 2013
16 patients with recurrent major depressive disorders and 18 healthy volunteers
3-year psychoanalytic treatment
After treatment, it was found a marked reduction in activation pattern occipital, left and right hippocampus, left and right thalamus, left precuneus, left middle cingulated cortex, left inferior frontal gyrus/pars orbitalis, left precentral gyrus, vermis, left inferior frontal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, cerebellum, and right and left putamen.
As shown in the table, Buchheim et al. study results demostrate that the therapy hours modulated the attivaction of brain areas. After treatment, Fischmann et al. found a marked reduction in activation pattern.
The common results of the studies investigated in this systematic review is represented by a reduction, a modulation or a normalization of the activation areas before and after the psychoanalytic psychotherapy.
Orthorexia nervosa (ON) is an alleged eating disorder in which the person is excessively preoccupied with healthy food. First described by Bratman in 1997, ON entails a fixation on healthy food or a health food dependence. The term orthorexia nervosa arises from the Greek words orthos (=accurate) and orexis (=hunger) meaning obsession with healthy food and proper nutrition. Fears and worries about health, eating, and the quality of food are significant.
We investigated the prevalence of ON in a a population of young Italian adults by using a validated questionnaire (ORTO-15).
We aimed to assess the prevalence of ON in a large sample of general population and to identify some possible specific correlation such as gender and Body Mass Index (BMI).
1453 adult subjects from the general population were administered the ORTO-15 test and investigated for gender, age and BMI. Statistical analyses were performed referring to diagnostic threshold (40).
Orthorexia had a 10,9% prevalence in our sample, with a female prevalence statistically significant (female vs male= 72,8% vs 27,2%). Moreover, age and Body Mass Index did not seem to be significant factors.
ON is not currently considered as a full-fledged and discrete mental disorder. Again, the definition and diagnostic criteria of ON remain unclear. Further studies are needed to clarify appropriate diagnostic methods and the place of ON among psychopathological categories. This should be accompanied by a vigorous research effort aimed at understanding the core nature of this condition.
Polydrug use is mostly common among adolescents and young adults, often with the intention of enhancing or counteracting the effects of another drug. It significantly increases the risks, due to drug synergy and increased side effects.
We investigated the prevalence of polydrug users in a population of Italian young adults using a specifically designed questionnaire.
We aimed to assess the prevalence of polydrug abusers in a large sample of general population, and also to identify possible associations between alcohol misuse (e.g., binge drinking behaviours) and polydrug use.
We administered the questionnaire to a sample of 3000 subjects, aged 18 to 26, investigating socio-economic characteristics, alcohol abuse (with a specific focus on binge drinking) and use of psychoactive substances (cannabis, cocaine and Novel Psychoactive Substances-NPS). Collected data underwent statistical analyses.
80.5% of the sample habitually consumed alcoholic beverages. Among alcohol consumers, 34.2% used cannabis, 5.4% cocaine, 3.7% NPS, and 79,2% had binge drinking behaviours. Among those who did not consume alcohol, 4% used cannabis, 0.4% used cocaine, and 0% used NPS. Polydrug use was more common among binge drinkers. 35.6% of cocaine abusers also used NPS, in comparison to 1.4% of non-abusers.
According to scientific literature, alcohol and cocaine are the substances most commonly involved in risky polydrug use. Binge drinking and NPS appear to ben involved in polydrug use too. The combined effects of the different drugs need to be considered in identifying an appropriate and timely intervention strategy
We report a clinical case of a patient with a manic episode after taking methylphenidate (up to 120mgr per day) and cannabis in order to improve performance during exam period. He was hospitalized for disorganized behaviour, increased aggresion, delusions, grandiosity. He was affected by attention deficit and hyperactivity during childhood and recent episods of subthreshold depression. The therapy consisted of benzodiazepine and hydratation. In conclusion clinicians shuould ha ve caution in prescribing neurostimulant in vulnerable subjects.
Reactivity to acute psychosocial stress in the framework of a physiological multidimensional pattern affects several individual-level systems that include genetic factors and features related to personality development. The 5-HTTLPR genotype has been implicated in the modulation of susceptibility to environmental stimuli.
In the present study, 91 healthy young women were investigated (i) for their reactivity to a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor (TSST), as measured by changes in salivary cortisol; (ii) in terms of 5-httlpr genotype and (iii) in terms of their personality profile according to the post-rationalist personal meaning organizations (PMOs), which are considered as adaptive modes of response to environmental stressors.
Participants were divided into three 5-HTTLPR genotype groups (s/s; s/l, and l/s). The quantitative and qualitative variables that may affect circulating cortisol were compared among the three groups. A multiple linear quantile regression analysis was then performed to evaluate the effect of the personality profile, as Outward/Inward PMO, and 5-HTTLPR genotype on the median level of cortisol, considered as dependent variable.
Comparison of the variables that may affect circulating cortisol no significant differences. Salivary cortisol changed significantly in the course of the TSST. Reactivity to stress was affected by personality profile and the 5-HTTLPR genotype and also by body mass index and age.
The present data suggest that the psychosocial stress response is a multidimensional physiological event that is affected by a variety of factors as diverse as 5-HTTLPR genotype, personality profile, BMI, and age.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The Day Centre “THE HOUSE OF THE CHILD” is a unique in Greece community unit providing customized clinical mental health services for therapeutic treatment and psychosocial rehabilitation of children and adolescents victims of abuse, neglect or domestic violence, as well as children or adolescents involved in cases of bullying. The Day Centre was founded by the non-profit voluntary organisation “THE SMILE OF THE CHILD”. The Day Centre's services are addressed to children and adolescents up to age of 18 who live either in residential care or in the community having a documented history of exposure to violence of any kind. Services are free of charge and are expanded to the following areas:
– early intervention-evaluation-counselling;
– diagnosis and treatment of the full range of child psychiatry disorders and issues of clinical attention;
– diagnosis and treatment of specific learning deficits and provision of speech therapy, οccupational therapy and special education support when needed;
– counselling for parents and carers of victimized children and adolescents;
– registering and statistical analysis of psychosocial rehabilitation needs arising from the child abuse incidents.
More general activities for raising awareness and sensitivization of the wider community in order to prevent all forms of child abuse and victimization.
The Day Centre's personnel comprises from a psychiatrist–scientific coordinator, three child psychiatrists, three clinical psychologists, a special educator, a speech therapist, a social worker, an occupational therapist and two administrators. This interdisciplinary therapeutic team undertakes a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic intervention scheme to address the complex disorders and wider psychosocial needs of children – victims.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.