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A power MOSFET-based push–pull configuration nanosecond-pulse generator has been designed, constructed, and characterized to permeabilize cells for biological and medical applications. The generator can deliver pulses with durations ranging from 80 ns up to 1 µs and pulse amplitudes up to 1.4 kV. The unit has been tested for in vitro experiments on a medulloblastoma cell line. Following the exposure of cells to 100, 200, and 300 ns electric field pulses, permeabilization tests were carried out, and viability tests were conducted to verify the performance of the generator. The maximum temperature rise of the biological load was also calculated based on Joule heating energy conservation and experimental validation. Our results indicate that the developed device has good capabilities to achieve well-controlled electro-manipulation in vitro.
While previous studies have identified relationships between hippocampal volumes and memory performance in schizophrenia, these relationships are not apparent in healthy individuals. Further, few studies have examined the role of hippocampal subfields in illness-related memory deficits, and no study has examined potential differences across varying illness stages. The current study aimed to investigate whether individuals with early and established psychosis exhibited differential relationships between visuospatial associative memory and hippocampal subfield volumes.
Measurements of visuospatial associative memory performance and grey matter volume were obtained from 52 individuals with a chronic schizophrenia-spectrum disorder, 28 youth with recent-onset psychosis, 52 older healthy controls, and 28 younger healthy controls.
Both chronic and recent-onset patients had impaired visuospatial associative memory performance, however, only chronic patients showed hippocampal subfield volume loss. Both chronic and recent-onset patients demonstrated relationships between visuospatial associative memory performance and hippocampal subfield volumes in the CA4/dentate gyrus and the stratum that were not observed in older healthy controls. There were no group by volume interactions when chronic and recent-onset patients were compared.
The current study extends the findings of previous studies by identifying particular hippocampal subfields, including the hippocampal stratum layers and the dentate gyrus, that appear to be related to visuospatial associative memory ability in individuals with both chronic and first-episode psychosis.
For various classes Q of metric spaces, there are several well-known results characterizing the local n-connectivity of a metric space in terms of n-ANR(Q)'s. Specifically, we have in mind the results of Kuratowski (13, p. 265) and Kodama (10, p. 79). The main purpose of this paper will be to obtain similar results along these lines for non-metric classes Q. In the last part of the paper we specify Q to be the class of totally normal spaces and characterize the local n-connectivity of an n-dimensional separable metric space in terms of ANR(Q)'s.
Solar activity is observed to fluctuate with time, undergoing a wide range of periodicities from minutes up to thousands of years as evinced from proxies based on cosmogenic isotopes. In this work, we apply Multichannel Singular Spectrum Analysis (MSSA), a data-adaptive, multivariate technique that simultaneously exploits the spatial and temporal correlations of the input data to extract common modes of variability to investigate the intermediate quasi-periodicities of the green coronal emission line at 530.3 nm for the period between 1944 and 2008. A preliminary MSSA analysis confirms the presence of significant quasi-biennial oscillations in the data with amplitude varying significantly with time and latitude. On the other hand, a clear North-South asymmetry is observed both in their intensity and period distribution.
Fetal tumors are rare, but can be associated with serious fetal morbidity and mortality. Recent technologic advances in ultrasound imaging and fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have made antenatal detection possible. Early detection has significant implications for maternal and fetal wellbeing. Once a fetal neoplasm is identified or suspected, a management strategy should be formulated based on the presumptive diagnosis and the prognosis for the lesion in question. An understanding of the ultrasonographic appearance of specific lesions, the differential diagnosis, available treatment modalities, including advanced delivery modalities, and overall prognosis is critical in providing families with accurate information. A multidisciplinary team, with representatives from maternal–fetal medicine, neonatology, pediatric hematology–oncology, and pediatric surgery, provides an excellent source of information for the parents and allows for an integrated approach.
This paper seeks to review the available evidence to determine whether a systems approach is employed in the implementation and evaluation of task shifting for mental health using lay providers in low- and middle-income countries, and to highlight system-wide effects of task-shifting strategies in order to better inform efforts to strength community mental health systems.
Pubmed, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. Articles were screened by two independent reviewers with a third reviewer resolving discrepancies. Two stages of screens were done to ensure sensitivity. Studies were analysed using the World Health Organization's building blocks framework with the addition of a community building block, and systems thinking characteristics to determine the extent to which system-wide effects had been considered.
Thirty studies were included. Almost all studies displayed positive findings on mental health using task shifting. One study showed no effect. No studies explicitly employed systems thinking tools, but some demonstrated systems thinking characteristics, such as exploring various stakeholder perspectives, capturing unintended consequences, and looking across sectors for system-wide impact. Twenty-five of the 30 studies captured elements other than the most directly relevant building blocks of service delivery and health workforce.
There is a lack of systematic approaches to exploring complexity in the evaluation of task-shifting interventions. Systems thinking tools should support evidence-informed decision making for a more complete understanding of community-based systems strengthening interventions for mental health.
One of the properties of RS CVn-like binaries is the presence of cyclic fluctuations, sometimes called “migrating waves”, in the V and other broad-band lightcurves. These fluctuations, perhaps due to spots, vary in amplitudes and periods, in the sense that, the longer the orbital period of the RS CVn system, the higher the amplitude of the “wave”, which may be up to 30-35% of the total light variation. Therefore, in short-period (less than one day) RS CVn binaries, these
fluctuations are generally difficult to be detected.
In this paper we apply the Wilson-Price procedure to the solution of the binary system AO Cam using simultaneously all the available information and a statistical criterion to judge about the quality of the solutions found.
Among the RS CVn stars showing solar-type activity, with spectral types ranging from F to K and total masses up to 4 M⊙, there are two peculiar groups with period less than one day:a)agroup with components well inside their Roche lobes (Short-Period-Group, hereinafter SPG) and b) a group with their components in a thin or marginal degree of contact, with lightcurves of W UMa-W type (hereinafter WWG).
We analize the general properties of a group of WUMa-type binaries, which show RSCVn-like activity. The position of these stars in the colour-density and mass-orbital momentum diagrams is studied, but no definite answer can be given on the linkage between short period RSCVn systems (SPG) and WUMa systems with RSCVn-like activity (WWG).
DSM-5 contains substantial changes to eating disorder diagnoses. We examined
relative prevalence rates of DSM-IV and DSM-5 eating disorder diagnoses
using Eating Disorder Examination–Questionnaire diagnostic algorithms in 117
community out-patients. DSM-5 criteria produced a reduction in combined
‘other specified feeding or eating disorder’ and ‘unspecified feeding or
eating disorder’ diagnoses from 46% to 29%, an increase in anorexia nervosa
diagnoses from 35% to 47%, the same number of bulimia nervosa diagnoses and
a 5% rate of binge eating disorder diagnoses.
Primary care is an important area in which to confront situations of food and nutrition insecurity. To undertake action in this area, well-prepared professionals are necessary. Courses of health training are not yet, however, equipped to offer the necessary preparation.
To analyse the topics taught in nutrition graduation courses related to the abilities and competencies demanded by professional work in this area.
The curricula of the nutrition courses offered in the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil were analysed. Nutritionists and teachers were interviewed. The triangulation of the data obtained was undertaken by means of a qualitative approach taking the theory of social representations as the frame of reference.
The concepts necessary to act within the context of food and nutrition security are related to a humanistic approach, the unity of theory and practice, the nutritionist’s role as educator, teamwork and reflection on public health.