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Contemporary Western legal systems allow any individual to serve as a witness and to testify in court. However, in legal regimes from late antiquity we find strict limitations on the eligibility of certain types of people to serve as witnesses. Some of the lists of disqualified witnesses are very particular, thus inviting explanation of the reasons for the specific rules of disqualification. Such is the case regarding both Jewish and Roman rules of disqualification, which are the topic of this paper. Tannaitic halakha, composed in Roman Palestine between the first and third centuries CE, includes a list of four characters disqualified from giving testimony, which has long defied interpretation: “a dice player, a usurer, pigeon flyers, and traders in Seventh Year produce”. This paper offers a novel approach to the study of this list, suggesting that the rabbis drew on the Roman legal institution of infamia when constructing their own laws regarding disqualified witnesses. Beyond solving a puzzle relating to Jewish law, the paper also sheds light on the inner logic of Roman law, maintaining that Jewish and Roman rules of disqualified witnesses are commonly grounded in an ethics of self-control. By drawing attention to this previously unnoted theoretical subtext, the paper contributes to a missing chapter in the global history of evidence admissibility rules.
The right–left dimension is ubiquitous in politics, but prior perspectives provide conflicting accounts of whether cultural and economic attitudes are typically aligned on this dimension within mass publics around the world. Using survey data from ninety-nine nations, this study finds not only that right–left attitude organization is uncommon, but that it is more common for culturally and economically right-wing attitudes to correlate negatively with each other, an attitude structure reflecting a contrast between desires for cultural and economic protection vs. freedom. This article examines where, among whom and why protection–freedom attitude organization outweighs right–left attitude organization, and discusses the implications for the psychological bases of ideology, quality of democratic representation and the rise of extreme right politics in the West.
Flapping wings are important in many biological and bioinspired systems. Here, we investigate the fluid mechanics of flapping wings that possess a single flexible hinge allowing passive wing pitch rotation under load. We perform experiments on an insect-scale (
cm wing span) robotic flapper and compare the results with a quasi-steady dynamical model and a coupled fluid–structure computational fluid dynamics model. In experiments we measure the time varying kinematics, lift force and two-dimensional velocity fields of the induced flow from particle image velocimetry. We find that increasing hinge stiffness leads to advanced wing pitching, which is beneficial towards lift force production. The classical quasi-steady model gives an accurate prediction of passive wing pitching if the relative phase difference between the wing stroke and the pitch kinematics,
, is small. However, the quasi-steady model cannot account for the effect of
on leading edge vortex (LEV) growth and lift generation. We further explore the relationships between LEV, lift force, drag force and wing kinematics through experiments and numerical simulations. We show that the wing kinematics and flapping efficiency depend on the stiffness of a passive compliant hinge. Our dual approach of running at-scale experiments and numerical simulations gives useful guidelines for choosing wing hinge stiffnesses that lead to efficient flapping.
The ancient text known as the Testament of Abraham is preserved in Coptic in the same codex as two other works, the Testament of Isaac and the Testament of Jacob. These testaments were probably written in the late first or early second centuries CE by Jewish writers, although the manuscript of the Coptic codex containing them is dated to 962. These books were considered part of the “testament” literary genre, which featured a biblical hero imparting his last words of religious wisdom to his family gathered at his bedside. Scholars agree that the stylistic and theological differences among these three testaments indicate that they were not written by the same author. Yet a close reading reveals that the Testament of Isaac is dependent on the Testament of Abraham, and that the Testament of Jacob is dependent on the two earlier texts. Moreover, the Testament of Abraham and the Testament of Isaac share similarities that distinguish them from the Testament of Jacob: unlike the Testament of Jacob, the Testament of Abraham and the Testament of Isaac reflect a universalist worldview that depicts a God concerned for all humankind, not only for his chosen people. This God reigns over all people, and themes specific to the Christian and Jewish faiths are virtually absent. Later Christian and Jewish literature concerning the theme of divine judgment exhibits elements that may reflect an awareness of a written or oral tradition that appears in the Testament of Abraham and the Testament of Isaac. The images of judgment and punishment, especially those in the Testament of Abraham, appear in the second-century Apocalypse of Peter and the fourth-century Vision of Paul, which is also known as the Apocalypse of Paul. Likewise, midrashic traditions regarding Abraham and Moses are reminiscent of traditions found in these testaments, particularly the Testament of Abraham. The possibility that early Christian apocalyptic texts were aware of these testaments is grounded in the fact that scholars give these texts a common place of origin, Egypt. The provenance of the midrashic texts is more difficult to identify, but because they share literary elements and theological concerns with the Testament of Abraham and the Testament of Isaac, I suggest that the authors of these midrashic traditions had access to written or oral traditions prominent in these testaments. This paper will examine early Christian apocalyptic and early Jewish midrashic texts that modify some of the traditions prominent in these testaments in order to accommodate their nonuniversalist rabbinic or early Christian worldviews.
Israel is viewed unfavorably among wide segments of the public within several European democracies, despite being regarded itself as a Western democracy. Does drawing attention to Israel's democratic attributes improve views toward Israel? In two surveys with Dutch national samples, anti-Semitic affect, low anti-Arab/Muslim affect, and left-wing political orientation independently predicted anti-Israel sentiment. However, in experiments embedded within the surveys, making salient Israel's democratic attributes had opposite effects on Israel attitude across those on the right and the left – slightly decreasing anti-Israel sentiment among those with a right-wing orientation but slightly increasing anti-Israel sentiment among those with a left-wing orientation. We discuss potential explanations grounded in social psychological theory as well as implications for the strategic communication efforts of groups seeking to influence attitudes toward Israel.
The effect of laser intensity on characteristics of the plasma ablated from a low-Z (CH) planar target irradiated by a 250 ps, 0.438 µm laser pulse with the intensity of up to 1016 W/cm2 as well as on parameters of the laser-driven shock generated in the target for various scale-lengths of preformed plasma was investigated at the kilojoule Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) laser facility. Characteristics of the plasma were measured with the use of 3-frame interferometry, ion diagnostics, an X-ray spectrometer, and Kα imaging. Parameters of the shock generated in a Cl doped CH target by the intense 3ω laser pulse were inferred by numerical hydrodynamic simulations from the measurements of craters produced by the shock in the massive Cu target behind the CH layer. It was found that the pressure of the shock generated in the plastic layer is relatively weakly influenced by the preplasma (the pressure drop due to the preplasma presence is ~10–20%) and at the pulse intensity of ~1016 W/cm2 the maximum pressure reaches ~80–90 Mbar. However, an increase in pressure of the shock with the laser intensity is slower than predicted by theory for a planar shock and the maximum pressure achieved in the experiment is by a factor of ~2 lower than predicted by the theory. Both at the preplasma absence and presence, the laser-to-hot electrons energy conversion efficiency is small, ~1% or below, and the influence of hot electrons on the generated shock is expected to be weak.
We studied the effects of the frequently used glucogenic dietary supplementation in dairy herds and the hormonal changes occurring during the normal estrous cycle on the composition and concentration of milk lipid components. Holstein dairy cows were synchronized with two injections of prostaglandin F2α (estrus=day 0). Animals were held as controls or drenched for 11 days (day −3 to day 8 of the cycle) with 850 ml/day liquid propylene glycol (treatment, n=13 per group). Blood and milk samples were collected on day 1 and 8 of the cycle. In both groups, plasma progesterone concentration increased ∼10-fold between 1 and 8 days post-estrus. Milk fatty acid composition was associated primarily with estrous-cycle day: polyunsaturated fatty acids increased by 16%, n-6 by 15% and n-3 by 1% from day 1 to 8 post-estrus. Polar lipid composition was also altered by cycle day: phosphatidylethanolamine concentration was 2-fold and 1.5-fold higher on day 1 v. day 8 post-estrus in the control and treatment groups, respectively. Phosphatidylserine concentration in milk was also affected by cycle day by treatment interaction (P=0.04). A progesterone level by treatment interaction influenced the triglyceride-to-phospholipid ratio in the milk (P=0.02). The results suggest that progesterone plays a role in modulating milk lipid composition and structure. Therefore, strategies designed to alter milk lipid composition should consider the cow’s reproductive status.
All antipsychotic medications carry warnings of increased mortality for older adults, but little is known about comparative mortality risks between individual agents.
To estimate the comparative mortality risks of commonly prescribed antipsychotic agents in older people living in the community.
A retrospective, claims-based cohort study was conducted of people over 65 years old living in the community who had been newly prescribed risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, haloperidol, aripiprazole or ziprasidone (n = 136 393). Propensity score-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models assessed the 180-day mortality risk of each antipsychotic compared with risperidone.
Risperidone, olanzapine and haloperidol showed a dose–response relation in mortality risk. After controlling for propensity score and dose, mortality risk was found to be increased for haloperidol (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.18, 95% CI 1.06–1.33) and decreased for quetiapine (HR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.73–0.89) and olanzapine (HR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.74–0.90).
Significant variation in mortality risk across commonly prescribed antipsychotics suggests that antipsychotic selection and dosing may affect survival of older people living in the community.
We argue that the political effects of negativity bias are narrower than Hibbing et al. suggest. Negativity bias reliably predicts social, but not economic, conservatism, and its political effects often vary across levels of political engagement. Thus the role of negativity bias in broad ideological conflict depends on the strategic packaging of economic and social attitudes by political elites.
The focal point of this article is sensory perception in terms of action and experience. Perceptual constructs are both physical and cognitive acts that carry meaning in themselves, thus being a vital element of expression in performance making. Liora Malka Yellin's theoretical discussion here draws on J. J. Gibson's information-based model of perception and Maurice Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology of perception, relating aspects of their thought to that of theatre practitioners and their practice. At the centre of these reflections are references to the shifts undergone by Butoh since its beginnings in the 1960s, and an analysis of Shijima, a dance-theatre work by the Japanese group Sankai Juku, based in Paris. This analysis of the perceptual constructs embedded in the configuration of bodily movement directs attention to what can be called corporeal narrative. Liora Malka Yellin is a Lecturer in Theatre and Dance Studies in the Department of Theatre Arts and the Interdisciplinary Program in the Arts at Tel Aviv University.
The designation labio-maxillo-palatal cleft is used to describe two types of congenital malformations of the palate. The mechanisms that create them occur in the early weeks of fetal life by an alteration of embryological message delivery that researchers have been able to analyze. But they have not as yet been able to discern the multi-factorial causes of this alteration.
Morphological embryology and its chronology are important because researchers use an understanding of them to distinguish between different entities of clefts on the basis of the stage of palatal formation in which they began to develop: the numerous molecules involved In cell development are already well known, but researchers have not yet precisely identified those that are associated with the various stages of palatal morphogenesis. But it is clear that genetic alterations, which are now being pin-pointed, trigger developmental malfunctionings that are later intensified by faulty interactions in the fetal-maternal environment because.
Conclusion: Although researchers are progressively gaining a better understanding of the mechanisms of the intra-uterine formation of labio-maxillo-palatal clefts, we have not yet acquired the broad range of data that would make it possible to correct defective palatal formation before birth.
Detailed spectroscopic identification and analysis of lines emitted by Ni-like ions may infer on plasma parameters, such as electron density, temperature, and ionization state. Spatially, resolved X-ray spectra of samarium laser produced plasma were recorded in the 7 to10 Å wavelength range. Measured line intensity ratios of Ni-like 3d-5f, 3p-4d, 3p-4s, and 3s-4p transitions were used for electron density diagnostic as a function of the distance from the target. Calculations using Hebrew University Lawrence Livermore Atomic Code show that these ratios are not very sensitive to the electron temperature in the range from 500 to 1000 eV. Self-absorption of some lines is found to be important at electron densities higher than 1021cm−3. The inferred ranges of electron density and temperature are found to be consistent with results of hydrodynamic simulations and models of ionization in plasma.
We have assessed the effect of house-cleaning procedures on changes in airborne dust and bacteria counts and correlated these with respiratory function tests in 14 children with bronchial asthma who were known to have developed attacks at home, and who had positive skin tests to house dust and the house-dust mite.
We have demonstrated that after cleaning procedures a positive and statistically significant correlation exists between the increase in the numbers of small particles, 2 μm. and less in diameter, in the environment, and reduction in mean peak flow. This indicates that particles of this size penetrate the bronchial tree and are the causative factor in the genesis of bronchospasm.
Woyzeck 91, was staged by the Itim Ensemble and the Cameri Theatre, Tel Aviv, in 1991. The production was adapted from Büchner's Woyzeck and directed by Rina Yerushalmi. The adaptation expands Büchner's play text mainly through the addition of scientific lectures, mostly about human physiology, which present the human being as a biological organism: heart, sex organs, reproducing cells, nervous system as the source of feelings. These additional scenes focus attention on Woyzeck's body as an experimental model, along with other performative devices (slides of body parts, and a skeleton). The juxtaposition of the human body (human subject) with its scientific and technological fragmentation reflects the performance's central theme: it objectifies the human subjects in our modern world of genetic experiments, technological innovations and socio-political reactions, which threaten the destruction of humanity.
We challenge the predominant view of the English dative alternation, which takes all alternating verbs to have two meanings: a caused possession meaning realized by the double object variant and a caused motion meaning realized by the to variant. Instead, we argue that verbs like give and sell only have a caused possession meaning, while verbs like throw and send have both caused motion and caused possession meanings. We show that the caused possession meaning may be realized by both variants. Concomitantly, we argue that verbs like give, even in the to variant, lack a conceptual path constituent, and instead have a caused possession meaning which can be understood as the bringing about of a ‘have’ relation. We reassess evidence for alternative approaches adduced from inference patterns and verb–argument combinations and demonstrate how our verb-sensitive analysis, when combined with an account of variant choice, provides a more insightful explanation of this data, while having wider coverage. Our investigation affirms proposals that a verb's own meaning plays a key role in determining its argument realization options. To conclude, we consider the crosslinguistic implications of our study, attempting to explain why so many languages lack a true dative alternation.
We present a series of experimental results, and their interpretation,
connected to various aspects of the hydrodynamics of laser produced
plasmas. Experiments were performed using the Prague PALS iodine laser
working at 0.44 μm wavelength and irradiances up to a few
1014 W/cm2. By adopting large focal spots and
smoothed laser beams, the lateral energy transport and lateral expansion
have been avoided. Therefore we could reach a quasi one-dimensional regime
for which experimental results can be more easily and properly compared to
available analytical models.
The materials science community is poised to take advantage of new technologies that add unprecedented time resolution to already existing spatial-resolution capabilities. In the same way that chemists and biologists are using ultrafast optical, photon, and particle techniques to reveal transition pathways, materials scientists can expect to use variations of these methods to probe the most fundamental aspects of complex transient phenomena in materials. The combination of high-spatial-resolution imaging with high time resolution is critical because it enables the observation of specific phenomena that are important to developing fundamental understanding. Such a capability is also important because it enables experiments that are on the same time and length scales as recent high-performance computer simulations. This article describes several new techniques that have great potential for broader application in materials science, including electron, x-ray, and γ-ray imaging.