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As we approach the fortieth anniversary of the publication of Edward Said’s Orientalism, it seems, to me, at least, that the postcolonial urgency its thesis engendered has long been overshadowed by global transformations that have scrambled the geography of oppression. The Chinese have already acquired significant chunks of Hollywood, one of the major producers of Orientalist images;1 the skyline of certain oil-rich Arab cities is dwarfing the aging ones in Manhattan and Chicago; the best soccer teams in the world are sponsored by Arab sheikhs; and every human being on earth covets an American or West-European lifestyle.
Talking about odors and flavors is difficult for most people, yet experts appear to be able to convey critical information about wines in their reviews. This seems to be a contradiction, and wine expert descriptions are frequently received with criticism. Here, we propose a method for probing the language of wine reviews, and thus offer a means to enhance current vocabularies, and as a by-product question the general assumption that wine reviews are gibberish. By means of two different quantitative analyses—support vector machines for classification and Termhood analysis—on a corpus of online wine reviews, we tested whether wine reviews are written in a consistent manner, and thus may be considered informative; and whether reviews feature domain-specific language. First, a classification paradigm was trained on wine reviews from one set of authors for which the color, grape variety, and origin of a wine were known, and subsequently tested on data from a new author. This analysis revealed that, regardless of individual differences in vocabulary preferences, color and grape variety were predicted with high accuracy. Second, using Termhood as a measure of how words are used in wine reviews in a domain-specific manner compared to other genres in English, a list of 146 wine-specific terms was uncovered. These words were compared to existing lists of wine vocabulary that are currently used to train experts. Some overlap was observed, but there were also gaps revealed in the extant lists, suggesting these lists could be improved by our automatic analysis.
The aspirations of religious minorities in Iraq for becoming recognized ethnonationalist entities have rarely been investigated from a historical perspective, particularly in the case of the Yazidis. This article addresses changing attitudes about the Yazidi religious minority identity across different historical periods. Yazidi identity is examined as an ancillary undercurrent to the ethnonationalist identity conflict between the central government of Iraq and the Kurdish movement. This contrasts with identity as a religious minority in prior eras, when religious minorities preserved their distinct core identities based on their own social and religious customs and idiosyncrasies, making them self-defining communities bound together by coherent religious identities. In the case of the Yazidi minority, despite the multiplicity of theories and hypotheses about the origins of the Yazidi people and their national and ethnic affiliations and increasing rumors about Yazidis related to their existence as a potential sub-ethnicity or ethno-religion, the important truth is that Yazidis consider themselves religiously, culturally, and historically distinct from other ethnonationalist groups and communities in Iraq.
This paper examines the relationship between debt-oriented capital structure and economic growth by analysing a panel data of 16 European countries, based on the availability of data. We find that the corporate leverage in financial and non-financial corporations affects economic growth negatively. Furthermore, the results indicate that the leverage in non-financial corporations affects economic growth more than the leverage in financial corporations. This is due to the direct relationship between economic growth and the real sector and the fact that non-financial corporations in OECD countries hold more debt as compared with financial corporations.
Near infrared (NIR) optical imaging has demonstrated significant potential as an effective modality for cancer molecular imaging. Among various NIR probes currently under investigation, upconversion nanophosphors (UCNPs) possess great promise due to their anti-Stokes emission and sequential photon absorption which result in superior detection sensitivity and a simple imaging setup, respectively. Here we investigated the utility of this imaging modality to detect tumor cells expressing the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) using affibody functionalized nanophosphors and a custom built imaging system. Initially, aqueous dispersible NaYF4: Tm+3, Yb+3 UCNPs were synthesized and their photophysical properties were characterized. Then, their luminescence response as a function of concentration and their depth resolving capability in a tissue-simulating phantom were examined. Finally, we demonstrated the use of bioconjugated UCNPs for imaging EGFR-expressing tumors both in vitro and in vivo. Our data suggests that NIR imaging with UCNPs may be useful for noninvasive imaging of tumors.
During recrystallization, the growth of fresh grains initiated within a deformed microstructure causes dramatic changes in the dislocation structure and density of a heavily deformed matrix. In this paper, the microstructure of a cold rolled and partially recrystallized Al-Mg alloy (AA5052) was studied via electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis. The structure and density of the geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) were predicted using a combination of continuum mechanics and dislocation theory. Accordingly, the Nye dislocation tensor, which determines the GND structure, was estimated by calculation of the lattice curvature. To do so, five components of the Nye dislocation tensor were directly calculated from the local orientation of surface points of the specimen, which was determined by two-dimensional EBSD. The remaining components of GNDs were determined by minimizing a normalized Hamiltonian equation based on dislocation energy. The results show the elimination of low angle boundaries, lattice curvature, and GNDs in recrystallized regions and the formation of low angle boundaries with orientation discontinuities in deformed grains, which may be due to static recovery.
A point prevalence survey was conducted on May 11, 2017, among inpatients at 6 hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The overall point prevalence was 6.8% (114 of 1,666). The most common types of infections were pneumonia (27.2%), urinary tract infections (20.2%), and bloodstream infections (10.5%). Approximately 19.2% of healthcare-associated infections were device associated.
This article, which looks at Indigenous communities in the multiethnic, multicultural region of Sabah, East Malaysia, on the island of Borneo, argues that indigeneity is not primordial, but exists in relation to dominant identities as well as other non-dominant, Indigenous groups. Moreover, Indigenous Peoples are not passive recipients of colonial or even postcolonial Othering: their identity is contextualised and contested within majority–minority relations. The article begins with a brief history of the dominant Kadazandusun nationalism in Sabah, in the context of the overarching Bumiputra policy of Malaysia, which privileges constructed Malayness, as background to the discourses and practices of smaller groups of land-based Murut and the sea-oriented ‘Bajau’, where identity switching is taking place in tandem with environmental justice claims. The land-based communities (Murut) have found leverage in making identity and livelihood claims attached to place (here, state-declared forest reserves that seek to exclude them) in line with the recent global environmental justice focus on participatory conservation rather than the older ‘fortress conservation’ model still dominant in state conservation thinking. However, the sea-oriented peoples (Bajau) require other social symbols than land for making their identity claims, in this instance, via claims to ‘modern’ livelihoods and as managers of marine resources with reference to the newly established Tun Mustapha Park. In Sabah, participatory conservation is being reappropriated by Indigenous Peoples to assert claims about place and /or livelihoods; if bureaucratised, however, this form of conservation might turn out to be less than participatory.
Low vaccine-effectiveness has been recognised as a key factor undermining efforts to improve strategies and uptake of seasonal influenza vaccination. Aiming to prevent disease transmission, vaccination may influence the perceived risk-of-infection and, therefore, alter the individual-level behavioural responses, such as the avoidance of contact with infectious cases. We asked how the avoidance behaviour of vaccinated individuals changes disease dynamics, and specifically the epidemic size, in the context of imperfect vaccination. For this purpose, we developed an agent-based simulation model, and parameterised it with published estimates and relevant databases for population demographics and agent characteristics. Encapsulating an age-stratified structure, we evaluated the per-contact risk-of-infection and estimated the epidemic size. Our results show that vaccination could lead to a larger epidemic size if the level of avoidance behaviour in vaccinated individuals reduces below that of susceptible individuals. Furthermore, the risk-of-infection in vaccinated individuals, which follows the pattern of age-dependent frailty index of the population, increases for older age groups, and may reach, or even exceed, the risk-of-infection in susceptible individuals. Our findings indicate that low engagement in avoidance behaviour can potentially offset the benefits of vaccination even for vaccines with high effectiveness. While highlighting the protective effects of vaccination, seasonal influenza immunisation programmes should enhance strategies to promote avoidance behaviour despite being vaccinated.
Cervical cancer screening (CCS) is conducted through multiple testing modalities including Papanicolaou smears and more recently, HPV Testing. Participation in CCS is influenced by a multitude of barriers and facilitators governed by the preferences, values, and beliefs of women. This presentation will discuss the findings from a Patient Perspectives and Experiences review for a CADTH Health Technology Assessment on HPV Testing for Primary Cervical Cancer Screening.
A systematic literature search yielded 4864 citations published from 1 January 2002 to 1 November 2017. One hundred and six eligible studies were analyzed using the qualitative meta-synthesis methodology.
The social location, circumstances and resources available to women significantly influence how they negotiate the factors that influence their CCS participation. Some of the factors we identified are Emotions, Understanding Personal Risk, Logistics, and Multiple Roles of Women. In this presentation, we will discuss how these factors interact with a woman's social location to influence women's choices and preferences about engaging in cervical cancer screening. Specifically, we describe an analysis that conceptualizes social location as a balancing fulcrum, which changes the force exerted by factors acting as incentives and disincentives. Women who experience social and material deprivation may find that disincentives are harder to overcome than women who have access to ample social and material resources. More incentives in quantity and strength would tip the balance in favor of incentives and increase CCS participation. This presentation will also describe how incentives and disincentives were operationalized in the context of a patient perspectives and experiences review for a health technology assessment.
Women's decisions to participate in CCS are influenced by many factors. The way women negotiate these factors is closely related to their personal circumstances and the availability of social, material, and financial resources.
The growth of the evidence-based policy movement sought to determine how to better assess and incorporate qualitative evidence in clinical practice and policy development. The question engendered was not whether qualitative research is valuable but how researchers can enhance its rigor. From this discussion arose over one hundred appraisal tools for the quality appraisal process of qualitative studies. For those without a deep familiarity with the qualitative research paradigm, navigating through the breadth of tools to find the most suitable tool for the task is a cumbersome process. This presentation will review the descriptive characteristics of available quality appraisal tools for assessing the quality of primary qualitative studies in qualitative evidence syntheses (QES). This presentation will also offer a critical discussion on the use of reflexivity as a de facto quality criterion, and how methodological reporting may influence the application of quality criteria in QES.
We conducted a systematic search to identify quality appraisal tools of qualitative research designed for use in QES. This search built upon the work of Santiago-Delefosse and colleagues by extending their search to 2016.
We identified eight appraisal tools intended for use in the quality appraisal process of a QES. We provide a description of the structure, content, objectives, and philosophies of tools followed by considerations concerning their historical antecedents, common patterns regarding structure, content, and purpose, and the implications of these patterns on the QES process.
Quality appraisal of qualitative research is an important step in QES, and there have been a proliferation of tools for this purpose. By providing an overview of available tools detailing their intent and strengths, this presentation will assist those engaging in QES to choose an appropriate tool for their work.
A dual-polarized dual-layer wideband microstrip antenna is presented. Dual orthogonal linear polarization and enhanced isolation between two ports are achieved by employing two radiating patches perpendicular to each other and printed on two separate substrates. Broadband behavior of the antenna is realized by using two wideband double-sided printed strip dipole and angular ring as radiating patches along with wideband baluns as feeding system. The patches are connected to baluns with two separate twin-lead transmission lines. Moreover, to improve the impedance bandwidth of the strip dipole significantly, a diamond-shape parasitic patch is artily incorporated into the top side of the upper layer of the antenna. The proposed antenna can easily be employed in large-scale arrays thanks to the feeding system of the patches. A prototype is fabricated to verify the simulation results where the measurement results show the −10 dB impedance bandwidths of 40% (4.3–6.5 GHz) and 43% (4.2–6.5 GHz) at port #1 and port #2, respectively. Besides, the isolation between two ports and the radiation gain are obtained around 35 dB and 9 dBi, respectively, which are useful for WLAN applications.
Little is known about the genetic and morphological characters of Taenia ovis. The purpose of the present study was to characterize sheep isolates of T. ovis using rostellar hook morphometry as well as mitochondrial genes sequence analysis. Ninety sheep specimens of Cysticercus ovis were collected from 18 slaughterhouses in Iran. The mean ± s.d. for total length of large and small hooks were 174.1 ± 6.4 and 116.7 ± 5.4 µm, respectively. CO1 and 12S rRNA sequence analysis showed 11 and nine haplotypes, respectively. The level of pairwise nucleotide variations between individual haplotypes of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes were 0.3–1.1 and 0.2–1.0%, respectively. Level of nucleotide variation in CO1 and 12S rRNA between T. ovis haplotypes from present study and eight other Taenia species was found to be 11.3–17.8 and 5.3–16.3%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis clustered all T. ovis isolates into a single clade comprised of the all CO1 and 12S rRNA haplotypes. CO1 nucleotide difference between T. ovis ovis and T. asiatica was 13.6% that is lesser than the corresponding difference between T. ovis ovis and T. ovis krabbei, warranting the designation of two separate species as T. ovis and T. krabbei. Interclass correlation coefficients showed that there was no significant association between rostellar hook length variation and the variability of the mitochondrial genes.
Abdominal obesity (AO) is a relative risk factor for cardiovascular events. We aimed to determine the 6-year incidence of AO and its risk factors among Tehranian adults.
In this population-based cohort study, non-abdominally obese participants, aged ≥20 years, were followed for incidence of AO. Cumulative incidence and incidence rate of AO were calculated for each sex. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine the association of potential risk factors including age, BMI, dysmetabolic state, smoking, marital status, educational level and physical activity (PA).
A total of 5044 participants (1912 men) were followed for a median of 6 years. Mean age was 37·7 (sd 13·5) years at baseline, with mean BMI of 24·3 (sd 3·1) kg/m2 (men, 23·0 (sd 2·4) kg/m2; women, 25·0 (sd 3·2) kg/m2). During follow-up, 3093 (1373 men) developed AO with total cumulative incidence of 76·02, 83·59 and 70·90 %, for the whole population, men and women, respectively. Corresponding incidence rates were 96·0, 138·7 and 77·1 per 1000 person-years. The highest incidence rate was observed during their 30s and 50s, in men and women, respectively. Subjects with dysmetabolic state in both sexes, married women, men with lower PA and higher educational levels at baseline were at higher risk of AO.
The incidence of AO is high among Tehranian adults, especially in young men. The risk factors for developing AO should be highlighted to halt this growing trend of AO.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The primary goal of this project is to verify findings from a murine prostatitis model in the human setting. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Methods include primary cell isolation and culture, FACS, adoptive transfer, 3D cell culture, histology, immunofluorescence, xenograft, and tissue recombination. The study population includes patients undergoing HoLEP or radical prostatectomy due to hyperplasia or adjacent bladder or prostate cancer. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Having verified similar sensitivities to androgen receptor (AR) inhibitors between naive murine and human basal prostate stem cells, we anticipate that autoimmune inflammation in humans affects the response of basal prostate stem cells in a manner similar to the murine setting as well. This includes increased proliferation, increased differentiation, and decreased response to AR inhibitors. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The identification of survival mechanisms used by basal prostate stem cells in an androgen deprived environment may give insight to the process by which prostate cancer becomes androgen independent. The effect of inflammation on proliferation, survival, and AR signaling in these cells may also provide information relevant to cancer initiation and progression.
To investigate seasonal variations of vitamin D status at different latitudes and if these changes are accompanied by corresponding variations in certain health parameters in children living in a broad latitudinal range in Iran.
In total, 530 apparently healthy children aged 5–18 years were randomly selected from six regions of Iran with a latitudinal gradient from 29°N to 37·5°N. All anthropometric and biochemical assessments were performed twice during a year (summer, winter). High BMI (Z-score >1), low HDL cholesterol (<40 mg/dl, males; <50 mg/dl, females) and high TAG (>150 mg/dl) were considered cardiometabolic risk factors.
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) showed between-season variation, with significantly higher concentrations (mean (sd)) in summer v. winter (43 (29) v. 27 (18) nmol/l; P<0·001). Change of circulating 25(OH)D between summer and winter was negatively correlated with change of BMI (r=−0·16; P<0·001), TAG (r=−0·09; P=0·04) and total cholesterol (r=−0·10; P=0·02) and directly correlated with change of height-for-age Z-score (r=0·09; P=0·04). Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis (β; 95 % CI) showed that winter serum 25(OH)D (−0·3; −0·4, −0·2; P<0·001), gender (boys v. girls: 9·7; 5·2, 14·1; P<0·001) and latitude (>33°N v. <33°N: 4·5; 0·09, 9·0; P=0·04) were predictors of change of serum 25(OH)D between two seasons.
Summertime improvement of vitamin D status was accompanied by certain improved cardiometabolic risk factors, notably serum TAG, total cholesterol and BMI, in children.
In this paper, a walking pattern optimization procedure is implemented to yield the optimal heel-strike and toe-off motions for different goal functions. To this end, first, a full dynamic model of a humanoid robot equipped with active toe joints is developed. This model consists of two parts: multi-body dynamics of the robot which is obtained by Lagrange and Kane methods and power transmission dynamic model which is developed using system identification approach. Then, a gait planning routine is presented and consistent parameters are specified. Several simulations and experimental tests are carried out on SURENA III humanoid robot which is designed and fabricated at the Center of Advanced Systems and Technologies located in the University of Tehran. Afterward, a genetic algorithm optimization is adopted to compute the optimal walking patterns for five different goal functions including energy consumption, stability margin, joint velocity, joint torque and required friction coefficient. Also, several parametric analyses are performed to characterize the effects of heel-strike and toe-off angle and toe link mass and length on these five goal functions. Finally, it is concluded that walking pattern without heel-strike and toe-off motions requires less friction coefficient than the pattern with heel-strike and toe-off motions. Also, heavier toe link lowers tip-over instability and slippage occurrence possibility, but requires more energy consumption and joint torque.
Ferula ovina is a perennial Apiaceae with great medicinal and economic value. This study was conducted to better understand the dormancy and germination behaviour of its seeds. Experiments included temperature requirements for both embryo growth and germination under field and laboratory conditions, the effects of warm stratification, gibberellic acid (GA3), dry after-ripening, exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) on dormancy, localizing the accumulation of superoxide (O2−) and measuring endogenous contents of H2O2 in embryos during cold and warm stratification. Embryos were under-developed and did not germinate within one month at temperatures higher than 10°C. Among all treatments, cold stratification and exogenous H2O2 could break dormancy. However, the application of DPI reduced growth and the germination of the embryo at 3°C. During cold stratification, the embryonic axes elongated more than the cotyledons, which coincided with earlier production of O2− in the axes. Only these embryos could eventually complete growth and germinate. Moreover, such asymmetric growth between the axes and cotyledons was also observed when seeds were treated with exogenous H2O2. On the other hand, both axes and cotyledons displayed the same growth over treatments with warm stratification and DPI. Overall, seeds of F. ovina exhibit the characteristics of deep complex morphophysiological dormancy. Moreover, the embryos solely require cold to complete growth and to germinate, and this process seems to be mediated by reactive oxygen species. Under natural conditions, seeds germinate during winter in cold soil, and shoots emerge in spring.