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Visual representation of product architecture models is crucial in complex engineering systems design. However, when the number of entities in a model is large and when multiple levels of hierarchies are included, visual representations currently in use need to be more intuitive. As such, improved visual representations that enable better system overview and better communication of essential product- related information among design participants are needed. This paper uses interactive information visualisation techniques – collapsible hierarchical tree, edge bundling and alluvial diagram – and provides the foundations of a computerised tool that improves the traceability of connections between design domains, including stakeholders, requirements, functions, behaviours and structure. The case of a cleaning robot is used as an illustrative example. The approach supports designers by providing an enhanced overview during the development of complex product architecture models, in particular in the communication with external stakeholders, in the identification of change propagation paths across several design domains, and in capturing the design rationale of previous design decisions.
Current healthcare delivery challenges are multi-faceted, requiring multiple perspectives to be addressed using a systems approach. However, a significant amount of healthcare systems design research work is carried out within single disciplines or at best a few disciplines working together. There appears to be little deliberate attempt to draw together a wide range of disciplines committed to working together to overcome differences and tackle some of the complex challenges in healthcare delivery. In this paper, we report on the initial outcomes of such an international initiative that, in the form of a workshop held at the University of Cambridge, brought together researchers and practitioners from a wide range of disciplines to explore the foundations of a community for Healthcare Systems Design Research and Practice.
An ageing population leading to more chronic disease is straining healthcare systems. This paper makes two core contributions to healthcare systems design research: Firstly, a systemic techno-behavioural approach is presented to support intervention design with value-effective health outcomes. The systemic techno-behavioural perspective takes into consideration the interaction between three angles: The current healthcare system in place, the technological opportunities for addressing an issue and a broader and deeper understanding of the behaviour of those involved. The purpose of considering these three angels is to create interventions that are more robust. This will help inform healthcare systems design researchers and other stakeholders. Secondly, it is proposed that interventions should be grounded in behavioural theory, a collection of theories are presented to be incorporated in the design process of interventions. The systemic techno-behavioural approach is applied to dementia care highlighting the need to understand the dynamic relationship between the context of the current healthcare delivery system, technology, and behaviour to improve quality of care during the progression of the disease.
Tobacco is a known addictive consumer product and its use has been reported to be associated with several health problems as well as the leading cause of premature, preventable mortality worldwide. For patients undergoing cancer treatment, tobacco smoking can potentially compromise treatment effectiveness; however, there is sufficient evidence suggesting numerous health benefits of smoking cessation interventions for cancer patients.
The Grand River Regional Cancer Centre (GRRCC) smoking cessation program began in October 2013 to provide evidence-based intensive tobacco intervention to patients. All new patients are screened for tobacco use and those identified as active smokers are advised of the benefits of cessation and offered referral to the program where a cessation nurse offers counseling. Patients’ disease site, initial cessation goal, quit date, number of quit attempts and mode of contact are collected by the cessation nurse. This study reports on the initial evaluation of the smoking cessation program activities at GRRCC.
There are 1,210 patients who were screened, accepted a referral and counseled in the program. The referral pattern shows a modest increase every year and most of the patients (58%) indicated readiness to quit smoking. Overall, 29 and 26% of patients either quit or cut-back smoking, respectively. Among 348 patients who quit smoking, 300 (86%) were able to quit at the first attempt. The data indicated that 309 (44%) out of the 698 patients who indicated their initial intent to quit smoking were able to quit, whereas about 242 (35%) were able to cutback. A total of 15 patients out of 32 who indicated initial readiness to ‘cutback’ smoking were able to reduce tobacco use and three patients actually ended up quitting, although their initial goal was ‘ready-to-cut-back’.
GRRCC smoking cessation program started in October 2013 to provide evidence-based intensive smoking cessation interventions for patients with cancer. Most patients referred to the program indicated a readiness to quit smoking affirming that if patients become aware of the various risks associated with continual smoking or if they are informed of the benefits associated with cessation with regard to their treatment, they will be more likely to decide to quit. Therefore, it is essential that patients, their partners and families are counseled on the health and treatment benefits of smoking cessation and sustainable programs should be available to support them to quit smoking. It is imperative then, that oncology programs should consistently identify and document the smoking status of cancer patients and support those who use tobacco at the time of diagnosis to quit. Evidence-based smoking cessation intervention should be sustainably integrated into the cancer care continuum in all oncology programs from prevention of cancer through diagnosis, treatment, survivorship and palliative care.
Cognitive assistants such as IBM Watson and Siri are at the forefront of social and technological innovation and have the potential to solve many unique problems. However, the lack of standardization and classification within the field impedes critical analysis of existing cognitive assistants and may further inhibit their growth into more useful applications. This paper discusses the development of an ontology, its classes, and subclasses that may serve as a foundation for defining and differentiating CAs. Specifically, the four suggested classes include: learning, intelligence, autonomy, and communication. Various assistants are described and categorized using the proposed system. Our novel ontological framework is the first step towards a classification system for this burgeoning field.
Novelist Marie Corelli was extremely popular at the turn of the century, so much so that J. M. Stuart-Young complained about the 'Corelli Cult'. Corelli broke all sales records during the 30 years of her publishing. Her books have enjoyed a resurgence of interest over the past two decades for various reasons but ostensibly due to their challenge to gender constrictions. Corelli's perception of gender and her gender demeanor were complicated and mercurial. Speculation that she was transgendered, a deduction drawn from her writing and from her having lived in an intimate relationship with Bertha Vyver for 64 years, makes her a person of interest today. Additionally, her 30 novels, short stories and essays are all in print and they reflect a myriad of themes and experiences as relevant today, if not more so, than during the late Victorian period. So far, other than a special issue of 'Women's Writing' in 2006, no collection of essays on Corelli has been published. 'Reinventing Marie Corelli for the Twenty-First Century' is the first to remedy that, prompted by her current popularity, a desire to introduce her to a new generation and to instigate critical inquiry that will offer an appreciation for her themes, style and historical place in the literary canon.
one wishes to deceive a man, what one presents to him is the painting of a veil, that is to say, something that incites him to ask what is behind it.
In our first chapter, Nick Birch alluded to Corelli's “conspicuous and shameless desire for self-advertisement that pervaded everything she did” (22). In our third chapter, Julia Kuehn mentioned that J. M. Stuart-Young “wrote disparagingly” about Corelli's being “the greatest genius of self-advertisement produced by our country” (71). Kuehn also noted that the critic thought that only the “unthinking classes” and women and the “working classes” read Corelli's books (75), a point that Kuehn disputed. Stuart-Young said a lot more in his denouncement of England's bestselling novelist in that article that appeared in the Westminster Review in December 1906. He declared Marie Corelli to be “an erotic degenerate of the subtlest type” who, because she was “undomesticated” and celibate, was a “man-woman” who used “the methods and the talents of a woman” but “unmistakably demonstrated also the arrogances and the intense prejudices of a man” (691). He dismissed Corelli's novels and opinions as inconsequential with the claim that it is “only on degenerate subjects that hysterical people can make effect” (691), so he argues it is “only the imperfectly developed individual” such as “young women, domesticated matrons, youths, and those who are hysterical or weak in nerve and brain” (685) who constitute her readers, not “people whose opinions really matter” (681). Stuart-Young accused Corelli of being a “social menace,” the symbol of a “superficial generation” who easily influences the unthinking masses with her “pen-pictures,” faulty grammar and turgid style (682). It is the “multitude of average people” to whom “a real thought is alien” that falls for the “courage of [Corelli's] hysteria [that] is not afraid to scream” (683). Corelli, through her “sublime ravings” (686), Stuart-Young believed, was “train[ing] up a nation of criminals and weaklings” (692). Constantly and consistently vilified by the press for her perceived “vulgarity, sensationalism, self-aggrandizement, inflated imagination, lack of restraint, and above all, an incurably commonplace mind” (Felski, Gender 116), Corelli was considered “a woman of deplorable talent who imagined that she was a genius, and was accepted as a genius by a public to whose commonplace sentimentalities and prejudices she gave a glamorous setting and an impressive scale.”
Brenda Ayres, Teaches for Liberty University in Lynchburg, Virginia.,
Sarah E. Maier, Professor of English and Comparative Literature at the University of New Brunswick, Director of Interdisciplinary Graduate Studies and was named University Teaching Scholar in 2006.
Once upon a time, Marie Corelli was the most popular, and bestselling, writer in the world. In England she was just as well known as Charles Dickens, according to one of her biographers, George Bullock (117). Another biographer claimed that while Queen Victoria was alive, Corelli was the “second most famous Englishwoman in the world” (Masters 6). More than half of her 30 novels sold over 100,000 copies each year (Casey 163), a record that outpaces Hall Caine's annual sales of 45,000, Mrs. Humphry Ward's 35,000 and H. G. Wells’ 15,000 (Masters 6). Her sales exceeded those of Rudyard Kipling's, Arthur Conan Doyle's and H. G. Wells’ combined (Casey 163). So popular were her books and her mystique, one cynic complained about the “Corelli Cult” (Stuart-Young 680). Women flocked to her and actually “fought over each other to get near her and tried to kiss the hem of her dress” (Masters 7). In the United States a new church was formed to practice the “Electric Creed” described in A Romance of Two Worlds, and a town in Colorado was called Corelli City (94).
“Marie Corelli” began her life as Mary Mills; with no existing birth certificate, she is believed to have been born on May 1, 1855, in London to Mary Elizabeth (Ellen) Mills, the mistress of Charles Mackay (Ransom 11; Federico, Idol 4). Author, poet and literary editor for the Illustrated London News, Mackay was a married man (to Rose Henrietta Vale) and father of four other children. Little Mary Mills was told he was her stepfather—his absence from her life was constant until the death of his wife and the marriage of her biological parents in 1861, at which point she becomes Mary Mackay but is known as “Minnie” (Ransom 11; Federico, Idol 7).
Living in the country at Fern Dell of Box Hill was a challenge for the young girl. No formal education was available other than the accomplishments provided by a governess, but Minnie seemed to yearn for knowledge because, as she said, “I instinctively did all I could to make myself a personality to be reckoned with.