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Sample geometry effects on mechanical strengths of gold micro-cantilevers are evaluated by a micro-bending test. Six micro-cantilevers with the same length of 50 μm are prepared, and the width and the thickness are varied to examine individual effects on the yield stress. The yield stress increases from 428 to 519 MPa when the thickness decreases from 11.1 to 6.0 μm. No obvious dependency is observed when varying the width. The results reveal that the thickness and the width each has a different influence on the yield stresses of micro-cantilevers evaluated by the bending test, which is the sample geometry effect.
MoS2(1-x)Te2x, the alloy of MoS2 and MoTe2 was fabricated with just co-sputtering and the combination of co-sputtering with following thermal treatment in chalcogen ambient. Phase separation, where MoTe2 was segregated rather than S and Te being uniformly distributed, was observed for some samples. From the physical structure evaluation using XRD, it was shown that the samples that was sulfurized after unintentional oxidation during shelf time exhibited no phase separation. It was suggested that oxidation of Mo or amorphous nature of the film at the chalcogenization stage may prevent the phase separation. In addition, some samples were stored in desiccator for stability evaluation. It was revealed that the samples undergo oxidation to different extent depending on the carrier gas used in tellurization. Finally, the bandgap and band structure was evaluated for samples with different Te concentration. The bandgap showed bowing behavior for different Te concentration with the bowing parameter b = -1.21 eV. Combined with the bandgap evaluation, the valence analysis with XPS showed that the band structure shifted according to the Te concentration. The shift in bandgap allows flexible band alignment which is expected to expand the materials applicability.
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is expected to be applied for devices in various fields owing to its unique characteristics. Establishing a high-productivity manufacturing method which yields high quality films is an important and unresolved issue for the practical applications of MoS2. Among different techniques conducted by researchers all over the world, our approach is cold-wall metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, and we previously reported the deposition of MoS2 with i-Pr2DADMo(CO)3, a novel Mo precursor [S. Ishihara, et al., MRS Advances 3, 379-384 (2018).]. In this study, with the aim of further improving the quality of the MoS2 film using this new Mo precursor, various film formation conditions were controlled and the influence on the film quality was investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used as evaluation techniques of the samples. As a result, mm-scale uniform film was formed with the deposition time less than 30 min. at temperature as low as 400 °C to 500 °C. It was revealed that maintaining low Mo/S supply ratio (SRMo/S) is crucial in fabricating high quality films.
The Tokoro Belt exposed in NE Hokkaido (Japan) represents part of a Late Cretaceous accretionary complex, which includes variously metamorphosed volcanic rocks that are interbedded with chert, lenticular limestone and some fore-arc sedimentary rocks. The Tokoro Belt is notably different from other Late Cretaceous accretionary complexes around the Pacific Rim because of widespread occurrence of basalts and volcaniclastic rocks in it. The Nikoro Group, characterized by widespread occurrence of volcanic rocks, is divided into western, eastern and southern sections based on the internal structure, geochemical affinities and metamorphic grades of their volcanic lithologies. OIB (ocean island basalt)-type volcanic rocks with low-grade metamorphic overprint predominate in the western and southern sections, whereas MORB (mid-ocean ridge basalt)- and OIA (ocean island alkaline basalt)-type rocks in the eastern section with partly high-pressure metamorphism make up the northern part of the eastern section. Trace element patterns display transitional trends from MORB to OIA geochemical affinities. OIB-type rocks display trace element characteristics similar to those of shield volcano lavas on Hawaii, rather than small and mainly alkaline, Polynesian hotspot lavas; furthermore, they show significant HREE (heavy rare earth element) enrichment probably caused by plume–ridge interaction. Widespread OIBs in the Tokoro Belt represents tectonic slices of a large (>80 km wide) Hawaiian-style, seamount shield volcano on the Izanagi oceanic plate that was accreted into the continental margin of Far East Asia in the Late Cretaceous.
It has been recognized that non-ideal MHD effects (Ohmic diffusion, Hall effect, ambipolar diffusion) play crucial roles for the circumstellar disk formation and evolution. Ohmic and ambipolar diffusion decouple the gas and the magnetic field, and significantly reduces the magnetic torque in the disk, which enables the formation of the circumstellar disk (e.g., Tsukamoto et al. 2015b). They set an upper limit to the magnetic field strength of ∼ 0.1 G around the disk (Masson et al. 2016). The Hall effect notably changes the magnetic torques in the envelope around the disk, and strengthens or weakens the magnetic braking depending on the relative orientation of magnetic field and angular momentum. This suggests that the bimodal evolution of the disk size possibly occurs in the early disk evolutionary phase (Tsukamoto et al. 2015a, Tsukamoto et al. 2017). Hall effect and ambipolar diffusion imprint the possibly observable characteristic velocity structures in the envelope of Class 0/I YSOs. Hall effect forms a counter-rotating envelope around the disk. Our simulations show that counter rotating envelope has the size of 100–1000 au and a recent observation actually infers such a structure (Takakuwaet al. 2018). Ambipolar diffusion causes the significant ion-neutral drift in the envelopes. Our simulations show that the drift velocity of ion could become 100-1000 ms–1.
Excess weight loss while minimising fat-free mass (FFM) loss is important for health. Travel is a particular period at risk for weight gain and for which the effects of a short-term intensive weight loss programme have not been studied. Therefore, we studied the effect of a novel, 1-week supervised health travel programme combining high volume, low-to-moderate intensity exercise and energy intake restriction on weight, body composition and health outcomes in adults. Weight was also monitored for 12 weeks after the programme. In all, thirty-six subjects (nineteen men, seventeen women) consisting of sixteen excess-weight (BMI: 27·1 (sd 1·7) kg/m2) and twenty healthy-weight (BMI: 22·3 (sd 1·8) kg/m2) individuals participated. Subjects performed 1 h of slow-paced intermittent jogging three times per d and other leisure activities, whereas consuming only provided foods without water restriction. Body mass significantly decreased from pre- to post-intervention in excess-weight and healthy-weight individuals (−3·5 (sd 1·5) and −3·5 (sd 1·3) %, respectively; P<0·001 for both), and losses were maintained at 12 weeks post-intervention in both groups (−6·3 (sd 3·8) and −1·7 (sd 4·0) %, respectively; P<0·01 for both). Fat mass also significantly decreased in both groups (excess weight: −9·2 (sd 4·6) %: healthy weight: −13·4 (sd 9·0) %; P<0·01 for both), whereas FFM was maintained. Similar improvements were observed for blood biochemistry and pressure in both groups. This short-term weight loss intervention yielded favourable outcomes in both excess- and healthy-weight adults, particularly a 3·5 % weight loss with no significant change to FFM. In addition, participants maintained weight loss for at least 12 weeks. Of multiple programme choices, the Health Tourism weight loss programme’s results indicate that it is a viable option.
Metal organic precursor has a sufficiently high vapor pressure at low temperature, contributing high-speed low-temperature MOCVD-MoS2 film formation. We fabricated monolayer MoS2 by 1 step cold-wall MOCVD using di-isopropyl-diazadiene-molybdenum tricarbonyl [i-Pr2DADMo(CO)3] and di-tertiary-butyl disulfide [(t-C4H9)2S2]. These precursors are able to be vaporized using bubbling system and deposited at low temperature. From the XPS investigations, Mo-S bonding peaks were observed and S:Mo ratio was calculated as 2:1, suggesting formation of MoS2. Moreover, molybdenum carbides and nitrogen impurities were not observed which was confirmed by XPS and EDX. From the results of Raman spectroscopy, AFM height distribution, and spectroscopic ellipsometry, it was determined that the film thickness is 0.64 nm which is corresponding to monolayer MoS2, the lateral grain size is approximately 100 nm, and the bandgap energy is 1.8 eV.
We report the investigation on the properties of a novel Te precursor (i-C3H7)2Te and its effectiveness in fabricating MoTe2. The vapor pressure of the precursor was obtained by measuring the pressure as a function of its temperature in a sealed chamber. As a result it showed a high vapor pressure of 552.1 Pa at room temperature. The decomposition of the precursor was also investigated using DFT calculation. It was shown that the most likely reaction during the course of the decomposition of (i-C3H7)2Te is (i-C3H7)2Te → H2Te + 2 C3H7. The effectiveness of the precursor on the fabrication of MoTe2 was also investigated. Sputter-deposited MoO3 was tellurized in a quartz-tube furnace at the temperature up to 440°C. The resulting film showed that the 80% of the original MoO3 was tellurized to form MoTe2. It was also shown that further optimization of tellurization is required in order to prevent formation of metal Mo and elemental Te.
We present observational results of the submillimeter H2O and SiO lines toward a candidate high-mass young stellar object Orion Source I using ALMA. The spatial structures of the high excitation lines at lower-state energies of >2500 K show compact structures consistent with the circumstellar disk and/or base of the northeast-southwest bipolar outflow with a 100 au scale. The highest excitation transition, the SiO (v=4) line at band 8, has the most compact structure. In contrast, lower-excitation transitions are more extended than 200 au tracing the outflow. Almost all the line show velocity gradients perpendicular to the outflow axis suggesting rotation motions of the circumstellar disk and outflow. While some of the detected lines show broad line profiles and spatially extended emission components indicative of thermal excitation, the strong H2O lines at 321 GHz, 474 GHz, and 658 GHz with brightness temperatures of >1000 K show clear signatures of maser action.
MoS2(1−x)Te2x thin films were fabricated by high-temperature co-sputtering deposition and post-deposition tellurization annealing using novel Te precursor (i-C3H7)2Te for the first time. As a result, high crystal quality MoS2(1−x)Te2x (6.5 nm) were successfully fabricated with the Te concentration x ranging from 0.48 to 0.61 and band gap value from 0.80 to 0.87 eV. From the obtained band gap values of MoS2(1−x)Te2x, the bowing parameter b was determined to be 1.06 eV. When exploited in device use, if the required band gap value is known, the required composition can be calculated with the bowing parameter. We have also shown the compatibility of co-sputtering to alloy fabrication since the composition ratio can be easily controlled just by adjusting the radio frequency (RF) sputter power on different targets. The fabrication method can be applied to different transition metal dichalcogenide materials as well.
We report the synthesis of MoS2(1-x)Te2x by co-sputtering deposition and effect of mixture on its bandgap. The deposition was carried out at room temperature, and the sputtering power on individual MoS2 and MoTe2 targets were varied to obtain films with different compositions. Investigation with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the formation of Mo-Te and Mo-S bonds after post-deposition annealing (PDA), and one of the samples exhibited composition ratio of Mo:S:Te = 1:1.2:0.8 and 1:1.9:0.1 achieving 1:2 ratio of metal to chalcogen. Bandgap of MoS1.2Te0.8 and MoS1.9Te0.1 was evaluated with Tauc plot analysis from the extinction coefficient obtained by spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. The obtained bandgaps were 1.0 eV and 1.3 eV. The resulting bandgap was lower than that of bulk MoS2 and higher than that of bulk MoTe2 suggesting mixture of both materials was achieved by co-sputtering.
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin films were fabricated by two-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using (t-C4H9)2S2 and the effects of temperature, gas flow rate, and atmosphere on the formation were investigated in order to achieve high-speed low-temperature MoS2 film formation. From the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations, it was confirmed that c-axis orientation of the pre-deposited Mo film has a significant involvement in the crystal orientation after the reaction low temperature sulfurization annealing and we successfully obtained 3 nm c-axis oriented MoS2 thin film. From the S/Mo ratios in the films, it was revealed that the sulfurization reaction proceeds faster with increase in the sulfurization temperature and the gas flow rate. Moreover, the sulfurization under the H2 atmosphere promotes decomposition reaction of (t-C4H9)2S2, which were confirmed by XPS and density functional theory (DFT) simulation.
Near-infrared (NIR) absorption in solar-control LaB6 nanoparticles (NPs) is derived from the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) at 1.3 eV, and accompanies an unclarified subpeak at 1.8 eV. As an origin of this subpeak, a disk-like particle shape of LaB6 NP has recently been proposed, besides the previously-proposed, milling-derived LaO phase. A series of heating experiments at 200–850 °C in air for LaB6 NPs pulverized with different media beads have been made, followed by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy observations, to clarify that LaB6 NPs oxidizes to amorphous phases B2O3 and La–B–O at 450–600 °C, and crystallize to LaB3O6 at 650–750 °C, without forming LaO or La2O3. Dielectric functions of LaO have been derived by first-principles calculations using sX-LDA, and Mie scattering calculations have been made for various sizes, shapes, and the ensembles, showing that LaO NPs, if existed, should exhibit an excessively-broadened absorption band with a blunt LSPR peak at 2.1 eV buried in several interband-transition absorptions at 1.2–4.0 eV. These analyses confirm that the observed 1.8 eV subpeak could not originate from LaO and support the nonspherical shape of NPs as the origin of the subpeak.
By performing a global magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulation for the Milky Way with an axisymmetric gravitational potential, we propose that spatially dependent amplification of magnetic fields possibly explains the observed noncircular motion of the gas in the Galactic centre (GC) region. The radial distribution of the rotation frequency in the bulge region is not monotonic in general. The amplification of the magnetic field is enhanced in regions with stronger differential rotation, because magnetorotational instability and field-line stretching are more effective. The strength of the amplified magnetic field reaches ≳ 0.5 mG, and radial flows of the gas are excited by the inhomogeneous transport of angular momentum through turbulent magnetic field that is amplified in a spatially dependent manner. As a result, the simulated position-velocity diagram exhibits a time-dependent asymmetric parallelogram-shape owing to the intermittency of the magnetic turbulence; the present model provides a viable alternative to the bar-potential-driven model for the parallelogram shape of the central molecular zone. In addition, Parker instability (magnetic buoyancy) creates vertical magnetic structure, which would correspond to observed molecular loops, and frequently excited vertical flows. Furthermore, the time-averaged net gas flow is directed outward, whereas the flows are highly time dependent, which would contribute to the outflow from the bulge.
Various observations show peculiar features in the Galactic Center region, such as loops and filamentary structure. It is still unclear how such characteristic features are formed. Magnetic field is believed to play very important roles in the dynamics of gas in the Galaxy Center. Suzuki et al. (2015) performed a global magneto-hydrodynamical simulation focusing on the Galactic Center with an axisymmetric gravitational potential and claimed that non-radial motion is excited by magnetic activity. We further analyzed their simulation data and found that vertical motion is also excited by magnetic activity. In particular, fast down flows with speed of ~100 km/s are triggered near the footpoint of magnetic loops that are buoyantly risen by Parker instability. These downward flows are accelerated by the vertical component of the gravity, falling along inclined field lines. As a result, the azimuthal and radial components of the velocity are also excited, which are observed as high velocity features in a simulated position-velocity diagram. Depending on the viewing angle, these fast flows will show a huge variety of characteristic features in the position-velocity diagram.
When and where marine eels spawn is poorly known even though species such as those of the family Congridae, Muraenidae and Ophichthidae can be caught in continental shelf habitats. The congrid genus Ariosoma includes small continental shelf eel species whose life histories are not yet known. Mature male and female eels of Ariosoma meeki were observed and captured on 17 August 2009 at the surface at night in the western side of the Kuroshio Current in the East China Sea close to new moon, while they were swimming slowly at the surface and exhibiting apparent reproduction-related behaviour. One male and one sex-unidentified eel (seemingly a male based on body shape) were observed to be chasing one larger female with their heads located near her urogenital pore area. The gonads of the female (540 mm) and the male (410 mm) that were caught by a long-handled dip net were in reproductive condition, because some eggs or seminal fluid were released during handling of the two specimens and high gonad-somatic index (GSI) values of 53 in the female and 20 in the male were recorded. This is one of the few cases in which fully ripe reproductive-condition marine eels have been observed or collected and it provides rare information about the spawning location and timing of this eel species.
We report our systematic survey observations of protostellar sources with the SubMillimeter Array (SMA) and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The purpose of our survey is to investigate formation mechanism of protoplanetary disks, precursors of planetary systems, out of ~1000 AU-scale protostellar envelopes surrounding the protostars. We found that in the early protostars (B335, NGC1333 IRAS 4B), the envelopes do not show significant rotating motions but infalling motions toward the central protostars. In more evolved protostars (L1527 IRS, L1448-mm, L1551 IRS 5), the envelopes are infalling and rotating with the conserved specific angular momenta (that is, vrot ∝ r−1). In most evolved sources (L1551 NE, TMC-1A, L1489 IRS) large-scale (≳100 AU) disks in Keplerian rotation or protoplanetary disks are evident. These results demonstrate a systematic evolutionary trend of envelope gas motions toward the disk formation.
It is crucially important to observe dense cores in order to investigate the initial condition of star formation since protostars are formed via dynamical collapse of dense cores, inhering the physical properties from their natal dense cores. Here we present the results of ALMA Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 observations of dust continuum emission and molecular rotational lines toward a dense core, MC27 (aka L1521F), which is considered to be very close to the first protostellar core phase. We revealed the spatial/velocity structures of the core are very complex and and suggest that the star formation is highly dynamical.
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), one of the transition-metal dichalcogenides, is a 2-dimensional semiconducting material that has a layered structure. Owing to excellent optical and electronic properties, the ultra-thin MoS2 film is expected to be used for various devices, such as transistors and flexible displays. In this study, we investigated the physical and chemical properties of sputtered-MoS2 film in the sub-10-nm region by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As the results of Raman spectroscopy investigations, we observed two Raman modes, E12g and A1g, in the 2-dimensional MoS2 films. As the thickness of the MoS2 film decreased, the peak frequency difference between E12g and A1g modes increased. From the XPS investigations, we confirmed sulfur reductions from the 2-dimensional MoS2 films. Therefore, we considered that the sulfur vacancies in the MoS2 film affected the Raman peak positions. Moreover, we performed the additional sulfurization of sputtered-MoS2 films. From the XPS and Raman investigations, the quality of the sputtered-MoS2 films was improved by the additional sulfurization.