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We describe the design and deployment of GREENBURST, a commensal Fast Radio Burst (FRB) search system at the Green Bank Telescope. GREENBURST uses the dedicated L-band receiver tap to search over the 960–1 920 MHz frequency range for pulses with dispersion measures out to
. Due to its unique design, GREENBURST is capable of conducting searches for FRBs when the L-band receiver is not being used for scheduled observing. This makes it a sensitive single pixel detector capable of reaching deeper in the radio sky. While single pulses from Galactic pulsars and rotating radio transients will be detectable in our observations, and will form part of the database we archive, the primary goal is to detect and study FRBs. Based on recent determinations of the all-sky rate, we predict that the system will detect approximately one FRB for every 2–3 months of continuous operation. The high sensitivity of GREENBURST means that it will also be able to probe the slope of the FRB fluence distribution, which is currently uncertain in this observing band.
Breakthrough Listen is a 10-yr initiative to search for signatures of technologies created by extraterrestrial civilisations at radio and optical wavelengths. Here, we detail the digital data recording system deployed for Breakthrough Listen observations at the 64-m aperture CSIRO Parkes Telescope in New South Wales, Australia. The recording system currently implements two modes: a dual-polarisation, 1.125-GHz bandwidth mode for single-beam observations, and a 26-input, 308-MHz bandwidth mode for the 21-cm multibeam receiver. The system is also designed to support a 3-GHz single-beam mode for the forthcoming Parkes ultra-wideband feed. In this paper, we present details of the system architecture, provide an overview of hardware and software, and present initial performance results.
We undertook observations with the Green Bank Telescope, simultaneously with the 300 m telescope in Arecibo, as a follow-up of a possible flare of radio emission from Ross 128. We report here the non-detections from the GBT observations in C band (4–8 GHz), as well as non-detections in archival data at L band (1.1–1.9 GHz). We suggest that a likely scenario is that the emission comes from one or more satellites passing through the same region of the sky.
Here, we present initial results from the ALFABURST radio transient survey, which is currently running in a commensal mode with the ALFA receiver at the Arecibo telescope. We observed for a total of 1400 hours and have detected single pulses from known pulsars but did not detect any FRBs. The non-detection of FRBs is consistent with the current FRB sky rates.
Many people with intellectual disabilities find it hard to control their anger and this often leads to aggression which can have serious consequences, such as exclusion from mainstream services and the need for potentially more expensive emergency placements.
To evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) intervention for anger management in people with intellectual disabilities.
A cluster-randomised trial of group-based 12-week CBT, which took place in day services for people with intellectual disabilities and was delivered by care staff using a treatment manual. Participants were 179 service users identified as having problems with anger control randomly assigned to either anger management or treatment as usual. Assessments were conducted before the intervention, and at 16 weeks and 10 months after randomisation (trial registration: ISRCTN37509773).
The intervention had only a small, and non-significant, effect on participants' reports of anger on the Provocation Index, the primary outcome measure (mean difference 2.8, 95% Cl −1.7 to 7.4 at 10 months). However, keyworker Provocation Index ratings were significantly lower in both follow-up assessments, as were service-user ratings on another self-report anger measure based on personally salient triggers. Both service users and their keyworkers reported greater usage of anger coping skills at both follow-up assessments and keyworkers and home carers reported lower levels of challenging behaviour.
The intervention was effective in improving anger control by people with intellectual disabilities. It provides evidence of the effectiveness of a CBT intervention for this client group and demonstrates that the staff who work with them can be trained and supervised to deliver such an intervention with reasonable fidelity.
‘In choosing between the various proposals that have been made for revising our alphabet, we've been guided by the following principles, which I think are admitted by most of our readers as essential to a practical system of phonetic spelling.’ (Passy 1888: 57)
Patients whose symptoms are ‘unexplained by disease’ often have a poor symptomatic outcome after specialist consultation, but we know little about which patient factors predict this. We therefore aimed to determine predictors of poor subjective outcome for new neurology out-patients with symptoms unexplained by disease 1 year after the initial consultation.
The Scottish Neurological Symptom Study was a 1-year prospective cohort study of patients referred to secondary care National Health Service neurology clinics in Scotland (UK). Patients were included if the neurologist rated their symptoms as ‘not at all’ or only ‘somewhat explained’ by organic disease. Patient-rated change in health was rated on a five-point Clinical Global Improvement (CGI) scale (‘much better’ to ‘much worse’) 1 year later.
The 12-month outcome data were available on 716 of 1144 patients (63%). Poor outcome on the CGI (‘unchanged’, ‘worse’ or ‘much worse’) was reported by 482 (67%) out of 716 patients. The only strong independent baseline predictors were patients' beliefs [expectation of non-recovery (odds ratio [OR] 2.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40–2.96), non-attribution of symptoms to psychological factors (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.51–3.26)] and the receipt of illness-related financial benefits (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.37–3.86). Together, these factors predicted 13% of the variance in outcome.
Of the patients, two-thirds had a poor outcome at 1 year. Illness beliefs and financial benefits are more useful in predicting poor outcome than the number of symptoms, disability and distress.
It is now three years since the Southcast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was rather hastily established after the French military collapse in Indo-China. What is its present effectiveness, and what are its prospects, as a security organization for Southeast Asia? There has never been any doubt or obscurity about SEATO's over-riding purpose to resist the extension, by whatever means, of communist rule in Southeast Asia. At die Manila Conference diere was some clash of opinion on how the purpose of die proposed body should be officially proclaimed. The United States wanted to limit it to resistance against communist aggression, while the United Kingdom and some odier countries diought it would be more politic to refer to aggression in general terms, since this might make SEATO less unpalatable to the Colombo powers. The United States then agreed to refer to aggression in general terms in the body of the Treaty, but announced its "Understanding" that its own military obligations were limited to die resistance of communist aggression. At the same time Australia insisted on its own proviso diat nothing in the Treaty must be construed as an obligation to intervene in any possible conflict between Asian members of the Commonwealth. Australia diereby sought to make it clear that SEATO was in no way concerned with the dispute between India and Pakistan over Kashmir. These verbal skirmishes only made it the more evident diat in fact, if not in form, SEATO was concerned solely widi stemming the advance of communism.
Semiconductor manufacturers are increasingly turning to Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEMs) to monitor product yield and process control, analyze defects, and investigate interface layer morphology. To prepare TEM specimens, Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technology is an invaluable tool, yielding a standard milled TEM lamella approximately 15 μm wide, 5 μm deep and ~100 nm thick. Several techniques have been developed to extract these tiny objects from a large wafer and view it in the TEM. These techniques, including ex-situ lift-out, H-bar, and in-situ lift-out, have different advantages and disadvantages, but all require painstaking preparation of one specimen at a time.
The goal of this chapter is to present what is currently known about expert performance in sport. Research on expert performance in sport is a relatively recent area of inquiry covering only the last 30 years. Our view of its evolution is that there have been three overlapping phases in its development. During the 1970s and 1980s much of sport research employed recipient paradigms popular within experimental and cognitive psychology. Typical research of this time involved testing skilled and less-skilled or novice groups of athletes on sport-specific tests of recall and recognition, temporal and spatial occlusion of visual information, and anticipation (Abernethy, Thomas, & Thomas, 1993; Starkes, Helsen, & Jack, 2000). Again, following general trends in psychology verbal-protocol analyses of expert athletes were also published (Chiesi, Spilich, & Voss, 1979; McPherson, 1993a). At the end of the 1980s and early in the 1990s, developments in the recording and analyses of eye movements (Goulet, Bard, & Fleury, 1989; Vickers, 1992) and kinematic data (Carnahan, 1993) made it feasible to examine the eye movements of expert performers in contrast with less-skilled individuals to determine what athletes focused on and how their eye-movement patterns differed from less-skilled athletes (for reviews see Starkes et al., 2000; Williams, Davids, &Williams, 1999). The focus until the 1990s was largely perceptual-cognitive and aimed at establishing where differences existed between experts and novices within a particular sport domain.
Virginia H. Dale, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA,
Johanna Delgado-Acevedo, Universidad de Puerto Rico, Departamento de Biologia, Apdo. 23360, 00931 San Juan, Puerto Rico,
James MacMahon, College of Science, Utah State University, 5305 University Blvd, Logan, UT, USA
In any one year, approximately 60 volcanoes erupt on the Earth. Even though about 80% of these eruptions occur under the oceans, the terrestrial volcanic events are common enough to have major impacts on nearby vegetation, often over large areas (e.g., Bilderback, 1987). Volcanic activity both destroys or modifies existing vegetation and creates new geological substrates upon which vegetation can re-establish. The types of plants surviving and recovering after volcanic activity largely depend upon the type of activity that takes place, the nutrient content of material ejected or moved by the volcano, the distance from the volcanic activity, and the types of vegetation propagules that survive in place or are transported from adjacent areas. The resulting changes in the vegetation abundance and patterning can have dramatic effects on the social and economic conditions of the humans in the areas surrounding volcanoes.
Impacts of volcanoes on existing flora
The primary impacts of volcanic activity on vegetation correlate to the specific type of volcanic activity (Table 8.2). In associating impacts with types of volcanic activity, we refer to the many studies on vegetation survival and reestablishment that have been conducted on volcanoes (Table 8.1). We divide the volcanic activities into six categories: lava formation, pyroclastic flows, debris avalanches, mudflows, tephra and ash depositions, and blowdowns.
The recent government health strategy document described the integration between primary and secondary care in Ireland as often poor and outlined plans to redress this deficit. In mental health care, the gradual shift away from institutions over the past four decades has resulted in the GP becoming the most frequent professional contact for people with mental disorders. However, access to specialist opinion is usually available only for the fraction of psychiatric presentations which are formally referred to the psychiatric service.
On-site psychiatric liaison to primary care is commonly practised in other countries but not in Ireland. Research in the area suggests possible advantages for approaches which aim to enhance GPs' psychiatric skills while selectively encouraging referral of more serious disorders. This model has been adopted by GPs and psychiatrists in east Cavan and may be relevant to other similar settings, especially in the context of forthcoming changes in the organisation of primary care services.
The soundscapes of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
Superficially, the period under consideration might appear to contain little of phonetic and phonological interest, compared with, for example, earlier changes such as the transition from Old to Middle English, and the Great Vowel Shift (see CHEL III, forthcoming). Thus, Millward claims that ‘by 1800, the [consonant] system was identical to that of today’ (Millward 1989: 215), and that ‘the PDE vowel inventory was achieved by the end of the EMnE period, although there have been some allophonic and distributional changes since 1800’ (Millward 1989: 219). Jespersen draws attention to a limited number of changes: for example, /n/ being used sometimes for /ŋ/ in unstressed position (singin’, bringin’, etc.), the use of intrusive /r/ from the end of the eighteenth century, the growing instability of the phonemic contrast between /ʍ/ and /w/ (e.g. where and wear), variability in the use of word-initial /h/ (e.g. in humour, hospital, humble), the loss of /j/ (e.g. in tune), and, for some speakers, the substitution of /w/ for /v/ in words like very and sorry (Jespersen 1909: 355 et seq). Similarly, Wyld notes comparable examples which show that a number of relatively small changes (systemic, structural, lexical-incidental, and realisational) had been in progress between about the middle of the eighteenth century and the First World War (Wyld 1914: 133–60. See also Horn & Lehnert 1954: passim).
Geriatric medicine started in long-term care, when the pioneers in the emerging specialty examined the inhabitants of the Victorian workhouses to discover elderly, largely ignored, yet eminently treatable patients. They focused attention on the then taboo subjects of incontinence, dementia and immobility. They developed a paradigm which entailed a proper assessment and, where appropriate, rehabilitation. This empirical process was central to their evident success, and achieved a reduction in unnecessary institutionalization by restricting long-stay care to those who could not, after full assessment and treatment, be discharged. The concept of progressive patient care developed, to make best use of somewhat meagre facilities. Day hospitals spread nationally, and outreach teams developed. Respite care schemes provided support to the huge numbers of informal carers, by sharing the load with the hospital service.
According to Sweet, the German linguist Johann Andreas Schmeller was the first to use [ə] as a phonetic symbol (Sweet 1877: 175). (Although Sweet gives no bibliographical reference, the work he must have had in mind was Schmeller's Die Mundarten Bayerns of 1821; cf. also Ellis 1874: 1357.) Schmeller uses [ə] for the ‘dumpfe Vocallaut’ in words like Semmel, Nennen, Wetter, and for the second element of various diphthongs, e.g. in dialectal pronunciations of Not(h), Bruder, etc. (Schmeller 1821: 25, 72, 141, and passim). According to Abercrombie (1946), an earlier use of [ə] than Schmeller's is to be found in William Thornton's Cadmus of 1793, for the vowel in run, come, etc. However, neither the original nor the reprint of Cadmus uses a [ə], but the symbol [ℶ].