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In Early Modern English, verbal negation was commonly expressed by the addition of not directly after a lexical verb, a construction which subsequently underwent a pronounced decline in frequency as part of broader changes in verbal syntax. Even after the rise of the auxiliary do, however, constructions with the same surface form as the earlier pattern have continued to be used as a stylistically marked alternative. Data from the Hansard Corpus are presented here to show an increase in the frequency of these constructions since the mid twentieth century. The syntactic environments in which contemporary postverbal negation occurs are compared to the patterns existing in Early Modern English, and evaluated in the light of trends within constituent negation. The interpretation proposed is that a lexical split has occurred to produce two separate lexemes of the form not, with different syntactic properties. Postverbal negation would thus occur in Present-day English when speakers choose to make use of the new lexeme.
Christian Schaefer, German qualified lawyer, heading the foreign law firm Asia Counsel in Vietnam.,
Ross MacLeod, Lawyer and notary public admitted to the Law Society of Scotland and is registered as a foreign lawyer in Vietnam.,
Luyen Vo, Vietnamese lawyer from Asia Counsel's corporate and commercial practice
Vietnam has a rapidly growing economy, driven by a young, energetic and educated population with an average annual per capita GDP growth of 5.3 percent over the last 30 years, beyond the expansion rate of any other Asian economy other than China. The country has pursued economic liberalisation policies for the past 30 years, which emphasises the attraction of foreign investment as a key strategy for its economic development. Vietnam's WTO accession in 2007 was a key milestone, in addition to various multilateral and bilateral trade and investment treaties that the country has acceded or entered into. The government has recently passed legislation to ease foreign investment further and opportunities are available for foreign investors looking to move into the country.
Vietnam continues to be a single party state dominated by the Communist Party (CPV), but since December 1986 has been initiating a number of economic reforms to move Vietnam towards being a socialist-oriented market economy. These reforms – called ‘Doi Moi’ in Vietnamese, which translates as ‘renovation’ and is an appropriate appellation for the purpose of the policies – have been the basis to reduce reliance on state-owned enterprises and to allow private enterprises to play a more prominent role in the economy while retaining a central role for the state.
The Doi Moi reforming policies were a reaction and solution to Vietnam's economic outlook in the 1980s, which, at the time still reeling from decades of war, was blighted by high inflation, heavy dependence on imports and foreign assistance, and economic embargoes. Attracting foreign direct investment (FDI) was and remains a major part of Vietnam's economic policy, which has contributed significantly to Vietnam's remarkable economic growth over the past 30 years.
Vietnam enacted its first Law on Foreign Investment in 1987 making it a relative newcomer in comparison to its Southeast Asian neighbours in terms of opening to foreign investment. However, FDI has grown steadily since that initial period with 211 licensed FDI projects in the period 1988–90 rising to 2,216 being licensed in 2016 alone with a total registered capital of approximately USD 18 billion for 2016. Vietnam's attitude and policies towards FDI are considered quite liberal in comparison with other Southeast Asian countries.
Mental imagery refers to the experience of perception in the absence of external sensory input. Deficits in the ability to generate mental imagery or to distinguish it from actual sensory perception are linked to neurocognitive conditions such as dementia and schizophrenia, respectively. However, the importance of mental imagery to psychiatry extends beyond neurocognitive impairment. Mental imagery has a stronger link to emotion than verbal-linguistic cognition, serving to maintain and amplify emotional states, with downstream impacts on motivation and behavior. As a result, anomalies in the occurrence of emotion-laden mental imagery has transdiagnostic significance for emotion, motivation, and behavioral dysfunction across mental disorders. This review aims to demonstrate the conceptual and clinical significance of mental imagery in psychiatry through examples of mood and anxiety disorders, self-harm and suicidality, and addiction. We contend that focusing on mental imagery assessment in research and clinical practice can increase our understanding of the cognitive basis of psychopathology in mental disorders, with the potential to drive the development of algorithms to aid treatment decision-making and inform transdiagnostic treatment innovation.
The key purpose of this article is to critically assess the extent to which auditing and certification to quality assurance and risk management standards containing human rights-related requirements are an adequate and effective means of ensuring that private security companies internalize their responsibility to respect human rights. Based on participant observation, interviews and publicly accessible data, it concludes that in the absence of the adoption of specific assurance measures in the certification and oversight processes, the constructivist ‘tipping point’ resulting in the internalization of the corporate responsibility to respect may not be attained when there is inadequate norm compliance or, worse yet, norm regression.
Poor productivity in smallholder farming systems has necessitated research on the potential of crop–livestock integration to sustainably improve productivity. The study hypothesized that improvement in individual agronomic and livestock systems and synergistic utilization of by-products of either system increases productivity, profitability and integration. Smallholder farming households were classified into: old and resource endowed (OR); part time (PT); and young, risk-taking and enthusiastic (YRE) following a survey conducted in Murehwa and Goromonzi districts of Zimbabwe. Crop–livestock systems’ integration scenarios were developed for each farmer category. Expression of crop–livestock integration in physical terms, e.g., kg ha−1, can be complex and confounding, hence the expression of integration in monetary values. Baseline scenario results indicate that OR had the highest crop–livestock integration of $3981 compared with PT and YRE despite OR having the lowest manure usage compared with PT and YRE farmers. Moreover, OR had the least legume yields of <800 compared with 3530 kg ha−1 in YRE farmers. Subsequent crop–livestock integration scenarios increased maize grain yields by at least 50%, thus increasing profitability to $1210, $3230 and $3100 yr−1 for mucuna, cowpea and groundnut, respectively. Total income increased by 135, 132 and 101% translating to $9880, $2960 and $6290 yr−1 in OR, PT and YRE farmers, respectively. Crop–livestock integration therefore has the potential to improve smallholder crop and livestock productivity, variable with socio-economic status.