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Decadence is traditionally regarded as having little importance or presence in the American literary context. This chapter sets out to prove otherwise. It employs reception-focused, materialist and book history methodologies to demonstrate the many and various ways in which Decadence manifested itself in America as well as identifying fruitful under-examined areas for further research. It argues that Americans were, in many respects, greater consumers of aestheticism and Decadence than they were producers, especially in the 1890s, but that this consumption was creative and productive, paving the way for a late flowering of Decadent production in the 1920s. The chapter covers the role of American writers Edgar Allan Poe and Walt Whitman as formative influences in the development of European Decadence; Wilde’s importance to the enthusiasm in America for aestheticism and decadence in the 1880s; the circulation of decadent literature, art and design in American popular and avant-garde print culture; key critics and producers of Decadence of the era; and the relationship of decadence to the development of modernism.
The Cognition Battery of the National Institute of Health (NIH) Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioural Function is a computerised neuropsychological battery recommended for clinical practice, neurological research and clinical trials. We investigated the utility of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB) for people with concussion.
In this small qualitative study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with five adults with concussion who were participating in a larger study using the NIHTB-CB. Three clinician participants and two cultural advisors familiar with the tool were also interviewed. Interview transcripts were analysed using a general thematic approach and qualitative description.
Participants described both positive and negative experiences with the NIHTB-CB and using qualitative description, their experiences were organised into three broad themes: (1) using technology for cognitive testing made sense, (2) there were some cultural relevance questions and (3) cognitive testing after concussion could have challenges. They were positive about the computerised format and range of domains assessed for the concussion context but identified the contextual relevance of some content as having potential to impact on performances.
This was a small study examining the experiences of a select group of participants, but nevertheless does suggest a need for future research validating the NIHTB-CB for use in different cultural and clinical contexts.
Close double neutron stars (DNSs) have been observed as Galactic radio pulsars, while their mergers have been detected as gamma-ray bursts and gravitational wave sources. They are believed to have experienced at least one common envelope episode (CEE) during their evolution prior to DNS formation. In the last decades, there have been numerous efforts to understand the details of the common envelope (CE) phase, but its computational modelling remains challenging. We present and discuss the properties of the donor and the binary at the onset of the Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) leading to these CEEs as predicted by rapid binary population synthesis models. These properties can be used as initial conditions for detailed simulations of the CE phase. There are three distinctive populations, classified by the evolutionary stage of the donor at the moment of the onset of the RLOF: giant donors with fully convective envelopes, cool donors with partially convective envelopes, and hot donors with radiative envelopes. We also estimate that, for standard assumptions, tides would not circularise a large fraction of these systems by the onset of RLOF. This makes the study and understanding of eccentric mass-transferring systems relevant for DNS populations.
Since 2015, more than 58,000 Syrian refugees have settled in Canada and, at the time of the 2016 national census, more than a fifth had settled in the province of Quebec. The rising numbers of refugees and the risks associated with families’ forced displacement have underscored the need to better understand and support the language of refugee children. The article reports on the oral language of three Syrian children ages five and six years, drawing on data from parent interviews, teacher reports, measures of the children’s language, and observations of their language use in a dual-language stimulation group, StimuLER. By triangulating this data, we were able to develop a rich and realistic portrait of each child’s language abilities. For these three boys, we observed that the home language was vulnerable to delays and weaknesses, and that learning the language of school was a drawn-out process. We also documented that parents and teachers had difficulties communicating with one another, and thus had difficulty meeting the educational needs of these children. We conclude that to foster resiliency in these children who are refugees, schools must find a way to build bridges with the parents to support the children’s language learning in both the language of school and at home.
Major historical shifts in the field of fertility, childbirth, and parenting have implications for feminist psychologists working on these topics. These shifts include approaches to sexuality and reproduction: a population control emphasis in the late 1940s, a reproductive rights paradigm in the 1990s, and progression from reproductive rights to reproductive justice. Feminist psychologists have to traverse the political landscape created by these broad approaches. In this chapter, we suggest ways in which such engagement may be facilitated through examination of mainstream assumptions and outcomes and the use of nuanced feminist research. Drawing from transnational feminisms, the principles of reproductive justice, and examples of research and interventions in reproductive decision-making, abortion, obstetric violence, "deviant" (m)others, early reproduction, and contraception, we argue that feminist psychology should attend to both global and cross-cutting power relations concerning fertility and reproduction, as well as localized dynamics.
Despite the ongoing debate among scholars as to the strength of the causal relationship between eleventh-century popular movements and the launching of the crusades, there has been virtually no consideration of how these trends may have impacted military success during the expeditions themselves. This work establishes a foundation for that research by investigating two areas. First, it examines the Peace of God, free canonical elections, and the communes through the lens of popular involvement, demonstrating how each built upon the former to increase empowerment among the French and Italian people during the eleventh-century. Second, by investigating three populist aspects of the First Crusade, the article assesses how those developments affected military success abroad. Those aspects include: consultative leadership and interclass cooperation; proactive popular assemblies; and the reactive populace's role in conflict resolution. Building on the scholarship of France, Ott, Landes, Kostick and Koziol, the article employs contextual and linguistic scrutiny of key passages to establish connections between the movements back in Europe and to populist trends noted in the crusade chronicles.
In considering the causal factors which inspired thousands of Europeans to embark upon the First Crusade, historians have long pointed towards a string of empowering popular movements unique to the eleventh century. The peace, communal and reform movements have been seen as paving the road to Clermont. Far less often, however, have either medieval or military historians examined how the eleventh-century wave of popular empowerment played out during the First Crusade itself.
In order to examine this relationship adequately, it is first necessary to investigate the string of religious and political evolutions chronologically: the Peace of God, the Gregorian Reformation, and finally the commune movement. These movements increased political awareness and capability throughout the lower social orders, and taught the populus to enforce conflict resolution upon their social betters.
Having analyzed the events of the pre-crusade era, I shall return to the expedition to examine how Europe's masses turned their century of domestic empowerment into foreign military success. Peering through an assortment of chronicler lenses, I shall look at four questions. First, how did the voluntary tapping of popular will manifest itself through leader selection processes on crusade?
Effective preventive strategies could reduce disability and the long term social and health complications associated with depression, but options are limited. Cognitive bias modification (CBM) is a novel, simple, and safe intervention that corrects the attentional and interpretive biases associated with depression.
To determine if CBM decreases the one-year onset of major depression in adults at risk.
This randomised controlled trial will recruit adults with subsyndromal depression living in Australia (parallel design, 1:1 allocation ratio). The intervention will be delivered via the internet over 52 weeks. The primary outcome of interest is the onset of a major depression according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Secondary outcomes of interest include change in the severity of depressive (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-9) and changes in attention and interpretive biases. Outcomes will be collected 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after randomisation.
Preliminary data on a subsample of 20 participants showed that the mean±SE PHQ-9 score of controls was 7.5±0.9 at study entry and 7.1±1.5 at week 6 (paired t-test=0.29, p=0.779), whereas the mean±SE score of active CBM participants was 7.4±1.0 and 4.4±1.1, respectively (paired t=6.00, p<0.001). The mean PHQ-9 difference between control and active CBM participants over 6 weeks was 2.6±1.5 points (t=1.79, p=0.090). One of 11 controls (9.1%) and 0/9 active CBM participants showed evidence of clinically significant depressive symptoms at week 6 (i.e., PHQ-9≥15).
By March 2015, 6-months preliminary data will be available on 165 participants.
Chapter 1 provides a general introduction to the book, outlining the need for police investigators to engage in online identity assumption and justifying a linguistic contribution that can be made in terms of the variety of ways in which linguists and forensic linguists have approached questions of language and identity. We set out the context of online sexual abuse, in particular the abuse of children.
Chapter 3 expands on the experimental phase of the project, providing an account of its design and a thorough discussion of the results and their implications. The chapter explores the level of accuracy with which participants in IM are able to detect the substitution of one interlocutor with another, and the levels of confidence with which such decisions are made. It also addresses the effects of impersonator preparation on these scores. Finally, the linguistic criteria that people report having relied upon in making these assessments are scrutinised, and we are thus able to formulate opinions about which features are the most salient for the construction of one’s linguistic identity.
Chapter 2 outlines the various sources of our data, which include logs of instant messaging conversations collected from genuine resolved cases of child sexual grooming, from a range of Dark Web fora dedicated to the topic of child sexual abuse, from undercover operations targeting the producers and disseminators of indecent images and videos of children, from role -playing exercises that take place within the Pilgrim Course for online investigators, and from a series of experiments we designed in order to systematically investigate key questions around language and identity performance. The chapter continues by describing our methodological approach to these data, starting with the micro-analysis at the structural level of language, including of vocabulary and orthographic features as we first began setting out in MacLeod and Grant (2012). We then move through our modifications of Searle’s (1969) Speech Act Theory and Gumperz’s (1982) approach to topic management inasmuch as they relate to instant messaging and the operational context, before finally setting out our theory about how these stratified levels of language interface in the performance of identities. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion of ethics, both the research ethics of engaging with this area of criminal activity and the operational ethics of assisting the police in these contexts.
Finally, Chapter 7 discusses the implications of our work for the operational task of identity assumption, and for the more theoretical concerns around the linguistic individual and language and identity more generally. We conclude the chapter with our thoughts for the directions similar research might take in the future.
The linguistic identity assumption training we currently provide to undercover officers is the subject of Chapter 4. Here we focus in particular on how our component of the Pilgrim training has been influenced by our own theories of identity performance as supported by our analyses. We outline the input we provide to trainees at the levels of linguistic structure, meaning and interaction, and describe the pro forma we provide for the analysis of online linguistic personae. We also report here on the findings of a small-scale experiment comparing trainees’ competence at linguistic identity assumption before our training versus afterwards.
The theoretical underpinning to the concept of identity is the central topic of Chapter 5, where we examine particular facets of identity such as the performance of age, relationships and communities of practice. Keeping in mind our view of identity as being continuously negotiated through discursive practices, we focus here particularly on how age is treated as a relevant identity category by participants, and how relationships between adult offenders and child victims are performed. We probe the question of how these performances are situated in the wider social context, and in relation to other, more recognisable types of relationship that might be relied upon as resources.