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The use of altrenogest (ALT) supplementation for oestrous synchronization improves subsequent reproductive performance of gilts and sows. However, the causes of this improvement in reproductive performance after ALT treatment are not fully/clearly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ALT supplementation for oestrous synchronization in gilts on the endometrial glands and embryonic development characteristics at 28 days of pregnancy. Pregnant gilts were divided into two experimental treatments: Control (did not receive ALT; n = 9 gilts) and ALT (ALT feeding at 20 mg/day for 18 days; n = 9 gilts). At 28 days of pregnancy, six gilts from each treatment were slaughtered, and reproductive tracts were immediately evaluated. There was no statistical difference (P > 0.05) between treatments regarding ovulation rate, number of embryos, number of vital embryos and number of non-vital embryos. Embryo weight, length and embryonic vesicle weight were lower in ALT treatment compared with Control (P < 0.01), and it was lower in the cervical uterine region compared with apex uterine region, respectively (P < 0.05). Higher values of gland duct area, gland duct perimeter, percentage of the glandular area and total endometrial area were observed in ALT treatment compared with Control (P < 0.05). The use of ALT during 18 days for oestrous synchronization in gilts increased the gland duct area, perimeter and total endometrial area but did not increase the embryo number and embryo size at day 28 of pregnancy.
We study the dynamics induced by homogeneous polynomials on Banach spaces. It is known that no homogeneous polynomial defined on a Banach space can have a dense orbit. We show a simple and natural example of a homogeneous polynomial with an orbit that is at the same time
-dense (the orbit meets every ball of radius
), weakly dense and such that
is dense for every
that either is unbounded or has 0 as an accumulation point. Moreover, we generalize the construction to arbitrary infinite-dimensional separable Banach spaces. To prove this, we study Julia sets of homogeneous polynomials on Banach spaces.
Progesterone (P4) plays a key role in pregnancy establishment and maintenance; during early pregnancy, P4 stimulates the production and release of uterine secretions necessary for conceptus growth prior to implantation; therefore, exogenous P4 supplementation may improve embryo development. This study evaluated the effects of supplementation during early pregnancy with long-acting injectable progesterone or altrenogest on embryonic characteristics of sows and gilts. Thus, a total of 32 sows and 16 gilts were used. On day 6 of pregnancy sows and gilts were allocated to one of the following groups: non-supplemented; supplemented with 20 mg of altrenogest, orally, from days 6 to 12 of pregnancy; supplemented with 2.15 mg/kg of long-acting injectable progesterone on day 6 of pregnancy. Animals were killed on day 28 of pregnancy, and ovulation rate, embryo survival, embryo weight, crown-to-rump length, uterine glandular epithelium and endometrial vascularization were assessed. Treatments had no effect on pregnancy rate, embryo survival or endometrial vascular density (P > 0.05). Non-supplemented gilts presented larger and heavier embryos compared to gilts from supplemented groups (P < 0.05). Sows in the altrenogest group presented larger and heavier embryos compared to non-supplemented sows and sows supplemented with long-acting injectable progesterone. In conclusion, supplementation of sows and gilts with progestagen from day 6 of pregnancy can be used as a means to improve embryo survival without deleterious effects.
The use of additives such as ractopamine (Rac) in pregnant sows during early-mid pregnancy is an alternative to increase foetal and progeny growth and development. However, Rac supplementation in finishing pigs can lead to behavioural and physiological changes similar to the typical stress responses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with Rac in pregnant sows from day 25 to 50 of gestation (pre-hyperplastic stage) on piglet’s vitality, blood parameters, number, diameter and perimeter of muscle fibres in semitendinosus muscle and developmental characteristics of piglets at birth to weaning. Forty-one hybrid sows were divided into three dietary treatments: (1) control diet without Rac (control), (2) addition of 10 mg/kg of Rac (Rac10) and (3) addition of 20 mg/kg of Rac (Rac20). Higher numbers of low-vitality piglets (P<0.05) were observed in Rac-fed sows, regardless of dose, compared with the control group. Very low-density lipoprotein levels were lower in the Rac10 group when compared with the Rac20 group at day 21. Haematocrit was greater, and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration was lower in piglets from Rac-fed sows. No significant statistical differences were detected regarding piglets body weight, average daily gain, blood gasometry, complete blood count and muscle fibre measurements in semitendinosus muscle. The use of Rac in pregnant sows reduced the vitality parameters of piglets but did not improve the performance from birth until weaning and did not negatively influence the haematological parameter and lipid metabolism.
In the present investigation, biocomposites were synthesized from a polymeric alginate matrix in which the carrot residue and a natural bentonite (ANat / Bio) or an iron-modified clinoptilolite-type zeolite (ZFe / Bio) were supported. Their properties were evaluated adsorbents in contact with aqueous solutions of methylene blue (MB). In the first hour of contact, 46% removal was obtained for the ZFe / Bio biocomposite and 60% for the ANat / Bio biocomposite; reaching 100% removal for the ZFe / Bio biocomposite and 98% for the ANat / Bio biocomposite after 24 hours. The biocomposites were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR).
High spatial resolution observations with ALMA and VLT/SPHERE show gaps and rings in continuum emission of protoplanetary disks, possibly indicating ongoing planet formation. However, it is still unclear if the gas follows the dust distribution. We present radiation thermo-chemical models for the disk of HD 163296 to study the impact of dust and gas gaps on the chemistry and molecular line emission. We compare a model with only dust gaps to a model that also has gas gaps. In both models, rings and gaps are visible in (sub)mm molecular line emission. Due to chemistry, certain molecules are sensitive to dust gaps where others are more sensitive to gas depletion. Observations of multiple molecules might allow to accurately determine the degree of gas depletion within the dust gaps, information crucial to discriminate between gap formation theories (e.g. planets, ice lines).
Polysulfone (Pfu) films were modified by grafting poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) by the oxidative pre-irradiation technique. To achieve this modification, some parameters were modified such as the radiation dose, the concentration of PVA, the temperature and the reaction time. It was found that the grafted films with 12% presented a greater grafting percentage (0.86%). The modified films were characterized by means of the contact angle, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques.
The aim of the present research was to evaluate pectin-gelatine and pectin-collagen polymeric compounds as encapsulating and releasing matrices for whey active peptides with antioxidant properties. Active peptides were obtained by hydrolysis of whey proteins with thermolysin and proteinase enzymes from B. subtilis. The hydrolysates were fractioned and encapsulated in the pectin composite matrices to obtain particles loaded with active whey peptides. The composite particles were analysed by SEM and IR techniques. In addition, they were also tested under simulated gastric conditions to evaluate the encapsulation efficiency and delivering power of the composite materials. The results showed that both encapsulation particles were excellent supports, because they retained to-the peptides and maintained their antioxidant activity during the simulated gastric process (120 min). However, the pectin gelatine particles were digested faster than those of pectin-collagen. The peptides from-encapsulated in pectin-gelatine were released within this time, showing an increment in the-antioxidant activity. Peptides from gelatine protein were also released by the gastric enzymes, and thus also they contributed to the antioxidant activity; in addition to the whey peptides.
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium that belongs to the family Pasteurellaceae. It is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious respiratory disease that is responsible for major economic losses in the global pork industry. The disease may present itself as a chronic or an acute infection characterized by severe pathology, including hemorrhage, fibrinous and necrotic lung lesions, and, in the worst cases, rapid death. A. pleuropneumoniae is transmitted via aerosol route, direct contact with infected pigs, and by the farm environment. Many virulence factors associated with this bacterium are well characterized. However, much less is known about the role of biofilm, a sessile mode of growth that may have a critical impact on A. pleuropneumoniae pathogenicity. Here we review the current knowledge on A. pleuropneumoniae biofilm, factors associated with biofilm formation and dispersion, and the impact of biofilm on the pathogenesis A. pleuropneumoniae. We also provide an overview of current vaccination strategies against A. pleuropneumoniae and consider the possible role of biofilms vaccines for controlling the disease.
Perinatal maternal high-fat (HF) diet programmes offspring obesity. Obesity is associated with overactivation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in adult subjects, but the role of the ECS in the developmental origins of obesity is mostly unknown. The ECS consists of endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors (cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1) and cannabinoid type-2 receptor (CB2)) and metabolising enzymes. We hypothesised that perinatal maternal HF diet would alter the ECS in a sex-dependent manner in white and brown adipose tissue of rat offspring at weaning in parallel to obesity development. Female rats received standard diet (9 % energy content from fat) or HF diet (29 % energy content from fat) before mating, during pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, male and female offspring were killed for tissue harvest. Maternal HF diet induced early obesity, white adipocyte hypertrophy and increased lipid accumulation in brown adipose tissue associated with sex-specific changes of the ECS’s components in weanling rats. In male pups, maternal HF diet decreased CB1 and CB2 protein in subcutaneous adipose tissue. In female pups, maternal HF diet increased visceral and decreased subcutaneous CB1. In brown adipose tissue, maternal HF diet increased CB1 regardless of pup sex. In addition, maternal HF diet differentially changed oestrogen receptor across the adipose depots in male and female pups. The ECS and oestrogen signalling play an important role in lipogenesis, adipogenesis and thermogenesis, and we observed early changes in their targets in adipose depots of the offspring. The present findings provide insights into the involvement of the ECS in the developmental origins of metabolic disease induced by inadequate maternal nutrition in early life.
The trophic ecology of the chihuil sea catfish Bagre panamensis was studied through high-resolution variations in its feeding habits and trophic position (TP) in the SE Gulf of California, relevant to sex, size and season. The combined use of stomach content (SCA) and stable isotope analysis (SIA) allowed us to perform these analyses and also estimate the TP of its preys. Results of this study show that the chihuil sea catfish is a generalist and opportunistic omnivore predator that consumes primarily demersal fish and peneid shrimps. Its diet did not vary with climatic season (rainy or dry), size or sex. Results from the SIA indicated high plasticity in habitat use and prey species. The estimated TP value was 4.19, which indicates a tertiary consumer from the soft bottom demersal community in the SE Gulf of California, preying on lower trophic levels, which aids in understanding the species' trophic role in the food web. Because this species and its prey are important to artisanal and industrial fisheries in the Gulf of California, diet assimilation information is useful for the potential establishment of an ecosystem-based fisheries management in the area.
This study proposes the unified framework of a three-sector model with structural change where agriculture, manufacturing, and service sectors have different production technologies. All three sectors use the factors of capital, labor, and land as inputs. The constant-growth path (CGP), which is the trajectory along which the rental rate of capital remains constant, is used to reconcile the Kaldor and Kuznets facts, and plays a role in linking the wage rate and land rent in the three-factors model. Because the prices of agricultural goods and services are determined endogenously, the CGP condition is no longer the knife-edge condition. We find that the dynamic system along the CGP in the three-sector, three-factor model corresponds to the standard two-sector optimal growth model.
Parasomnias are a category of sleep disorders in which abnormal events occur during sleep, due to inappropriately timed activation of physiological systems.
we report the case of a 41-year-old female who has no psychiatric history. The patient went to emergency department because when she was starting to sleep, in the first state of sleep, she felts a sensation of paralysis in all her body, with incapacity for breathing, chest oppression and tactile hallucinations like something or someone was touching her entire body. Due to that, the patient awoke frightened, with high levels of anxiety, with heart palpitations, shortness of breath, trembling, choking feeling, sweating, nausea and fear of dying. When the patient arrived to the emergency department, she was suffering a panic attack, thinking that she could have some kind of neurological disease or she was suffering a heart attack. after treating the panic attack with 1 mg of lorazepam, all the symptoms subsided gradually.
in this case report, we present a patient with a new-onset parasomnia, with hypnagogic hallucinations and a panic attack at the awakening. It is known that stress factors are closely associated with parasomnias, as we can see in this case because the patient was moving and she was sleeping in a new place.
Parasomnias are very frequently present in general population and they can trigger intense anxiety status that can lead to panic attacks.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Hyperthyroidism may lead to high anxiety status, emotional lability, irritability, overactivity, exaggerated sensitivity to noise, and fluctuating mood, insomnia and hyporexia. in extreme cases, they may appear delusions and hallucinations as psychiatric symptoms.
we report the case of a 53-year-old female who was diagnosed of hyperthyroidism and generalized anxiety disorder. The patient went to emergency department because of high levels of anxiety, with heart palpitations, trembling, shortness of breath and nausea. She was presenting auditory hallucinations and delusions as psychiatric symptoms. an urgent thyroid profile was made and it was observed the next results: TSH < 0.005; T4:4; T3:21. Due to a severe thyroid malfunction, the patient was admitted and treated with antithyroid agent, improving the psychiatric and somatic symptoms.
in this case, a patient diagnosed of hyperthyroidism and generalized anxiety disorder presented very severe psychiatric symptoms, with hallucinations and delusions. These symptoms may be produced by primary psychiatric disorders, but is very important to look for thyroid alterations, because if they are the cause, the acute treatment of thyroid malfunction is the correct management of the patient.
Hyperthyroidism is very common in general population, being infradiagnosed most of times. in patient with anxiety or other psychiatric symptoms, it is very important to make a thyroid function tests before the diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder. in extreme cases, hyperthyroidism status may lead to severe psychiatric and somatic complications.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of both legal and illegal substances, and see the difference in consumption patterns that occur in both men and women.
Surveys have been conducted on consumer habits in the past year among 84 inmates (60 women and 24 men) at the prison Brians 1, interrogating both the consumption of illegal drugs and consumer recreational drugs and routes of administration. Data were analyzed using SPSS program.
A total of 57.1% had used illegal drugs. The most frequent was cannabis, with 54.8% (62.5% men and 51.7% women), followed by heroin, with 23.8% (29.2% in men and 21.7% in women) and cocaine, with 14.3% (20.8% in men and 11.7% women).
Use of legal drugs was 45.2% (50% in men and 43.3% women). In this case, the greatest differences were obtained in the use of bupropion (26.7% women versus 0% men), new generation anticonvulsants such as gabapentin and pregabalin (31.7% women and 12.5% men) and the use of intranasal route of administration (31.7% women versus 0% for men). At the other extreme we find more abuse benzodiazepines abuse in men (45.8 versus 20% in women) and sedative antipsychotics (37.5% vs. 8.3%)
Although there is a serious problem with the misuse of legal psychotropic drugs by inmates in prisons, there is still greater consumption of illegal substances.
Men's consumption pattern is more “traditional” (predominance of illegal substances and “classical” legal substances orally).
Women's consumption pattern is more experimental at both the use of new psychoactive drugs and the use of alternative routes of administration.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Sweet cheese whey has been used to obtain whey cheese without the addition of milk. Pre-treated whey was concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) at different concentration ratios (2, 2·5 and 2·8) or by reverse osmosis (RO) (2–3 times). After the concentration, whey was acidified with lactic acid until a final pH of 4·6–4·8, and heated to temperatures between 85 and 90 °C. The coagulated fraction (supernatant) was collected and freely drained over 4 h. The cheese-whey yield and protein, fat, lactose and ash recoveries in the final product were calculated. The membrane pre-concentration step caused an increase in the whey-cheese yield. The final composition of products was compared with traditional cheese-whey manufacture products (without membrane concentration). Final cheese yields found were to be between 5 and 19·6%, which are higher than those achieved using the traditional ‘Requesón’ process.
Hidden hunger occurs in the presence of an otherwise nutritionally or energetically appropriate diet that is deficient in essential vitamins and minerals. Guatemala has the highest rate of child malnutrition in Latin America and the prevalence of hidden hunger is high. The aim of this study was to determine the Mn, Se and Cr dietary intakes in Guatemalan institutionalised children (4–14 years), a population group at high risk of mineral deficiency. For this purpose, the contents of Mn, Se and Cr were analysed in a duplicate diet (for 7 consecutive days) by electrothermal atomisation-atomic absorption spectrophotometry following acid digestion. Mn, Se and Cr intakes from the duplicate diets were in the range of 1·3–2·31 mg/d, 58·7–69·6 µg/d and 6·32–27·57 µg/d, respectively. Mn and Cr values were below current recommended daily intakes. A cereal- and legumes-based diet is habitually consumed by this population. Local vegetables, fruits and nutritional supplements are included daily, but the consumption of fish, meat, eggs and dairy products is very infrequent or negligible. Mean daily energy intake from the 7-d diet was 8418·2 kJ (2012 kcal), with a macronutrient energy distribution of carbohydrates 69·4 %, proteins 12·3 % and fats 18·3 %. Correlations between Mn, Se and Cr intakes and energy and other nutrient intakes were also evaluated. The present findings will help establish new nutritional strategies for this and similar population groups.
Previous studies analysing personality and cannabis use in adult samples suggest that cannabis users show significant higher levels of impulsivity, sensation seeking and schizotypy. However, there are few studies exploring this relationship in adolescence using psychobiological models of personality. Given the relevance of identifying individual differences that lead adolescents to early cannabis use to prevent future health problems, the present study aimed to explore the relationship between age, sex, personality and early cannabis use using a psychobiological model of personality in a sample of 415 students (51.8% boys) from 12 to 18 years. Chi2 tests showed significant higher prevalence of cannabis use in boys and in the group aged 15–18 years. Multiple analysis of variance showed significant higher scores in psychoticism, sensation seeking and in all its subscales in cannabis users group, while an interaction with age was found for extraversion and neuroticism: cannabis users scored higher than non-users in the youngest group (12–14 years) but lower in the oldest group in both dimensions. Finally, regression analysis showed that narrower traits of sensation seeking (experience seeking and disinhibition) were the most associated to early cannabis use. Results are discussed in terms of early cannabis users’ personality profiles and in terms of the self-medication theory.