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The increase of fossil-fuel-derived CO2 in the atmosphere has led to the dilution of the atmospheric radiocarbon concentration, but due to the costly instrumentation, the continuous atmospheric 14C/12C data is incomplete in developing countries, such as in Indonesia. These data give useful information about the level of local and regional fossil emissions. In this study, 14C AMS measurements of local vegetation and woody plant species samples have been used to estimate the rate of fossil-fuel-derived carbon in the plants, which fix the CO2 from the atmosphere by photosynthesis. Evergreen leaf samples were collected in September 2018 on the island of Bali in different, diverse districts in local and urban areas. The samples from the densely populated areas show observable fossil fuel emissions and show that the Δ14C level is close to zero ‰, similar to the natural level.
Consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) among adolescents falls below recommendations in many Western countries. The impact of social and emotional aspects of family life on adolescent dietary behaviour may contribute to this, yet remains under-investigated. The present study examines the association between adolescents’ perceptions of emotional home atmosphere (EHA) and their F&V consumption frequency.
An FFQ was used to assess F&V consumption frequency. EHA was assessed by an eight-item measure with three subscales: perceived home warmth, strictness and relational tension. EHA subscales were used as binary variables: a score equal to or above the median value was considered as a higher perception, while a score below the median was considered as a lower perception of the EHA in question. Country differences in meeting the European 5-a-day recommendations were described. Further, the association between EHA and F&V consumption frequency was investigated using multiple linear regression.
Regional examination centres in eight European countries.
Adolescents (n 3196) aged 12–18 years.
The mean F&V consumption frequency was 3·27 (sd 2·84) times/d. Only 16·1 % of boys and 18 % of girls in our study sample met the recommendation of five F&V daily. After controlling for age, sex, education level of the parents and country of origin, perceived home warmth was associated with a 16 (95 % CI 9, 22) % higher F&V consumption frequency (P < 0·001).
F&V consumption frequency was suboptimal in the survey areas. Interventions targeting perceived warmth as a component of EHA could potentially have a positive effect on adolescents’ dietary behaviour.
Deciduous tree leaf and grass samples were collected in Debrecen, the second largest city in Hungary. The aim of the study was to determine the rate of fossil fuel-derived carbon in urban vegetation. At the locations sampled, C3 and C4 plants close to roads were collected in September 2017. In total, 82 tree and grass leaf samples were gathered at 36 different sampling points all over the city of Debrecen. The radiocarbon (14C) results of the samples were compared to the local urban background atmospheric 14CO2 data to determine the percentage of the fossil fuel-derived carbon in the plants. Based on our results, the average fossil carbon content in the tree and grass leaf samples were 0.9 ± 1.2% and 2.5 ± 2.5%, respectively. The highest fossil carbon content was 9.6 ± 0.6% in a grass and 4.7 ± 0.7% in a tree leaf sample. It appears that the negative fossil carbon content results obtained at urban sampling areas reflect modern carbon emission, where radiocarbon content is higher than the corresponding local background, presumably due burning of recent wood containing bomb 14C in the suburbs as well as other possible sources such as litter decomposition or soil CO2 emission.
The 14C/12C ratio of living organisms is largely determined by the 14C/12C ratio of consumed diet as well as by the atmospheric 14C concentration together with the body’s metabolic processes. The measured 14C content of living matter compared to the atmospheric radiocarbon level can provide invaluable information about developmental processes. Our aim was to determine the 14C content of ten different tissues of the human eye using the 14C bomb-pulse dating signature. The 14C content of the atmosphere, so called 14C “bomb-pulse” has labeled humanity offering an opportunity to determine these special formation, turnover and substitution courses in biology. The results allowed us to construct a 14C map of the bomb-peak labeled human eye. According to the anatomical location of the tissues, an unexpected picture emerged as in moving from the outer parts towards the inner parts of the eye, the 14C content of each tissue decreased. The data presented here are compatible with the view that the oldest parts of the eye are the sclera, the limbus and the cornea, in this order, and moving further inside, the youngest tissue of the eye is the retina.
Verification of a groundwater flow model by radiocarbon (14C) data are presented taking into consideration the paleo-hydrogeological changes. Northeastern area of the Great Hungarian Plain was a deep-lying flat area, and its central part (Nyírség) has been uplifted in the last 15,000 years. These geological events have drastically changed the hydrogeological conditions of Nyírség. The groundwater flow system is composed of the Quaternary-Pliocene-Upper Pannonian clastic sediments. Groundwater flow modeling has been performed to define the main lateral and vertical flow directions and velocities controlling the propagation of the environmental radioactive tracer 14C. Solute-transport modeling was used to calculate the 14C activity. The recent steady-state groundwater flow velocity was reduced to a reasonable value characterizing the average flow velocity over the 15 ka simulation period using “trial and error” method. The best fit between the simulated and measured 14C data was achieved by assuming 0.4 flow velocity reduction factor. Results indicate that the present steady-state flow model with this flow velocity reduction factor is capable of reproducing the observed 14C data taking into account the effect of the significant uplift of the part of the land surface in the last 15 ka in NE Hungary.
Bone is one of the most complex sample materials used for radiocarbon (14C) dating. The installation of the EnvironMICADAS AMS at HEKAL (department of ICER) in 2011 required the adoption of new sample preparation techniques for small bone samples. Since then, hundreds of procedural background and known-age bones have been processed using our modified Longin method (MLM) and dated along with unknown samples. Their results are used in this study to assess the reproducibility of our current bone preparation method and the real uncertainty of the final age result. In addition, using the background samples, which are included in each bone measurement batch, blank correction of the unknown samples could also be performed. The mean F14C value of our bone blanks is generally better than 0.005 (∼42,500 BP) alongside 0.0013 SD. Good reproducibility was confirmed by the results of the laboratory known-age bone as well, where the standard deviation of the mean is better than 0.0025. In addition, the results of the three bone samples used in an ultrafiltration (UF) test study did not show notable differences from the ones obtained by our current protocol in 1σ uncertainty range but more experiments will be performed in the near future.
We demonstrate a suspended graphene-(poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer angular displacement actuator enabled by variable elastic modulus of the perforated stacked structure. Azimuthal flexures support a central disc-shaped membrane, and compression of the membrane can be used to control the rotation of the entire structure. Irradiating the PMMA on graphene stack with 5 kV electrons in a convention scanning electron microscope reduces the elastic modulus of the PMMA and allows graphene’s built in strain to dominate and compress the flexures, thus rotating the actuator.
To investigate whether adherence to the adapted Mediterranean Diet Score for Adolescents (MDS_A) and the adapted Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (KIDMED_A) is associated with better food/nutrient intakes and nutritional biomarkers.
The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study is a cross-sectional study aiming to obtain comparable data on a variety of nutritional and health-related parameters in European adolescents aged 12·5–17·5 years.
Nine European countries.
European adolescents (n 2330) recruited to the HELENA study. Dietary intake was obtained with 24 h dietary recalls, an FFQ and a Food Choices and Preferences questionnaire. MDS_A was calculated as a categorical variable using cut-offs (MDS_A), as a continuous variable (zMDS_A) and with energy adjustments (zEnMDS_A). The KIDMED_A score was also calculated.
Multilevel linear regression analysis showed positive associations for zMDS_A and KIDMED_A with serum levels of vitamin D, vitamin C, plasma folate, holo-transcobalamin, β-carotene and n-3 fatty acids, while negative associations were observed with trans-fatty acid serum levels. For categorical indices, blood biomarkers showed few significant results. zMDS_A and KIDMED_A showed positive associations with vegetables and fruits intake, and negative associations with energy-dense and low-nutritious foods. zMDS_A and KIDMED_A were positively associated with all macronutrients, vitamins and minerals (all P < 0·0001), except with monosaccharides and PUFA for KIDMED_A and cholesterol for both indices (P < 0·05).
zMDS_A and KIDMED_A have shown the strongest associations with the dietary indicators and biomarkers that have been associated with the Mediterranean diet before, and are therefore considered the most appropriate and valid Mediterranean diet scores for European adolescents.
Radiocarbon (14C) analysis was performed on Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) tree rings from Koriyama, Fukushima prefecture. Our primary aim was to detect any 14C release from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident on 11 March 2011. We also completed and assessed the 14C level in Japanese tree rings for the period of 1990–2014 because of the lack of environmental 14C results in the Japanese island that time. For this reason, we used a trajectory model to investigate the air mass forward and backward trajectories at the area of the power plant and sampling site. The modeling data show that the air masses mainly moved to the Pacific Ocean, both during March 2011 and during the growing season (March–September). During the period 1990–2014 there was no significant 14C excess in any of the samples, but there was a detectable Suess effect in almost every tree ring sample. The average fossil contribution was 0.83 ± 0.01% and the calculated anthropogenic component ratio, the 14C excess varied between +0.5 and –1.6%. The Δ14C value decreased from 150.0‰ to 9.5‰ from 1990–2014, which follows the decline of the 14C bomb peak, in addition to any detectable Suess effect.
Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Say) is the main pest of Solanaceae and its survival is mainly dependent on the carbohydrate digestion. Characterizing the gut enzymes may help us with finding effective inhibitors for plant protection. Activity measurements revealed that gut extracts contain α- and β-glucosidase in addition to α-amylase. For larvae, amylase activity was detected only in gut saturated with nutrients. Leptinotarsa decemlineata α-amylase (LDAmy) had optimum pH of 6.0 and was active under 30–40°C temperature measured on a selective α-amylase substrate, 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-4-O-α-D-galactopyranosyl-maltoside. HPLC analysis demonstrated dimer, trimer, and tetramer reducing end amylolytic products from 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-maltoheptaoside substrate in similar ratio than that of during porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA) catalyzed hydrolysis. The 4,6-O-benzylidene-modified substrate (BzG7PNP) is very stable toward hydrolysis by exo-glycosidases, therefore is very useful to monitor the digestion catalyzed by α-amylases exclusively. Similarly to PPA active site, three glycon and two aglycon binding sites are suggested for LDAmy based on the pattern of early hydrolysis products of BzG7PNP. The observed similarity between LDAmy and PPA raises the possibility of using known inhibitors of mammalian α-amylases to protect the potato plant from attack of Colorado potato beetle.
This study investigated the longitudinal associations among prenatal substance use, socioeconomic adversity, parenting (maternal warmth, sensitivity, and harshness), children's self-regulation (internalization of rules and conscience), and conduct problems from infancy to middle childhood (Grade 2). Three competing conceptual models including cascade (indirect or mediated), additive (cumulative), and transactional (bidirectional) effects were tested and compared. The sample consisted of 216 low-income families (primary caretaker and children; 51% girls; 74% African American). Using a repeated-measures, multimethod, multi-informant design, a series of full panel models were specified. Findings primarily supported a developmental cascade model, and there was some support for additive effects. More specifically, maternal prenatal substance use and socioeconomic adversity in infancy were prospectively associated with lower levels of maternal sensitivity. Subsequently, lower maternal sensitivity was associated with decreases in children's conscience in early childhood, and in turn, lower conscience predicted increases in teacher-reported conduct problems in middle childhood. There was also a second pathway from sustained maternal depression (in infancy and toddlerhood) to early childhood conduct problems. These findings demonstrated how processes of risk and resilience collectively contributed to children's early onset conduct problems.
To analyse the Nutritional Knowledge Test (NKT) using Item Response Theory (ITR) analysis and to assess the construct validity of the Nutritional Knowledge Scale (NKTS) and its associations with adolescent food group consumption and nutritional biomarkers.
Multicentre investigation conducted in ten European cities.
Adolescents aged 12·5–17·5 years (n 3215) who completed over 75 % of the NKT.
Factor analysis indicated that the NKT can be analysed with a one-dimensional model. Eleven out of twenty-three items from the NKT presented adequate parameters and were selected to be included in the NKTS. Nutrition knowledge was positively associated with consumption of fruits, cereals, dairy products, pulses, meat and eggs, and fish, as well as with blood concentrations of vitamin C, β-carotene, n-3 fatty acids, holo-transcobalamin, cobalamin and folate; nutrition knowledge was negatively associated with intake of olives and avocado, alcohol and savoury snacks.
The NKTS assessed nutritional knowledge adequately and it is proposed as a new tool to investigate this subject in future studies.
The study the diet of Eneolithic populations is of great interest to archaeologists. However, the studies undertaken in the steppe and forest-steppe zones of Volga region in Russia have left many issues unsolved. Data collected recently through the comprehensive studies of Lebyazhinka VI settlement enable us to change this situation. Of particular importance at this settlement site is good preservation of animal bones, bone fishing tools, and ceramics of the same type with food crusts and connected to a large house pit. For the first time in this geographical area, bones of domestic animals were found in the fill of a dwelling. The aim of this paper is to present the results obtained through comprehensive studies of diet and economy in the Eneolithic based on the materials from Lebyazhinka III and Lebyazhinka VI settlement sites. The main results of the archaeozoological analysis— determinations of species, age and size of the animals—provide the necessary data for studying the diet. We conclude that there are differences between Lebyazhinka III and Lebyazhinka VI settlements. Lebyazhinka III settlement included bones of only wild species, however, Lebyazhinka VI settlement consists of wild and domestic species.
New paleodietary data were obtained after the discovery and excavation in 2015–2017 of the Cherepakha 13 site in the southern part of Primorye (Maritime) Province in far eastern Russia. The site is located near the coast of Ussuri Bay (Sea of Japan) and belongs to the Yankovsky cultural complex of the Early Iron Age 14C-dated to ca. 3000 BP (ca. 1200 cal BC). The stable isotope composition of the bone collagen for 11 humans and 30 animals was determined. For humans, the following values (with±1 sigma) were yielded: δ13C=–10.2±0.8‰; and δ15N=+12.4±0.3‰. The majority of terrestrial animals show the usual isotopic signals: δ13C=–19.4 ÷ –23.3‰; and δ15N=+4.6÷+6.6‰ (for wolves, up to +10.1‰); dogs, however, have an isotopic composition similar to humans: δ13C= –11.7±1.2‰; and δ15N=+12.4±0.4‰. Marine mammals have common values for pinnipeds: δ13C=–13.7 ÷ –14.6‰; and δ15N=+17.4 ÷ +18.0‰. The main food resources for the population of Cherepakha 13 site were (1) marine mollusks, fish, and mammals; and (2) terrestrial mammals; and possibly C4 plants (domesticated millets).
Recent studies have shown that faunal assemblages from Mesolithic sites in inland Northern Europe contain more fish remains than previously thought, but the archaeological and archaeozoological record does not reveal the dietary importance of aquatic species to hunter-gatherer-fishers, even at a societal level. For example, the function of bone points, as hunting weapons or fishing equipment, has long been debated. Moreover, traditional methods provide no indication of variable subsistence practices within a population. For these reasons, paleodietary studies using stable isotope analyses of human remains have become routine. We present radiocarbon (14C) and stable isotope data from nine prehistoric human bones from the Early Mesolithic-Early Neolithic site of Friesack 4, and isotopic data for local terrestrial mammals (elk, red deer, roe deer, wild boar, aurochs, beaver) and freshwater fish (European eel, European perch). The reference data allow individual paleodiets to be reconstructed. Using paleodiet estimates of fish consumption, and modern values for local freshwater reservoir effects, we also calibrate human 14C ages taking into account dietary reservoir effects. Although the number of individuals is small, it is possible to infer a decline in the dietary importance of fish from the Preboreal to the Boreal Mesolithic, and an increase in aquatic resource consumption in the Early Neolithic.
A better understanding of the dynamics of different particulate organic matter (OM) pools in the coastal carbon budget is a key issue for quantifying the role of the coastal ocean in the global carbon cycle. To elucidate the benthic component of this carbon cycle at the land-sea interface, we investigated the carbon isotope signatures (δ13C and ∆14C) in the sediment pore waters dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in addition to the sediment OM to constrain the origin of the OM mineralized in sediments. The study site is located at the outlet of the Rhône River (Mediterranean Sea), which was chosen because this river is one of the most nuclearized rivers in Europe and nuclear 14C can serve as a tracer to follow the fate of the OM discharged by the river to the coastal sea. The ∆14C results found in the pore waters DIC show a general offset between buried and mineralized OM following a preferential mineralization model of young and fresh particles. For example, we found that the sediment OM has values with a mean ∆14C=–33‰ at sampling stations near the river mouth whereas enriched ∆14C values around +523‰ and +667‰ respectively were found for the pore waters DIC. This indicates complete mineralization of a riverine fraction of OM enriched in 14C in the river conduit during in-stream photosynthesis. In shelf sediments, the ∆14C of pore waters DIC is slightly enriched (+57‰) with sediment OM reaching –570‰. A mixing model shows that particles mineralized near the river mouth are certainly of riverine phytoplanktonic origin whereas OM mineralized on the shelf is of marine origin. This work highlights the fact that pore waters provide additional information compared to sediments alone and it seems essential to work on both pools to study the carbon budget in river prodelta.
The vertical distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) with depth and its horizontal pattern is influenced by the topography and relief of the surface, due to lateral redistribution of soil material along slopes. Spatial and temproral variability of these changes is frequently due to human impacts on the landscape. In our study, the results of these processes were studied in detail in a small sub-catchment in a forested hillslope section using radiocarbon (14C) dating of SOC and embedded datable material (charcoal, artifacts) from soil profiles with colluvial accumulations. Events with accelerated material redistribution could be identified as an accumulation of a 40-cm-thick colluvial layer between cal BC 410–360 (2σ) and cal AD 430–580 (2σ). Later colluvial deposition resulted in thinner accumulations (cal AD 1120–1220 [2σ] 30 cm; cal AD 1810–1920 [2σ] 21 cm). As the earliest human impact, we found soil transformation from cal BC 1290–1130 (2σ). The depth-age model for SOC compiled according to the average SOC age and its depth showed different characteristics on middle-slope and down-slope position, with rates of 48.0 yr×cm–1 and 22.0 yr×cm–1 respectively, which indicates the importance of topographic position of soils in SOC redistribution processes.
An effective sealed tube combustion method was designed with an MnO2 oxidant for accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (AMS 14C) measurements. Different types of materials (oxalic acid, cellulose, sucrose, wood, collagen, graphite, and humic acid) were used to test the method. A normal borosilicate glass tube was used instead of quartz and the combustion was done at 550ºC. The yield of the combustion is above 98% even in the case of the less combustible material such as graphite. The MnO2 reagent does not introduce detectable carbon contamination. The typical background is 0.29±0.20 pMC in the case of 200 µg carbon, measured as solid graphite target. With direct measurement of the CO2 by gas ion source AMS, the method is applicable up to 50 µg of carbon with an acceptable (~1 pMC) 14C background. A new type of tube cracker was developed for a quick chipless method of tube cracking and sample changing. In this way, the gas handling process takes only 5–6 min/sample.