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8K video parameters were designed to provide an immersive experience; meanwhile, special considerations are necessary to assess the entire screen subjectively. This paper studies the video bit-rate required for 8K 119.88-Hz (120-Hz) and 59.94-Hz (60-Hz) the high efficiency video coding (HEVC)/H.265 temporal scalable coding based on subjective evaluation experiments. To investigate the appropriate bit-rate for both 8K 120- and 60-Hz videos for broadcasting purposes, we compress 8K 120-Hz test sequences using software that emulates our real-time HEVC encoder and conduct two types of experiments. The experimental results demonstrate that the required video bit-rate for 8K 120-Hz temporal scalable coding is estimated to be 85–110 Mbps, which is equivalent to the practical bit-rate for 8K 60-Hz videos, and the appropriate bit-rate for 8K 60-Hz video in 8K 120-Hz video at 85 Mbps is assumed to be ~80 Mbps. From the analyses of the encoded videos, it is confirmed that the experimental results are primarily influenced by the image quality on the slice boundary positioned at the middle of the screen height. When conducting the experiments, we determined settings referring to an initial 8K subjective assessment; we further mention requirements for future 8K subjective evaluations from the experimental results.
The present study aimed to evaluate salt-reduction education using a self-monitoring urinary salt-excretion device.
Parallel, randomized trial involving two groups. The following parameters were checked at baseline and endline of the intervention: salt check sheet, eating behaviour questionnaire, 24 h home urine collection, blood pressure before and after urine collection.
The intervention group self-monitored urine salt excretion using a self-measuring device for 4 weeks. In the control group, urine salt excretion was measured, but the individuals were not informed of the result.
Seventy-eight individuals (control group, n 36; intervention group, n 42) collected two 24 h urine samples from a target population of 123 local resident volunteers. The samples were then analysed.
There were no differences in clinical background or related parameters between the two groups. The 24 h urinary Na:K ratio showed a significant decrease in the intervention group (−1·1) compared with the control group (−0·0; P=0·033). Blood pressure did not change in either group. The results of the salt check sheet did not change in the control group but were significantly lower in the intervention group. The score of the eating behaviour questionnaire did not change in the control group, but the intervention group showed a significant increase in eating behaviour stage.
Self-monitoring of urinary salt excretion helps to improve 24 h urinary Na:K, salt check sheet scores and stage of eating behaviour. Thus, usage of self-monitoring tools has an educational potential in salt intake reduction.
Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) are believed to be indirect evidence for black holes. Several authors have reported detections of QPOs from Sgr A*, the nucleus of our Galaxy, in infrared and X-ray wavelength during flare-ups. Miyoshi et al. (2011) reported a tentative detection of QPOs in the 43 GHz light curve of Sgr A* obtained with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). To confirm their detection, we reanalysed their VLBA data very conservatively. The 43 GHz flux was calculated for every 15 seconds by assuming a two-dimensional Gaussian-shape spatial structure. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram of the 43 GHz flux just after a millimeter wave flare of Sgr A*, shows three apparent peaks at 10.2, 14.6 and 32.1 min. Two of them are barely consistent with the previously reported QPOs. Using the resonant oscillation model, we estimated the spin parameter of the Sgr A* black hole to be 0.56 assuming the mass of 4.3 × 106M⊙.
The probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) has anti-obesity effects. Obesity is closely correlated with inflammation in adipose tissue, and maintaining adipose tissue in a less-inflamed state requires intestinal integrity or a barrier function to protect the intestine from the disruption that can be caused by a high-fat diet (HFD). Here, we examined the anti-inflammatory and intestinal barrier-protecting effects of LG2055 in C57BL/6 mice fed a normal-fat diet (NFD), HFD, or the HFD containing LG2055 (HFD-LG) for 21 weeks. HFD-LG intake significantly prevented HFD-induced increases in body weight, visceral fat mass, and the ratio of inflammatory-type macrophages to anti-inflammatory ones in adipose tissue. Mice fed the HFD showed higher intestinal permeability to a fluorescent dextran administered by oral administration and an elevated concentration of antibodies specific to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in the blood compared with those fed the NFD, suggesting an increased penetration of the gut contents into the systemic circulation. These elevations of intestinal permeability and anti-LPS antibody levels were significantly suppressed in mice fed the HFD-LG. Moreover, treatment with LG2055 cells suppressed an increase in the cytokine-induced permeability of Caco-2 cell monolayers. These results suggest that LG2055 improves the intestinal integrity, reducing the entry of inflammatory substances like LPS from the intestine, which may lead to decreased inflammation in adipose tissue.
The Great East Japan Earthquake triggered a massive tsunami that devastated the coasts of northern Japan on March 11, 2011. Despite the large number of “resident survivors,” who have continued to reside on the upper floors of damaged houses, few studies have examined the mental health of these residents. We explored the prevalence and risk factors of post-traumatic stress reaction (PTSR) among resident survivors.
A cross-sectional household screening for health support needs was conducted among resident survivors in Higashi-Matsushima city, Miyagi, 2 to 4 months after the tsunami. Questions assessing PTSR were included in the screening interviews.
Of 5103 resident survivors, 5.7% experienced PTSR. PTSR risk factors, identified via regression analysis, differed according to the height of house flooding. When house flooding remained below the ground floor, PTSR was significantly associated with being female and regular psychotropic medication intake. These 2 factors in addition to being middle-aged or elderly and living alone were also risk factors when flood levels were above the ground floor.
Following the tsunami, PTSR was found in a considerable number of resident survivors. Attention and support for people who use psychiatric medication, their families, and people living alone are suggested as possible directions for public health strategies. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 8)
Administration of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) has been shown to prevent body weight gain and it also down-regulates the expression of the Ccl2 gene in adipose tissue in diet-induced obese mice. The CC chemokine ligand 2 has a crucial role in macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, which is known to exacerbate inflammation. However, it is not yet known how LG2055 affects the invasion of macrophages into adipose tissue. C57BL/6J male mice were fed a normal-fat diet (10 % energy fat), high-fat diet (HFD; 45 % energy fat), or HFD containing LG2055 for 12 weeks. After the feeding period, gene expression and macrophage population in adipose tissue were analysed by real-time PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. Body weight and abdominal fat weight were not altered by feeding LG2055. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the population of macrophages in adipose tissue was significantly reduced by feeding LG2055 compared with HFD only. Furthermore, the ratio of classically activated inflammatory macrophages (M1 macrophages) to total macrophages was significantly decreased in the LG2055-fed group. The expressions of Ccl2, Ccr2 and Lep were down-regulated and that of Il6, Tnf and Nos2 tended to be down-regulated in adipose tissue by feeding LG2055. In addition, fasting glucose levels were significantly decreased in the LG2055-fed group. These data suggest that administration of LG2055 might attenuate inflammation, which is caused by the intake of an HFD, through the inhibition of macrophage invasion into adipose tissue.
Stochastic geometry models for wireless communication networks have recently attracted much attention. This is because the performance of such networks critically depends on the spatial configuration of wireless nodes and the irregularity of the node configuration in a real network can be captured by a spatial point process. However, most analysis of such stochastic geometry models for wireless networks assumes, owing to its tractability, that the wireless nodes are deployed according to homogeneous Poisson point processes. This means that the wireless nodes are located independently of each other and their spatial correlation is ignored. In this work we propose a stochastic geometry model of cellular networks such that the wireless base stations are deployed according to the Ginibre point process. The Ginibre point process is one of the determinantal point processes and accounts for the repulsion between the base stations. For the proposed model, we derive a computable representation for the coverage probability—the probability that the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) for a mobile user achieves a target threshold. To capture its qualitative property, we further investigate the asymptotics of the coverage probability as the SINR threshold becomes large in a special case. We also present the results of some numerical experiments.
We have been monitoring the flux density of Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) at 22 GHz since DOY=42 (11 Feb. 2013) with a sub-array of the Japanese VLBI Network in order to search the increase of 22-GHz emission from Sgr A* induced by the interaction of the G2 cloud with the accretion disk. The flux densities observed until DOY=322 (18 Nov. 2013) are consistent with the previously observed values before the approaching of the cloud. We have detected no large flare during this period.
Consumption of fermented milk (FM) containing a probiotic, Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055), previously showed a reduction in abdominal adiposity in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) using FM with 108 colony-forming units (cfu) of LG2055/g. However, whether the effectiveness is observed at lower concentrations, the recommended minimum or intermediate levels of probiotics (106 or 107cfu/g, respectively), remains to be examined. A multi-centre, double-blind, parallel-group RCT was conducted using 210 healthy Japanese adults with large visceral fat areas (80·2–187·8 cm2). They were balanced for their baseline characteristics and randomly assigned to three groups receiving FM containing 107, 106 or 0 (control) cfu LG2055/g of FM, and were asked to consume 200 g FM/d for 12 weeks. Abdominal visceral fat areas, which were determined by computed tomography, at week 12, changed from baseline by an average of − 8·5 % (95 % CI − 11·9, − 5·1; P< 0·01) in the 107 dose group, and by − 8·2 % (95 % CI − 10·8, − 5·7; P< 0·01) in the 106 dose group. Other measures including BMI, waist and hip circumferences, and body fat mass were also significantly decreased from baseline at week 12 in both groups; interestingly, the cessation of taking FM for 4 weeks attenuated these effects. In the control group, none of these parameters significantly decreased from baseline. These findings demonstrate that consumption of LG2055 at doses as low as the order of 108cfu/d exhibited a significant lowering effect on abdominal adiposity, and suggest that constant consumption might be needed to maintain the effect.
Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by the accidental ingestion of Echinococcus multilocularis eggs. Early detection is essential as surgical resection is the only treatment for a complete cure. However, details are unclear about changes in the antibody response during the initial stages of infection, yet such information is useful for early serodiagnosis. Therefore, a long-term investigation was performed into the time course of the antibody response before ‘positive’ detection. Patient sera were used for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting (WB) analysis using crude antigens extracted from E. multilocularis protoscoleces. Rats were experimentally infected with AE and similarly analysed by ELISA and WB. Among the markers for diagnoses, the 18 kDa band (main marker) appeared last in the preoperative stages and disappeared first after operation in a WB test. Although the 18 kDa antigen can be useful as a marker for AE diagnosis, it cannot contribute to the detection of some patients before the 18 kDa band appearance. To avoid misdiagnosis, different diagnostic antigens such as the 26–28 and 7–8 kDa bands should also be considered. These bands tend to appear earlier than the 18 kDa band and thus offer the potential for early detection of AE. We first observed changes in the antibody response in a relatively early stage after infection in human AE cases. Notably, changes in the antibody response of two intermediate species were similar. These findings provide valuable information for the early detection of human AE cases in the future.
Eimeria tenella is recognized worldwide as a significant pathogen in the poultry industry. However, a lack of methods for isolating developing schizonts has hindered the use of transcriptome analyses to discover novel and developmentally regulated genes. In the present study, we characterized the long-term successive development of E. tenella in infected chicken caeca and assessed the utility of laser microdissection (LMD) for the isolation of schizont RNA. Developmental stages, including those of the first, second, and third-generation schizonts and gametocytes, were synchronous. Using LMD, only the mature second-generation schizonts were successfully excised from the lamina propria, and non-degraded RNA was purified from the schizonts. E. tenella-specific genes were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These results augment our understanding of the E. tenella life cycle, and reveal LMD as a potentially useful tool for gene expression analyses of the intracellular stages of E. tenella.
Biaxially oriented polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films can be bonded directly by oxygen plasma irradiation and low temperature heat press around 100°C. The irradiated films were kept in the atmosphere for six years, yet they can be bonded tightly as well. Dry- and wet-peel tests indicate that two bonding elements can be suggested, hydrogen bonding and chemical bonding. The films are bonded by these two elements at lower temperatures, but by the pure chemical bonding at higher temperatures. FTIR results on the non-irradiated, irradiated and bonded samples indicate that OH and COOH groups are created at the surface, they are responsible for the hydrogen and chemical bondings. Dehydrated condensation reaction is proposed for the chemical bonding. It is briefly mentioned on two origins for the long lifetime of irradiated active surface.
Hexagonal ZnO was grown on hexagonal (001) sapphire substrate, then cubic La(Sr)MnO3(LSMO) was grown on ZnO underlayer by ion beam sputtering at substrate temperatures of 550-750°C to obtain double-layer of LSMO/ZnO. Out-of-plane (001) oriented ZnO was grown with in-plane orientation of [10-10](0001)ZnO//[11-20](0001)sapphire. Mixed phase of LSMO with out-of-plane (001), (110) and (111) orientations was grown on (001) ZnO usually. However each single phase of LSMO could be grown by controlling deposition conditions. The LSMO grains have their in-plane orientations of (110)LSMO //[10-10](0001)ZnO and (111)LSMO//[11-20](0001)ZnO.
Invasive infections caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae in vaccinated and non-vaccinated individuals have been reported increasingly. In this study we used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to study genetic relationships between six invasive strains of this bacterium isolated solely in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during a 10-year period. Of note, all the strains rendered negative results in PCR reactions for the tox gene, and four strains presented an atypical sucrose-fermenting ability. Five strains represented new sequence types. MLST results did not support the hypothesis that invasive (sucrose-positive) strains of C. diphtheriae are part of a single clonal complex. Instead, one of the main findings of the study was that such strains can be normally found in clonal complexes with strains related to non-invasive disease. Comparative analyses with C. diphtheriae isolated in different countries provided further information on the geographical circulation of some sequence types.
We study the multi-selection version of the so-called odds theorem by Bruss (2000). We observe a finite number of independent 0/1 (failure/success) random variables sequentially and want to select the last success. We derive the optimal selection rule when m (≥ 1) selection chances are given and find that the optimal rule has the form of a combination of multiple odds-sums. We provide a formula for computing the maximum probability of selecting the last success when we have m selection chances and also provide closed-form formulae for m = 2 and 3. For m = 2, we further give the bounds for the maximum probability of selecting the last success and derive its limit as the number of observations goes to ∞. An interesting implication of our result is that the limit of the maximum probability of selecting the last success for m = 2 is consistent with the corresponding limit for the classical secretary problem with two selection chances.
We propose a simple model of random interval graphs generated by immigration–death processes (also known as M/G/∞ queuing processes), where the length of each interval follows a subexponential distribution, and provide a condition under which the stationary degree distribution is also subexponential. Furthermore, we consider the conditional expectation of the cluster coefficient of a vertex given the degree and show that it vanishes in the limit as the degree goes to infinity under the same condition as that for obtaining the tail asymptotics of the stationary degree distribution.
The thermosphere is the transition region from the atmosphere to space. Both the solar ultraviolet radiation and the solar wind energy inputs have caused significant thermospheric variations from past to present. In order to understand thermospheric/ionospheric disturbances in association with changes in solar activity, observational and modelling efforts have been made by many researchers. Recent satellite observations, e.g., the satellite CHAMP, have revealed mass density variations in the upper thermosphere. The thermospheric temperature, wind, and composition variations have been also investigated with general/global circulation models (GCMs) which include forcings due to the solar wind energy inputs and the lower atmospheric effects. In particular, we have developed a GCM which covers all the atmospheric regions, troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere, to describe variations of the thermospheric temperature and density caused by both effects from the lower atmosphere and the magnetosphere. GCM simulations represent global and localized temperature and density structures, which vary from hour to hour, depending on forcings due to the lower atmosphere, solar and geomagnetic activities. This modelling attempt will enable us to describe the thermospheric weather influenced by solar activity in cooperation with ground-based and satellite observations.