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This Cambridge Companion provides an engaging and expansive overview of gustation, gastronomy, agriculture and alimentary activism in literature from the medieval period to the present day, as well as an illuminating introduction to cookbooks as literature. Bringing together sixteen original essays by leading scholars, the collection rethinks literary food from a variety of critical angles, including gender and sexuality, critical race studies, postcolonial studies, eco-criticism and children's literature. Topics covered include mealtime decorum in Chaucer, Milton's culinary metaphors, early American taste, Romantic gastronomy, Victorian eating, African-American women's culinary writing, modernist food experiments, Julia Child and cold war cooking, industrialized food in children's literature, agricultural horror and farmworker activism, queer cookbooks, hunger as protest and postcolonial legacy, and “dude food” in contemporary food blogs. Featuring a chronology of key publication and historical dates and a comprehensive bibliography of further reading, this Companion is an indispensible guide to an exciting field for students and instructors.
On its original publication, this book provided the first elementary treatment of representation theory of finite groups of Lie type in book form. This second edition features new material to reflect the continuous evolution of the subject, including entirely new chapters on Hecke algebras, Green functions and Lusztig families. The authors cover the basic theory of representations of finite groups of Lie type, such as linear, unitary, orthogonal and symplectic groups. They emphasise the Curtis–Alvis duality map and Mackey's theorem and the results that can be deduced from it, before moving on to a discussion of Deligne–Lusztig induction and Lusztig's Jordan decomposition theorem for characters. The book contains the background information needed to make it a useful resource for beginning graduate students in algebra as well as seasoned researchers. It includes exercises and explicit examples.
Two decades after Indonesia's transition to democracy, its labor movement has emerged as a vibrant and influential political actor. Labor and Politics in Indonesia provides the first in-depth analysis of this development, investigating how a structurally weak labor movement carved out a strategic foothold in a country with no recent history of union engagement in politics. Caraway and Ford show how Indonesia's labor movement achieved many of its goals first through the disruptive power of contentious politics and later by combining street and electoral politics. Labor and Politics in Indonesia challenges the dominant theoretical approaches in the study of Indonesian politics, demonstrating how this movement became an active, and surprisingly effective, participant in Indonesia's democracy. Caraway and Ford break new theoretical ground in their analysis of how legacies of authoritarianism, the post-transition political opportunity structure, and the tactical creativity of Indonesia's unions combined to propel Indonesia's labor movement to success.
In Policing the Womb, Michele Goodwin explores how states abuse laws and infringe on rights to police women and their pregnancies. This book looks at the impact of these often arbitrary laws which can result in the punishment, incarceration, and humiliation of women, particularly poor women and women of color. Frequently based on unscientific claims of endangering a fetus, these laws allow extraordinary powers to state authorities over reproductive freedom and pregnancies. In this book, Michele Goodwin discusses real examples of women whose pregnancies have been controlled by the law and what has led to the United States being the deadliest country in the developed world for a woman to be pregnant.
The modern era is facing unprecedented governance challenges in striving to achieve long-term sustainability goals and to limit human impacts on the Earth system. This volume synthesizes a decade of multidisciplinary research into how diverse actors exercise authority in environmental decision making, and their capacity to deliver effective, legitimate and equitable Earth system governance. Actors from the global to the local level are considered, including governments, international organizations and corporations. Chapters cover how state and non-state actors engage with decision-making processes, the relationship between agency and structure, and the variations in governance and agency across different spheres and tiers of society. Providing an overview of the major questions, issues and debates, as well as the theories and methods used in studies of agency in earth system governance, this book provides a valuable resource for graduate students and researchers, as well as practitioners and policy makers working in environmental governance.
The product of a unique collaboration between academic scholars, legal practitioners, and technology experts, this Handbook is the first of its kind to analyze the ongoing evolution of smart contracts, based upon blockchain technology, from the perspective of existing legal frameworks - namely, contract law. The book's coverage ranges across many areas of smart contracts and electronic or digital platforms to illuminate the impact of new, and often disruptive, technologies on the law. With a mix of scholarly commentary and practical application, chapter authors provide expert insights on the core issues involving the use of smart contracts, concluding that smart contracts cannot supplant contract law and the courts, but leaving open the question of whether there is a need for specialized regulations to prevent abuse. This book should be read by anyone interested in the disruptive effect of new technologies on the law generally, and contract law in particular.
Policies allowing enfranchisement of non-resident citizens (emigrants and their descendants) are now implemented in the majority of states worldwide. A growing number of case studies show that the extension of voting rights to non-resident citizens is often contested among country of origin political parties. However, there is no systematic comparative study of why different political parties support or oppose external voting rights and how this position is framed by the parties. Drawing on a unique data set based on 34 debates across 13 countries, we estimate the extent to which ideology and party family are correlated with the positioning and framing of parties. Among the findings are that the more to the right is a party, the more it tends to support external voting rights, except in the case of radical right parties. The position on emigrant voting rights is largely framed along more pragmatic arguments.
Translocation and rehabilitation programmes are critical tools for wildlife conservation. These methods achieve greater impact when integrated in a combined strategy for enhancing population or ecosystem restoration. During 2002–2016 we reared 37 orphaned southern sea otter Enhydra lutris nereis pups, using captive sea otters as surrogate mothers, then released them into a degraded coastal estuary. As a keystone species, observed increases in the local sea otter population unsurprisingly brought many ecosystem benefits. The role that surrogate-reared otters played in this success story, however, remained uncertain. To resolve this, we developed an individual-based model of the local population using surveyed individual fates (survival and reproduction) of surrogate-reared and wild-captured otters, and modelled estimates of immigration. Estimates derived from a decade of population monitoring indicated that surrogate-reared and wild sea otters had similar reproductive and survival rates. This was true for males and females, across all ages (1–13 years) and locations evaluated. The model simulations indicated that reconstructed counts of the wild population are best explained by surrogate-reared otters combined with low levels of unassisted immigration. In addition, the model shows that 55% of observed population growth over this period is attributable to surrogate-reared otters and their wild progeny. Together, our results indicate that the integration of surrogacy methods and reintroduction of juvenile sea otters helped establish a biologically successful population and restore a once-impaired ecosystem.
Chapter 2 examines how and why the United States chose to deliver the EITC in one annual payment as a tax refund, and how this is a stark contrast to how other social benefits are administered. One reason is administrative cost – it is relatively inexpensive to allow taxpayers to self-declare eligibility and receive benefits as a tax refund. Because other social benefit programs have direct contact with their recipients prior to payment, those programs have far higher administrative costs and far smaller overpayment rates. Delivery of social benefits through the tax system also avoids the stigma associated with applying for benefits through social welfare workers. This chapter cites empirical studies about taxpayer preferences as to delivery method and timing of refund and evidence as to how EITC recipients spend their refund. It also describes experiments with periodic payment, including the Advance Earned Income Tax Credit.
The Introduction explains that the EITC is a largely successful social program, but one that can be improved upon as part of a broader effort to address poverty in the United States. It provides a roadmap for the book, identifying some of the challenges taxpayers face and summarizing why the time is right for a reimagination of the EITC. It outlines potential benefits of the reimagination, such as a more coherent tax policy, a simplified structure for family benefits, a reduction in opportunities for tax return preparer fraud and tax-related identity theft, and a periodic distribution of benefits.
Chapter 8 delivers a broader critique of how Congress addresses the persistent problem of poverty in the United States. The largest antipoverty program in the United States is conditioned on a work requirement; this chapter pauses to consider whether the Code can also be used to deliver benefits to those who fall through the cracks because they cannot or do not work. The chapter identifies how the changes enacted in the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act will impact low-income individuals. It closes with thoughts about what Congress is asking of the Internal Revenue Code, and the IRS, by using both as a vehicle for social programs. There are compelling reasons to keep the EITC in the Code and with the IRS; the book concludes with a call for a more thoughtful design of both the credit and the way in which the agency implements it.
Chapter 7 identifies a conundrum of the EITC: It is intended to lift low-income individuals out of poverty, yet the credit is subject to capture by a number of creditors and agencies. Because it is delivered as a tax refund, the amount due to the taxpayer can be offset against outstanding federal and state tax liabilities, past-due child support, and federal student loan liabilities. The possibility of such offset betrays its function as an antipoverty supplement. Low-income families are subject to various economic stressors and are likely to have outstanding debts. In reconfiguring the credit into two distinct elements – an incentive to work and an antipoverty supplement – Congress might consider whether the latter should be protected from offset or garnishment (in whole or in part) in order to better serve its purpose. This chapter considers the pros and cons of such a protection, and proposes some possible structures.
Chapter 5 presents the argument for why and how the United States should reimagine the EITC. Drawing on social science research, it argues that the framing of social benefit programs matters, both to recipients and to the general public. It makes the case for splitting the EITC into two distinct parts, as other scholars and policy makers have proposed in the past: (1) a work-support credit to offset the regressive nature of payroll or self-employment taxes; and (2) a family-support credit to offset poverty. It proposes decoupling EITC delivery from the tax return filing process. Drawing upon ideas from Canada and New Zealand, the chapter also proposes more radical changes, such as determining income based on household composition rather than marital status, allowing parents who share custody to share the credits, and adjusting the size of the credits regionally or locally according to cost of living.
Chapter 4 delivers a comparative perspective. The United States served as a model for many other countries to adopt earnings-based family tax credits, and this chapter seeks to borrow ideas back by examining how New Zealand and Canada administer similar credits. The chapter provides an overview of New Zealand’s Working for Families Tax Credits and Canada’s Working Income Tax Benefit and Canada Child Benefit. It describes the mechanics of each, explores critiques raised by domestic scholars, and draws takeaways for the United States. While acknowledging that there are cultural differences and conceding that no design is perfect, this chapter sets the stage for a reimagination of how the United States delivers its antipoverty benefits to working families.
Chapter 1 provides a history of the EITC, explaining how the concept dates back to Milton Friedman’s idea for a negative income tax, Richard Nixon’s Family Assistance Plan proposal, and Russell Long’s work bonus plan. This chapter traces how, over four decades, a modest work incentive evolved into one of the most important antipoverty programs in the United States. It highlights studies correlating the EITC with positive outcomes for recipient families. The chapter also introduces the Code’s other refundable tax credit for working families – the Child Tax Credit – and distinguishes the two tax credits.