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Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess impressive properties along with low density. Integration of CNTs in the form of fabrics or other preformed assemblies simplifies their handling and allows for the higher CNT content needed to better leverage their properties in multifunctional structures. Here we describe production of non-woven CNT-polyurethane fabrics made from industrial-grade CNTs via a one-step filtration method. Individual sheets were scaled to 30 cm x 30 cm size and subsequently used to fabricate thicker composites, including via lamination with itself to produce simple panels and with other materials to further tailor the nanocomposite properties and address several example applications including electrical heating, fire resistance, electromagnetic shielding, and a skin for stretchable morphing structures.
A 42-year-old man was referred to our hospital with heart failure and unoperated tricuspid atresia with pulmonary valve stenosis. His condition was initially managed with medical therapy; however, he required repeat hospitalisations for congestive heart failure. We diagnosed the chief cause of his heart failure as aortic valve regurgitation secondary to aortic root dilatation. Aortic root replacement was performed and then his heart failure was controlled.
The possibility that primary recrystallization textures are influenced by local inhomogeneities of deformation induced in the regions of grain boundaries has been confirmed by comparing the cold rolling and the annealing textures of polycrystalline pure irons which were different in the grain size prior to cold rolling. Analyses were made for the effects of deformation on crystals, namely storage of lattice strain and orientation spread, with application of X-ray diffraction techniques, in order to elucidate the role of in homogeneities of deformation on recrystallization texture formation. Apparent correspondence was found between the orientation dependence of stored strain energy and the textural change on recrystallization. This is a scribed to oriented nucleation in high energy blocks, in the case of originally large-grain material in which the effects of inhomogeneities of deformation are small. But discrepancies arise on this basis in originally small - grain material in which the effects of inhomogeneities of deformation are thought to be considerable. The discrepancy is inferred to arise as an effect of local inhomogeneities of deformation, from the change in the trend of rotational orientation spreads from, a stable orientation and the extent of development of potential nuclei of recrystallization at high energy blocks in the orientation spreads. The change is considered to give rise to the variation in amount of microstrain distribution, which is expressed in recovery characteristics of lattice strains and in the dependence of microstrains on the column length as analyzed by following the procedure of Warren-Averbach.
In the conventional pole figure, an accurate representation can be attained by correcting the observed X-ray diffraction intensity for any change in diffraction geometry and by comparing this with the correctly established standard intensity. For the intensity corrections, ASTM has prescribed the method of Decker et al. In practice, however, the validity of the correction formula is uncertain, since the prerequisite is difficult to attain for parallelism of an incident beam of sufficient intensity. For the standard intensity, it is desirable to take the intensity obtained with the randomly oriented material of the same composition. However, in most cases an arbitrary unit has been taken because of the difficulty in getting a truly random and uniform sample. Under these circumstances, it is first necessary for an accurate representation of pole figures to make a random sample of uniform thickness for the standard. The authors have obtained satisfactory standard samples by sintering the randomly oriented iron powder made from iron chloride and made use of them to check the method of intensity correction. Satisfactory results are obtained in the randomness tests, such as the comparison of the relative intensity diffracted from the crystal planes parallel to the sample surface and the fluctuation of diffraction intensity during α rotation.
In the reflection case by the Schulz method, the (110) reflection intensity of a random sample, by Co Kα radiation, is independent of the tilting angle up to 50°. The other reflections do not give a constant intensity for the wide range of the tilting angles because of dispersion of the diffracted beam due to the wider separation of Kα doublet in the higher reflection angle and the wider irradiated area at the lower angles. In the transmission case Schulz's correction formula is in good agreement with the observed values for the various diffraction lines and the samples of various µt, while the Decker-Harker formula does not give the absorption change with α-rotation even by an incident beam of ⅙° divergence. In both cases, an accurate determination of pole densities is made by comparing the diffraction intensity of the standard sample substituted in place of the test specimen and by correcting the absorption change due to the difference of µt between the standard and test sample, which affords good coincidence in the overlapped region. The pole figure obtained by the above method furnishes an accurate prediction of plastic and elastic anisotropy in sheet metals.
As a means for quantitative texture analysis, the crystallite orientation distribution function analysis has an important drawback: to bring ghosts as a consequence of the presence of a non-trivial kernel which consists of the spherical harmonics of odd order terms. In the spherical hamonic analysis, ghosts occur in the particular orientations by symmetry operation from the real orientation in accordance with the symmetry of the harmonics of even orders. For recovery of the odd order harmonics, the 9th-order generalized spherical harmonics are linearly combined and added to the orientation distribution function reconstructed from pole figures to a composite function. The coefficients of the linear combination are optimized to minimize the sum of negative values in the composite function. Reproducibility was simulated by using artificial pole figures of single or multiple component textures. Elimination of the ghosts is accompanied by increase in the height of real peak in the composite function of a single preferred orientation. Relative fractions of both major and minor textural components are reproduced with satisfactory fidelity In the simulation for analysis of multi-component textures.
Ca-Mg-Si films were firstly prepared on (001)Al2O3 substrates by RF-magnetron sputtering method from Mg disc target together with Ca and Si chips. The composition of the deposited films was controlled by adjusting deposition temperature and Ca/Si area ratio of Ca and Si chips on Mg disk target. Ca0.32Mg0.33Si0.35 film deposited at 610 K consisted of a single phase of CaMgSi and this CaMgSi phase was stable after heat treated at 770 K under an atmospheric Ar with 5% -H2. As-deposited film shows the semiconductor behavior and have a power factor of 50 μW/(mK2) at 670 K, while annealed one showed the metallic behavior and its power factor down below 10 μW/(mK2) at 320-770 K. On the other hand, Ca0.27Mg0. 51Si0.2 film deposited at 590 K showed no obvious crystalline phase but became single phase of Ca7Mg7.25Si14 after heat treatment at 770 K under an atmospheric Ar with 5% -H2. As deposited film had a large power factor of 100 μW/(mK2) at 670 K. However, power factor decreased below 1 μW/(mK2) at 320-770K after the heat treatment at 770 K under an atmospheric Ar with 5% -H2.
An isolated left common carotid artery is very rare, and only 13 cases have been reported thus far. All those cases were accompanied by a right aortic arch and aberrant left subclavian artery, and the connecting vessel between the pulmonary artery and left common carotid artery was thought to be ductal tissue. However, there have been no reports that have followed the natural closure of this vessel. We present a case in whom we could observe the closing process of this vessel at the connection between the left common carotid artery and main pulmonary artery in association with a tetralogy of Fallot.
The lattice structure of the C14 Fe2Nb Laves phase with Ni in solution in Fe-Nb-Ni ternary alloys was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Binary stoichiometric Fe2Nb (Fe-33.3 at.% Nb) exhibits a featureless morphology with a low dislocation density. A similar morphology was observed in stoichiometric Fe2Nb containing 20 at.% Ni and in binary Fe-rich Fe2Nb (Fe-27.5 at.% Nb). In contrast, many planar faults parallel to the basal plane of the C14 structure were observed in Fe-rich Fe2Nb with Ni in solution, and the fault density increases with increasing Ni content up to 33.1 at.%. The high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) analysis revealed that the planar faults are related to the local change in the stacking sequence of the three 36-nets (triple layer) of the C14 structure. These results suggest that the presence of both, the point defects (Fe sublattice sites occupied by Ni atoms) and the anti-site defects (Nb sublattice sites occupied by excess Fe atoms), facilitate the formation of the planar faults.
For the Fe2Nb Laves phase with C14 structure in the Fe-Nb-M (M : Cr, Mn, Co, Ni) systems, the site occupation of M in Fe2Nb has been examined in terms of XRD Rietveld analysis, particularly paying attention to the two Fe sublattice sites of Fe1 (36-net in the triple layer : t) and Fe2 (kagome-net of the single layer : s) with the fraction of 0.25 and 0.75, respectively. In any these four ternary systems, the Fe2Nb Laves phase region largely extends along the equi-Nb concentration direction; for Mn complete solid solubility exists, and the solubility of Cr and Co in Fe2Nb is more than 50 at.% and that of Ni is 44 at.%. Thus, at least two thirds of all Fe sublattices in Fe2Nb are occupied by M in all cases. Rietveld analysis revealed that Cr and Mn with which have a larger atomic size than Fe prefer to occupy the Fe1 sublattice site when the amount in solution is less than 0.25 fraction of Fe in Fe2Nb and the preferred occupation site changes to the Fe2 sublattice site when the amount in solution increases beyond 0.25. In contrast, Co and Ni whose atomic size is smaller than Fe preferentially occupy the Fe2 sublattice site, regardless of the amount. The c/a ratio of stoichiometoric Fe2Nb increases and becomes closer to the ideal value (1.633) of the cubic C15 structure when the Fe1 sublattice site is occupied by Cr and Mn. However, the degree of symmetries of both tetrahedron and kagome-net formed by Fe atoms become better when Fe2 sublattice site is occupied by a certain amount of Ni.
As renewable energy supply chains have grown increasingly globalized, national clean energy transitions have become highly influenced by international dynamics. However, these dynamics are themselves collectively shaped by domestic policy that drives the deployment of renewables. While spatial spillovers of domestic renewable energy policies have been studied on an aggregate level regarding policy diffusion or the flows of technology across countries, implications on an actor-level have been largely neglected. This article addresses this gap by analyzing global patterns of market openings for wind, solar PV, and biomass, focusing on the role of private project developers in developing countries. We use a mixed method design, based on a newly merged dataset encompassing eighty countries, and on interviews with pioneering project developers. Results highlight how patterns in market openings are shaped considerably by technology characteristics. Further, empirical results show international private developers are a key first mover in many developing countries. We explore drivers for this internationalization trend, including the impact of international developers' home country policies and the accumulation of tacit knowledge from home country markets for market openings abroad. Finally, we discuss implications for industrial policy and argue for further research on global spillovers of national policies on the actor-level.
Lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with a structure of glass/FTO/TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) as the transparent top electrodes, followed by polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) over-coating were fabricated. The SWNT-based PSCs do not require expensive metal electrodes and hole-transporting materials yet produce a decent power conversion efficiency of 11.8%, owing to the densifying effect of SWNTs by PMMA. The resulting devices demonstrate reduced hysteresis, improved stability, and increased power conversion efficiency.
Recent studies have detected similarities between autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. We investigated structural abnormalities associated with autistic-like traits in patients with schizophrenia by voxel-based morphometry.
Patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects were evaluated by the adult version of the social responsiveness scale (SRS-A), which is sensitive to autistic traits and symptoms even under subthreshold conditions, and magnetic resonance imaging.
There were significant decreases in the anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral hippocampi, cerebellums, and right insula of patients with schizophrenia, compared with healthy subjects. We found significant negative correlations of the social communication and interaction (SCI) score, a subscale of SRS-A, with grey matter volume in the left posterior superior temporal region of schizophrenia patients. When subscales of SCI were examined separately in schizophrenic patients, negative correlations were observed between the social cognition score and the volumes of the left posterior superior temporal region, and between social motivation and the posterior cingulate cortex.
We found significant negative correlation between the SCI score and the grey matter volume in the left posterior superior temporal region of schizophrenia patients. This area was the region affected in previous studies of autistic spectrum disorders. Further, this area was associated with the theory of mind. Schizophrenia patients not necessarily show the impairment of SCI, nor this correlated region was not always the point with schizophrenia-specific change. However, we reveal the relationship between the left posterior superior temporal gyrus and the severity of the SCI in schizophrenia by using with SRS-A.
Obesity is a risk factor for psychiatric diseases. Recently, a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to be related to body mass index (BMI). In this study, we investigated the association of BMI-related SNPs with psychiatric diseases and one of their endophenotypes, memory performance, in a Japanese population.
The subjects were 1624 patients with one of three psychiatric diseases (799 patients with major depressive disorder, 594 with schizophrenia, and 231 with bipolar disorder) and 1189 healthy controls. Memory performance was assessed using the Wechsler Memory Scale – Revised (WMS-R). Genomic DNA was prepared from venous blood and used to genotype 23 BMI-related SNPs using the TaqMan 5′-exonuclease allelic discrimination assay. We then analysed the relationships between the SNPs and psychiatric disease and various subscales of the WMS-R.
Three SNPs (rs11142387, rs12597579, and rs6548238) showed significant differences in the genotype or allele frequency between patients with any psychiatric diseases and controls. Furthermore, six SNPs (rs11142387, rs12597579, rs2815752, rs2074356, rs4776970, and rs2287019) showed significant differences in at least one subscale of the WMS-R depending on the genotypes of the healthy controls. Interestingly, rs11142387 near the Kruppel-like factor 9 (KLF9) was significantly associated with psychiatric disease and poor memory function.
We identified three and six BMI-related SNPs associated with psychiatric disease and memory performance, respectively. In particular, carrying the A allele of rs11142387 near KLF9 was found to be associated with psychiatric disease and poor memory performance, which warrants further investigations.
Continuum observation of galaxies in millimeter-wave gives informations on dust emission from molecular clouds, free-free emission from HII region and synchrotron emission from SNR and diffuse component. The free-free emission can be observed only at millimeter-wave frequencies and their emission is optically thin, it can be a good indicator of their star-formation activities.
We report first results from a multiwavelength campaign to measure the simultaneous spectrum of Sgr A* from cm to mm wavelengths. The observations confirm that the previously detected submm-excess is not due to variability; the presence of an ultracompact component with a size of a few Schwarzschild radii is inferred. In a VLA survey of LINER galaxies, we found Sgr A*-like nuclei in one quarter of the galaxies searched, suggesting a link between those low-power AGN and the Galactic Center.
The endogenous cannabinoid system plays important roles in the retina of mice and monkeys via their classic CB1 and CB2 receptors. We have previously reported that the G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), a putative cannabinoid receptor, is exclusively expressed in rod photoreceptors in the monkey retina, suggesting its possible role in scotopic vision. To test this hypothesis, we recorded full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) after the intravitreal injection of the GPR55 agonist lysophosphatidylglucoside (LPG) or the selective GPR55 antagonist CID16020046 (CID), under light- and dark-adapted conditions. Thirteen vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus) were used in this study: four controls (injected with the vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO), four injected with LPG and five with CID. We analyzed amplitudes and latencies of the a-wave (photoreceptor responses) and the b-wave (rod and cone system responses) of the ERG. Our results showed that after injection of LPG, the amplitude of the scotopic b-wave was significantly higher, whereas after the injection of CID, it was significantly decreased, compared to the vehicle (DMSO). On the other hand, the a-wave amplitude, and the a-wave and b-wave latencies, of the scotopic ERG responses were not significantly affected by the injection of either compound. Furthermore, the photopic ERG waveforms were not affected by either drug. These results support the hypothesis that GPR55 plays an instrumental role in mediating scotopic vision.