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Transnasal inferior meatal antrostomy is increasingly used for the treatment of post-Caldwell–Luc mucoceles in maxillary sinus. This study aimed to report the outcomes after inferior meatal antrostomy with a mucosal flap for recurrent mucoceles.
The records of patients who had undergone transnasal inferior meatal antrostomy with or without a mucosal flap were reviewed.
Transnasal endoscopic inferior meatal antrostomy with or without a mucosal flap was performed in 21 and 49 patients, respectively. No complications were observed. A closing of the antrostomy was found in 9 (18.4 per cent) of the 49 patients who underwent antrostomy without a mucosal flap. No closings were observed in the 21 patients who underwent antrostomy with a mucosal flap. There was a significant difference in the rate of closing for surgery with and without the mucosal flap.
Transnasal endoscopic inferior meatal antrostomy with a mucosal flap is a safe method for the treatment of post-Caldwell–Luc maxillary mucoceles that effectively prevents recurrence.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
To estimate the consumption of ultra-processed foods and determine its association with dietary quality among middle-aged Japanese adults.
Cross-sectional study using data from the Saitama Prefecture Health and Nutrition Survey 2011. Dietary intake was assessed using one- or two-day dietary records. Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were obtained via self-administered questionnaire. Food items were classified according to the NOVA system into four groups: unprocessed or minimally processed foods; processed culinary ingredients; processed foods; and ultra-processed foods. The dietary share of each NOVA food group and their subgroups was calculated in relation to total energy intake, and the average dietary content of key nutrients was determined across tertiles of the dietary energy share of ultra-processed foods (low, middle and high intake).
Saitama Prefecture in Japan.
Community-dwelling adults aged 30–59 years (256 men, 361 women).
Consumption of unprocessed or minimally processed foods, processed culinary ingredients, processed foods and ultra-processed foods contributed 44·9 (se 0·8) %, 5·5 (se 0·2) %, 11·3 (se 0·4) % and 38·2 (se 0·9) % of total daily energy intake, respectively. A positive and statistically significant linear trend was found between the dietary share of ultra-processed foods (tertiles) and the dietary content of total and saturated fat, while an inverse relationship was observed for protein, vitamin K, vitamin B6, dietary fibre, magnesium, phosphorus and iron.
Our findings show that higher consumption of ultra-processed foods was associated with decreased dietary quality among Japanese adults.
Schizophrenia is associated with robust hippocampal volume deficits but subregion volume deficits, their associations with cognition, and contributing genes remain to be determined.
Hippocampal formation (HF) subregion volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer 6.0 from individuals with schizophrenia (n = 176, mean age ± s.d. = 39.0 ± 11.5, 132 males) and healthy volunteers (n = 173, mean age ± s.d. = 37.6 ± 11.3, 123 males) with similar mean age, gender, handedness, and race distributions. Relationships between the HF subregion volume with the largest between group difference, neuropsychological performance, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms were assessed.
This study found a significant group by region interaction on hippocampal subregion volumes. Compared to healthy volunteers, individuals with schizophrenia had significantly smaller dentate gyrus (DG) (Cohen's d = −0.57), Cornu Ammonis (CA) 4, molecular layer of the hippocampus, hippocampal tail, and CA 1 volumes, when statistically controlling for intracranial volume; DG (d = −0.43) and CA 4 volumes remained significantly smaller when statistically controlling for mean hippocampal volume. DG volume showed the largest between group difference and significant positive associations with visual memory and speed of processing in the overall sample. Genome-wide association analysis with DG volume as the quantitative phenotype identified rs56055643 (β = 10.8, p < 5 × 10−8, 95% CI 7.0–14.5) on chromosome 3 in high linkage disequilibrium with MOBP. Gene-based analyses identified associations between SLC25A38 and RPSA and DG volume.
This study suggests that DG dysfunction is fundamentally involved in schizophrenia pathophysiology, that it may contribute to cognitive abnormalities in schizophrenia, and that underlying biological mechanisms may involve contributions from MOBP, SLC25A38, and RPSA.
Earthquakes have killed around 800,000 people globally in the past 20 years, with head injury being the main cause of mortality and morbidity.
To conduct a systematic review to determine the characteristics of head injuries after earthquakes for better disaster preparedness and management.
All publications related to head injuries and earthquakes were searched using Pubmed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and Ichushi.
Thirty-six articles were included in the analysis. Head injury was the third most common cause of injury among survivors of earthquakes. The most common injury after an earthquake occurred was in the lower extremities (36.2%), followed by the upper extremities (19.9%), head (16.6%), spine (13.3%), chest (11.3%), and abdomen (3.8%). Earthquake-related head injuries were predominantly caused by a blunt strike (79%), and were more frequently associated with soft tissue injury compared to non-earthquake-related head injuries and less frequently with intracranial hemorrhage. The mean age of patients with earthquake-related head injuries was 32.6 years, and 55.1% of sufferers were male. The most common earthquake-related head injury was laceration or contusion (59.2%) while epidural hematoma was most common among inpatients with intracranial hemorrhage after an earthquake (9.5%). Early wound irrigation and debridement and antibiotics administration are needed to decrease the risk of infection. Mortality due to earthquake-related head injuries was 5.6%.
Head injury was the main cause of mortality and morbidity after an earthquake. The characteristics of earthquake-related head injuries differed from those of non-earthquake-related head injuries, including the frequency of multiple injuries, and occurrence of contaminated soft tissue injury and epidural hematoma. This knowledge is important for determining demands for neurosurgery and for adequate management of patients, especially in resource-limited conditions.
Home cooking has been suggested as a key to healthy dietary intakes. However, little is known about the association between cooking behaviour and nutrient intake among young-to-middle-aged women. We aimed to investigate the association between home cooking frequency and nutrient intake adequacy among married Japanese women. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess the weekly frequency of cooking dinner at home and habitual nutrient intake during the preceding month. We evaluated nutrient intake adequacy by comparing the self-reported intake with two indices of the dietary reference intakes for Japanese (2015): the estimated average requirement (EAR) of fourteen nutrients, and the ‘tentative dietary goal for preventing lifestyle-related diseases’ (DG) of seven nutrients. A total of 143 participants (25–44 years old) completed the questionnaires, with 32·9 % of participants reporting a weekly home cooking frequency of seven times/week. Women with a higher home cooking frequency (seven times/week) were more likely to have children (P = 0·001) than those with a lower home cooking frequency (0–6 times/week). Of the nutrients evaluated, there was no significant difference between the two groups in meeting EAR and DG. Our findings suggest that daily home cooking may not be necessary to achieve adequate nutrient intake, specifically among married, young-to-middle-aged Japanese women.
The grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) method was employed to analyze two-layer thin films, which were the samples of Å lOO Å Au/500Å Cu/Si02 (substrate) and 250Å Cu/500Å Au/SiO2(substrate), which were prepared by the evaporation technique under the condition that the SiO2 substrate was at room temperature. Diffraction profiles were obtained at various glancing angles ( α ) and the data were analyzed as a function of α. The results were as follows : 1) Diffraction peaks were shifted to larger diffraction angles, because of the refraction of the incident X-ray beam. The angular shift has been approximated by the equation, α - α2- αc2)1/2, where αc is the total ref reflection critical angle of the material. 2) As a result of the correction of angular shift, the stress of the evaporated films was estimated to be null. 3) The broadening of the Cu diffraction peak and the enhancement of the Cu diffraction intensity occurred at angles near αc of Cu, due to the reflection of the X-ray beam at the Cu/Au interface.
The association between dietary patterns and CVD risk factors among non-Hispanic whites has not been fully studied. Data from 650 non-Hispanic white adults who participated in one of two clinical sub-studies (about 2 years after the baseline) of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) were analysed. Four dietary patters were identified using a validated 204-item semi-quantitative FFQ completed at enrolment into AHS-2: vegans (8·3 %), lacto-ovo-vegetarians (44·3 %), pesco-vegetarians (10·6 %) and non-vegetarians (NV) (37·3 %). Dietary pattern-specific prevalence ratios (PR) of CVD risk factors were assessed adjusting for confounders with or without BMI as an additional covariable. The adjusted PR for hypertension, high total cholesterol and high LDL-cholesterol were lower in all three vegetarian groups. Among the lacto-ovo-vegetarians the PR were 0·57 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·73), 0·72 (95 % CI 0·59, 0·88) and 0·72 (95 % CI 0·58, 0·89), respectively, which remained significant after additionally adjusting for BMI. The vegans and the pesco-vegetarians had similar PR for hypertension at 0·46 (95 % CI 0·25, 0·83) and 0·62 (95 % CI 0·42, 0·91), respectively, but estimates were attenuated and marginally significant after adjustment for BMI. Compared with NV, the PR of obesity and abdominal adiposity, as well as other CVD risk factors, were significantly lower among the vegetarian groups. Similar results were found when limiting analyses to participants not being treated for CVD risk factors, with the vegans having the lowest mean BMI and waist circumference. Thus, compared with the diet of NV, vegetarian diets were associated with significantly lower levels of CVD risk factors among the non-Hispanic whites.
Embolic beads for transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) should possess radiopacity and biodegradability at the same time, to be visualized in a body under fluoroscopy and CT scanning to avoid complicating disease. In this study, we fabricated radiopaque and biodegradable beads composed of Lipiodol (LPD) (ethiodized oil) and polycaprolactone (PCL), a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer. LPD/PCL beads were first fabricated with a home-made microfluidic device. By changing the flow-rate ratio in the microfluidic device, the mean diameter of LPD/PCL beads could be well controlled. The radiopacity was evaluated by the fluoroscopic imaging and the CT number measurements. Furthermore, the biodegradability was evaluated by collecting the weight loss data of LPD/PCL immersed in lipase/PBS solution and PBS. The results showed that LPD/PCL beads obtained in this study had sufficient radiopacity and biodegradability, which would be an alternative embolic agent for TACE.
The onset of interfacial instability in two-fluid systems using a viscous, leaky dielectric model is studied. The instability arises as a result of resonance between the parametric frequency of an imposed electric field and the system’s natural frequency. In addition to a rigorous model that uses Floquet instability analysis, where both viscous and charge effects are considered, this study also provides convincing validating experiments. In other results, it is shown that (a) the imposition of a periodic electrostatic potential acts to counter gravity and this countering effect becomes more effective if a DC voltage is also added, (b) a critical DC voltage exists at which the interface becomes unstable such that no parametric frequency is required to completely destabilize the interface and (c) the leaky dielectric model approaches a model for a perfect dielectric/perfect conductor pair as the conductivity ratio becomes large. It is also shown via experiments that parametric resonant instability using electrostatic forcing may be reliably used to estimate interfacial tension to sufficient accuracy.
In the first part of the paper, we introduce notions of asymptotic continuous orbit equivalence and asymptotic conjugacy in Smale spaces and characterize them in terms of their asymptotic Ruelle algebras with their dual actions. In the second part, we introduce a groupoid
-algebra that is an extended version of the asymptotic Ruelle algebra from a Smale space and study the extended Ruelle algebras from the view points of Cuntz–Krieger algebras. As a result, the asymptotic Ruelle algebra is realized as a fixed point algebra of the extended Ruelle algebra under certain circle action.
We have demonstrated the high yield (∼900 μm) and highly single-wall selective (>95%) growth of carbon nanotube (CNT) forest using aluminium nitride (AlN) as a catalyst underlayer. Such high efficiency and single-wall selectivity have not been previously reported using this underlayer system. Evaluation with transmission electron microscopy showed that the average diameter of the grown carbon nanotubes was ∼3.0 nm, which is similar to those grown on alumina underlayers. In addition, characterization of the catalyst/underlayer system using atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests that neither Ostwald ripening along the surface nor catalyst subsurface diffusion into the AlN underlayer are severely occurring at the growth temperature, leading to the creation of the stable and dense small nanoparticle array to achieve an efficient growth of single-wall CNTs.
Breakfast skipping is regarded as a public health issue among adults worldwide. Nutrition knowledge has been reported to be one of predictors of dietary behaviour. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the association between nutrition knowledge and breakfast skipping.
Data regarding nutrition knowledge were obtained by using a validated, self-administered general nutrition knowledge questionnaire for Japanese adults (JGNKQ). Participants were classified into three nutrition knowledge level groups according to total JGNKQ score: Low, Middle and High. In addition, participants reported the frequency of meal consumption per week and rated the difficulty in finding time to eat breakfast, lunch and dinner in the lifestyle questionnaire. The differences in frequency of breakfast, lunch and dinner consumption among Low, Middle and High nutrition knowledge groups were determined by using ANCOVA adjusted for potential confounding factors.
Kanto region, Japan.
Japanese adults aged 18–64 years (n 1165, 57·3% women).
Mean age of the participants was 43·8 (sd 8·9) years. There were no significant differences found in the proportion of respondents reporting difficulty in finding time to eat each meal among the three groups. However, the frequency of breakfast consumption was significantly different among Low, Middle and High groups, while lunch and dinner frequency did not differ among the three groups.
The present study suggests that nutrition knowledge level is related to breakfast skipping among Japanese adults.
The movement towards renaming of schizophrenia in Japan started in 1993 upon receipt of a letter by The National Federation of Families with Mentally Ill in Japan addressed to the board of Japanese Society of Psychiatry of Neurology (JSPN), requesting to rename schizophrenia as the then-official term for the condition, Seishin-Bunretsu-Byo, or ‘mind-splitting disease’, was humiliating. A committee was established within JSPN to address the issue, public comments were collected, a new name ‘Togo-Shitcho-Sho’ (‘disintegration disorder’) was approved in 2002, and in 2005, the new name was adopted in the Revised Mental Health and Welfare Act. This paper describes the process of renaming, and also the current situation in Korea, Taiwan, China, Hong Kong and Malaysia, where Chinese characters are used. Also, it presents alternative names for schizophrenia that have been suggested in the process of two research projects conducted by the authors and also additional candidates suggested by others.
An epitaxial NdFeAs(O,F) thin film of 90 nm thickness grown by molecular beam epitaxy on MgO single crystal with Tc = 44.2 K has been investigated regarding a possible vortex glass–liquid transition. The voltage–current characteristics show excellent scalability according to the vortex-glass model with a static critical exponent ν of around 1.35 and a temperature-dependent dynamic exponent z increasing from 7.8 to 9.0 for the investigated temperature range. The large and non-constant z values are discussed in the frame of 3D vortex glass, thermally activated flux motion, and inhomogeneity broadening.