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As in its first edition, this book traces the contours of select US common law doctrinal developments concerning international commercial arbitration. This new edition supplements the foundational work contained in the first edition in order to produce a broader and deeper work. The author explores how the US common law may help bridge cross-cultural legal differences by focusing on the need to address these contrasting approaches through the nomenclature and goal of securing equality between party-autonomy and arbitrator discretion in international commercial arbitration. This book thus focuses on the common law development of arbitrator immunity, as well as the precepts of party-initiative and –autonomy forming part of the US common law discovery rubric that may contribute to promoting expediency, efficiency and transparency in international commercial arbitration proceedings. It does so by carefully analyzing, among other things, the IBA Rules on Evidence Gathering, the Prague Rules, and the role of 28 U.S.C. §1782 in international arbitration.
Selective fetal growth restriction (sFGR) affects about 10–15% of monochorionic (MC) twin pregnancies. When presenting during the second trimester, sFGR is a severe complication, with potentially significant risks of intrauterine demise or neurological adverse outcome for both the growth-restricted and the normally grown [1–9] fetuses. Unequal placental sharing (Figure 37.1), often associated with velamentous cord insertion, is the main cause of the development of sFGR in MC twins [10–14]. The natural history of sFGR in MC twins depends both on the discordance in placental territories and on the pattern of placental anastomoses. The blood flow interchange through vascular anastomoses interferes with the natural evolution of placental insufficiency, because the small fetus receives extra oxygen and nutrients from its normally grown co-twin. The pattern of vascular anastomoses, which may differ substantially among MC pregnancies, explains the remarkable differences in clinical course and outcomes that can be observed in pregnancies with similar degrees of fetal weight discordance [1, 12, 15, 16]. Consequently, a large interfetal blood flow interchange will result in a milder clinical course and better outcomes, while placentas with small/few anastomoses and little blood flow interchange will usually be associated with a more severe clinical course. Aside from these, large artery-to-artery (AA) anastomoses connecting the two cords may be present, and also have a strong influence on the clinical evolution.
This research communications addresses the hypothesis that a part of iso 17:0 and anteiso 17:0 in milk fat could come from endogenous extraruminal tissue synthesis. In order to confirm this a linear regression model was applied to calculate the proportions of iso 17:0 and anteiso 17:0 in milk fat that could come from elongation of their putative precursors iso 15:0 and anteiso 15:0, respectively. Sixteen dairy goats were allocated to two simultaneous experiments, in a crossover design with four animals per treatment and two experimental periods of 25 d. In both experiments, alfalfa hay was the sole forage and the forage to concentrate ratio (33 : 67) remained constant. Experimental diets differed on the concentrate composition, either rich in starch or neutral detergent fibre, and they were administered alone or in combination with 30 g/d of linseed oil. Iso 15:0, anteiso 15:0, iso 17:0 and anteiso 17:0, the most abundant branched-chain fatty acids in milk fat, were determined by gas chromatography using two different capillary columns. The regression model resolved that 49% of iso 17:0 and 60% of anteiso 17:0 in milk fat was formed extraruminally from iso 15:0 and anteiso 15:0 elongation.
Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive types of cancer which currently does not have a cure. Its invasive nature and heterogeneity makes its complete surgical removal impossible. Hence, a targeted treatment is critically needed to effectively eradicate this cancer. In this work, the authors report the synthesis of hollow TiO2 nanospheres (HTiO2NS) and their functionalization with folic acid (FA) and zinc (II) tetranitrophthalocyanine (ZnPc) to achieve cell selectivity and light absorption in the visible range. In vitro cytotoxicity of the functionalized HTiO2NS against M059K cell line (Human GBM cancer cells) was tested. In vitro generation of reactive oxygen species by HTiO2NS–FA–ZnPc nanostructures under UV irradiation was detected by fluorescence probing. To identify HTiO2NS–FA–ZnPc cell localization, the nanoparticles were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate dye and visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Results illustrate that HTiO2NS–FA–ZnPc nanostructures have the potential to be used for targeted photodynamic therapy for the treatment of GBM cancer.
Parasites inflict many costs on their hosts. Understanding host–parasite relationship eco-evolutionary dynamics needs appreciation of how parasites affect individual fitness, survival and reproductive potential, and how they combine to influence population demography, dynamics and viability; also, how these processes drive microevolutionary processes that define natural and sexual selection. We synthesise work on the relationship between the red grouse and its main parasite, a gastrointestinal nematode. At individual level, we show how parasites impose a physiological cost, measured by immunosuppression and increased oxidative stress, and how their impact varies depending on contexts. We describe how parasite infection constrains expression of sexually selected traits and summarise how relationships between parasite, host and environment shape host population demography and dynamics. Genetic analyses in red grouse suggest nematode burden is moderately heritable, underpinned by a potentially large array of genes involved in the immune system, energy balance and broader homeostatic processes. There is no clear association between allele frequencies among populations and differences in nematode burdens. Possibly, beneficial alleles for parasite resistance cannot spread through the population due to the strong diversifying e?ects of gene ?ow and genetic drift.
The prediction of void fraction, which relies on interfacial force models, is a major issue in the context of boiling. The two-fluid model requires the modelling of the momentum transfer between phases. When bubbles are small (particle hypothesis), the momentum transfer is related to interfacial forces acting on bubbles. However, the splitting of these forces into drag, lift, added mass, etc., is not straightforward from the local point of view, where only the total interfacial force is defined as an integral of the constraint over the interface. For large-size bubbles, the particle hypothesis can be questioned. The momentum transfer can then be connected to the forces acting on a fluid element of the vapour phase. Based on the local and averaged formulations of the Navier–Stokes equations, a new balance equation for forces enables us to define lift, drag, added-mass and dispersion forces acting on a fluid element of the vapour phase. This equation gives a local definition for all the forces responsible for spatial distribution of bubbles and reflects the meaning usually assigned to the interfacial forces in the particle approach. Through this means, the link between the local formulation and physical phenomena is established and a new way of modelling the lift force is proposed. Furthermore, a new laminar dispersion force which relies on surface tension and pressure effects is introduced. The analysis of the budget equation on our direct numerical simulation database brings into light the large influence of this laminar dispersion force in the migration process. Different well-known physical behaviours can be modelled via this new force: the horizontal clustering of spherical bubbles in laminar flows and the oscillating trajectories of deformable bubbles.
Cyberbullying has aroused scientific interest given the impact it has on the lives of young people. The present study proposes to analyze the relationship between self-concept (Self-Description Questionnaire I), academic goals (Achievement Goals Tendencies Questionnaire), and the participation of the roles of victim, bully and bystander in cyberbullying (Cyberbullying. Screening for peer bullying and cyberbullying), by gender and grade. The sample was composed of 548 students (49.8% girls) in 5th and 6th grade of Primary Education (Mage = 10.95, SD = 0.7). Logistic regression analyses showed the explicative role of social self-concept and learning goals in the three roles, highlighting the academic self-concept and achievement goals in the victims, as well as the high social reinforcement goals in bullies and bystanders. This relation varied slightly according to gender and grade, being the motivational orientation towards school achievement a protector of victimization in girls and 6th grade students. The findings are discussed, pointing out their involvement in the development of preventive cyberbullying programs in preadolescence.
Cognitive functions encompass the mental processes that take place in the brain, in the central nervous system, related to thinking, decision making, planning, paying attention, remembering. In recent years, the increasing prevalence of dementia in the general population has led to a growing interest in stimulating cognitive functions. This greater awareness of the importance of preserving and improving our cognitive functions has been accompanied by a proliferation of brain training programmes, especially with the expansion of new technologies. Even so, neuropsychological rehabilitation and its application in different pathologies have been in use for more than a century. While different assessments and treatment procedures for brain injury began to be developed in the 1970s, neuropsychological evaluations acquired a relevant status in the world of psychiatry in the late twentieth century, with a particular focus on schizophrenia. Currently, the study of cognitive functioning has been extended to other psychiatric illnesses, especially affective disorders such as bipolar disorder and depression.
As has been pointed out in the introduction, not only does bipolar disorder have a clinical impact but it can also affect other important areas in the lives of people who suffer from it, and their significant others. Therefore, the treatment of the disease should be comprehensive, taking into consideration different areas influenced by the illness. The sessions presented here, written in an informative way to be shared with those suffering from the illness, aim to cover clinical aspects and issues related to physical health, cognitive and psychosocial functioning, and the enhancement of well-being and quality of life. In order to address all these areas, the integrative approach was designed based on a combination of different psychological treatments previously described. Some contents of psychoeducation for patients have been combined with a session for family members, and complemented with aspects related to health promotion, mindfulness training and strategies for cognitive and functional enhancement, always adjunctive to pharmacological treatment. Therefore, the programmes represent the pillars on which the different modules of the integrative treatment were built.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic-depressive syndrome, is a chronic and recurrent mental illness that affects the mechanisms that regulate mood and may result in a high level of personal, familial, social and economic burden.
It is estimated that bipolar disorders affect approximately 2.4% of the global population (Merikangas et al. 2011). The illness onset typically occurs during young adulthood, although the diagnosis is often delayed, worsening the long-term prognosis (Altamura et al. 2015). Therefore, an early diagnosis is crucial to establishing an appropriate treatment plan as soon as possible.
Stress is part of life. As discussed previously, some degree of stress can be stimulating to achieve certain goals. However, when the level of stress is maintained, the effects can be detrimental to health. Stress depends not only on the objective situation, but especially on factors related to how we interpret the situation and the resources we believe we have to deal with it. Faced with a stressful situation, the body undergoes a series of physiological reactions that involve the activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and the autonomic nervous system. What happens in the stress response is that a real or imagined problem causes the cerebral cortex to send an alarm to the hypothalamus, which then stimulates part of the nervous system to make a series of changes in the body. These include changes in the heart and breathing rates, muscle tension, metabolism and blood pressure, among others. The adrenal glands secrete corticoids which shut down processes such as digestion, growth, tissue repair and the responses of the immune system.
Every illness represents in some way a threat and increases the sense of vulnerability. The diagnosis of a chronic and recurrent mental disorder influences a person’s self-image and has a strong impact on all members of the family. In the adjustment to the diagnosis, each individual usually undergoes a process in which a variety of beliefs and emotions may arise that will have to be dealt with, in parallel to education about and acceptance of the disorder. It is common for denial to appear first, attributing what has happened to external factors. There is also a tendency for the patient to deny the chronic nature of the disorder, refusing the possibility that another episode may occur. The onset of the disease can often be accompanied by a marked sense of loss, experienced both by the person receiving the diagnosis and by his or her relatives: the loss of the healthy self together with an increase in the feeling of vulnerability, real losses as a consequence of the episodes (work is impaired, social difficulties arise, ruptures occur, family are affected, financial problems ensue, etc.) or perceived loss, sometimes erroneously, of expectations about the person him- or herself or about the future.
Considering the recurrent and chronic nature of bipolar disorder, optimal long-term management requires a preventive strategy that includes pharmacological treatments together with psychological therapies that have shown efficacy in bipolar disorder. Adjunctive psychological interventions, always as an added treatment to the pharmacological therapy, would ensure the effect of medication through the promotion of adherence to therapy regimen (MacDonald et al. 2016), which is often suboptimal in those with bipolar disorder (Levin et al. 2016), and would address other aspects that medication alone cannot reach.