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Autobiography and life-writing have been popular genres and were frequently used by writers as a vehicle to create political impact. Building on the scholarship of Bart Moore-Gilbert and Javed Majeed, this chapter compares the political autobiographies of two well-known global public figures, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru. Whilst such works may not routinely be located as part of the trajectory of black and Asian British cultural production, both Gandhi and Nehru spent many formative years in Britain and both books were first published prior to Independence in 1947 when Nehru and Gandhi were British colonial citizens. Moreover, despite their respective political differences with the British as they fought for Independence, they often portrayed themselves as being both ‘of’ and ‘not of’ the place. The chapter also makes reference to autobiographical writings by other well-known colonial citizens of empire, including poet turned Gandhian activist, Sarojini Naidu, and Kenya’s and Ghana’s future prime ministers, Jomo Kenyatta and Kwame Nkrumah.
Time-restricted feeding (TRF) confers protection against nutritional challenges that predispose obesity and metabolic risks through involvement of circadian locomotor output cycles protein kaput genes and gut microbiome, but the underlying mechanism is not clearly understood. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of TRF on metabolic markers and circadian rhythm associated with gut microbiota in healthy males. Two groups (TRF, n 56; non-TRF, n 24) of male adults were enrolled. The TRF group provided blood at pre-TRF and post-TRF, while non-TRF one time after 25 d of trial. Serum lipid and liver profiles were determined. Real time-PCR was applied for circadian and inflammatory gene expression. The 16S rRNA genes were sequenced on the Illumina Miseq v3 platform to comprehensively catalogue the composition and abundance of bacteria in stool. We showed that TRF ameliorated the serum lipid and liver profiles of the individuals. In the TRF group, gut microbial richness was significantly enhanced, with enrichment of Prevotellaceae and Bacteroideaceae. TRF enhanced circadian gene expression probably by activation of sirtuin-1, which is positively associated with gut microbiome richness. TRF could be a safe remedy for the prevention of metabolic diseases related to dyslipidaemia, as it regulates circadian rhythm associated with gut microbiome modulation.
Drought stress negatively affects the cotton production all over the world. The negative impact of drought varies for different species due to some morphological and root attributes that help some species to better stand under drought. But the extent of disturbance varies for different cotton species. To find out such variation, two cotton species (Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium arboreum) were studied under normal and drought conditions for 2 years. Two genotypes for each species were included, i.e. PC-1 and COMILLA (G. arboreum) and IUB-13 and IUB-65 (G. hirsutum). The experiment was laid out under a completely randomized design following factorial arrangement. Genotype × treatment × year interaction of cotton genotypes was studied for different root, morphological, physiological and fibre-related traits. Traits such as above ground dry biomass, above ground fresh biomass, chlorophyll contents, leaf area, seed cotton yield, sympodial branches/plant, fibre strength and ginning out-turn were higher in G. hirsutum genotypes as compared to G. arboreum genotypes. However less reduction under drought in all above mentioned traits was recorded for G. arboreum, than G. hirsutum. Furthermore, root traits; primary root length, lateral root numbers, root fresh weight and root dry weight were enriched under drought condition in G. arboreum genotypes than in G. hirsutum genotypes, which is a clear manifestation of higher drought tolerance ability in G. arboreum genotypes transferrable to G. hirsutum genotypes through interspecific crossing or other means.
Medical responders are at-risk of experiencing a wide range of negative psychological health conditions following a disaster.
Published literature was reviewed on the adverse psychological health outcomes in medical responders to various disasters and mass casualties in order to: (1) assess the psychological impact of disasters on medical responders; and (2) identify the possible risk factors associated with psychological impacts on medical responders.
A literature search of PubMed, Discovery Service, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases for studies on the prevalence/risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental disorders in medical responders of disasters and mass casualties was carried out using pre-determined keywords. Two reviewers screened the 3,545 abstracts and 28 full-length articles which were included for final review.
Depression and PTSD were the most studied outcomes in medical responders. Nurses reported higher levels of adverse outcomes than physicians. Lack of social support and communication, maladaptive coping, and lack of training were important risk factors for developing negative psychological outcomes across all types of disasters.
Disasters have significant adverse effects on the mental well-being of medical responders. The prevalence rates and presumptive risk factors varied among three different types of disasters. There are certain high-risk, vulnerable groups among medical responders, as well as certain risk factors for adverse psychological outcomes. Adapting preventive measures and mitigation strategies aimed at high-risk groups would be beneficial in decreasing negative outcomes.
Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a common benign lesion that causes significant morbidity due to the failure of modern medical and surgical treatment. Surface ultra-structures of giant cells (GCs) may help in distinguishing aggressive tumors from indolent GC lesions. This study aimed to standardize scanning electron microscopic (SEM) imaging of GC from GCT of bone. Fresh GCT collected in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium was washed to remove blood, homogenized, or treated with collagenase to isolate the GCs. Mechanically homogenized and collagenase-digested GCs were imaged on SEM after commonly used drying methodologies such as air-drying, tetramethylsilane (TMS)-drying, freeze-drying, and critical point-drying (CPD) for the optimization of sample processing. The collagenase-treated samples yielded a greater number of isolated GC and showed better surface morphology in comparison to mechanical homogenization. Air-drying was associated with marked cell shrinkage, and freeze-dried samples showed severe cell damage. TMS methodology partially preserved the cell contour and surface structures, although the cell shape was distorted. GC images with optimum surface morphology including membrane folding and microvesicular structures on the surface were observed only in collagenase-treated and critical point-dried samples. Collagenase digestion and critical point/TMS-drying should be performed for optimal SEM imaging of individual GCs.
Both vitamin D and Fe micronutrient deficiencies are common in Saudi Arabia but the association between them is unclear. The present study aimed to determine whether Fe indices are associated with vitamin D status and other metabolic markers in Arab adolescents.
Single-centre, cross-sectional study gathering anthropometrics, glucose and lipid profile. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), Fe, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation (%) and other parameters were measured.
Vitamin D School Project Database, King Saud University (2014–2016).
Arab adolescents aged 10–17 years randomly selected from the Vitamin D School Project Database (170 Saudi students; 100 girls, seventy boys).
Among Fe indices, only TIBC was found to be significantly and inversely associated with 25(OH)D (r = −0·20; P < 0·01) and only in girls (r = −0·20; P < 0·05). Among cardiometabolic parameters, serum Fe was associated with TAG in boys (r = 0·36; P < 0·01) and inversely associated with HDL-cholesterol in girls (r = −0·29; P < 0·05). Age was the most significant predictor of serum Fe for all participants, accounting for 5 % (R2 = 0·05; P = 0·004) of variance perceived. Serum 25(OH)D and age, on the other hand, were the most significant predictors for TIBC, accounting for 10·1 % (R2 = 0·10; P < 0·001) of variance perceived.
Among healthy Arab adolescents, the association between vitamin D and Fe indices, particularly TIBC, is modest, inverse and sex-dependent. Larger studies with inclusion of markers such as hepcidin and ferritin, vitamin D metabolites and endogenous sex hormones may provide a clearer view of this complex association.
This research identified a gap in understanding the lived experience of long-term disaster resilience (LTDR). Increasing disasters could influence more people. Therefore, understanding LTDR becomes imperative. Little research documents men and women’s reflections following disasters. Current research highlights survivors’ mental health, particularly clinical diagnoses like PTSD. Research remains limited on the social impacts long after disasters.
Research aimed to identify a gendered perspective of the lived experience about what contributes to LTDR three years after Ash Wednesday in 1983, the Victorian floods in 1993 and 2010-11, and the 2009 Black Saturday fires.
A comprehensive, systematized search was conducted of peer-reviewed, grey, and secondary literature for a narrative review and thematic analysis.
106 references were identified. After removing duplicates and papers not fitting the inclusion criteria, two papers met the criteria. However, two borderline papers were included due to the closeness of the timeframe and brevity of research available.
Most research is related to the immediate aftermath or short-term resilience. Papers provided no specific attributes to enhance the lived experience of LTDR as it related to gender. However, factors that could enhance the lived experience of LTDR were drawn from six themes in sociological studies. Presumptive interpretations were made about what factors may provide insight into the social and contextual issues of LTDR. The literature dearth identified the need for long-term disaster resilience research. The most striking conclusion drawn from themes tells how people perceived the way a disaster and the ensuing period affected their personal relationships and circumstances. Overall, positive experiences strengthened their resilience while negative experiences hindered their resilience. While the review resulted in a disappointing outcome, the dearth of LTDR research lacked any reference to gender but confirmed research opportunities for innovative research that could influence policy and practice.
To increase the corrosion prevention of stainless steel implant and fast recovery due to new bone-cell formation at the orthopedic implant site, in the present investigation, a trilayered (with bioceramic interlayer sandwiched between innermost passivated surface and outermost polymer coating) 316L stainless steel (SS) implant was designed and investigated. It was inferred that this new designed implant invokes faster and more bone-cell formation than uncoated commercially available 316L SS implants. Faster bone-cell formation at the coated implant site reduces the initial threat of implant corrosion. The electrochemical corrosion study proved that this model of coated implants is able to prevent corrosion up to 90% better than uncoated commercially available 316L SS. Subsequently, preclinical studies in the rabbit bone defect model (which included histology, radiology, fluorochrome labeling, push-out test, and scanning electron microscopy taken after 45 and 90 days) proved higher rate of new bone tissue formation and better push-out strength between tissue in contact and the coated implant. The toxicological study of vital organs like liver, kidney, and heart also exhibited no abnormality. The outcome of the experimentations indicates suitability of this trilayered 316L SS implant for bone repair and healing.
Ommatissus lybicus de Bergevin (Hemiptera: Tropiduchidae) is a key pest of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera Linnaeus; Arecaceae) with worldwide distribution and various management strategies. To study genetic diversity of date palm hopper, a series of experiments was conducted on genetic structure and genetic diversity of 15 geographic populations of O. lybicus (Abu Musa, Bam, Bushehr, Behbahan, Tezerj, Fin, Jiroft, Shahdad, Jahrom, Ghire Karzin, Ghasre Shirin, Iran; Pakistan; Oman; Egypt; and Tunisia) by amplified fragment length polymorphism, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and 28S rRNA markers. Analysis of molecular variance analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphism data and COI sequences revealed a significant variation among O. lybicus populations (94.12% and 65.08% similarities for amplified fragment length polymorphism and COI, respectively). The 28S rDNA sequences from different populations were identical. Phylogenetic network inferred from amplified fragment length polymorphism data and COI sequences grouped two geographically close populations (Tezerj and Bam) in the two distinct clades while far apart geographical populations bunched in the same or close clades. These two populations experience repeated exposure to heavy pesticide applications annually. In conclusion, study of the genetic structure revealed a considerable variation between O. lybicus populations under intensive chemical strategies.
Stuginski-Barbosa reported a patient with Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS), whose symptoms were transiently improved with tongue movement, postulated to be an oral equivalent of restless leg syndrome (RLS) (Stuginski-Barbosa, 2008).
Four Case Studies are described.
Case 1: A 35 year old pathological left handed woman presented with one-year history of burning and stinging sensations on the sides of the tongue and lips without any known precipitant. It is reduced with chewing gum and eating. For the last few months she noticed tongue movement reduced the burning sensation. Two to three seconds of tongue movement alleviated the burning from 3/10 to 0/10 in intensity, which persists for one minute after cessation of tongue movement.
Case 2: A 57 year old right handed female, three years prior to presentation, had multiple teeth extractions. Four months later, she perceived a rough sensation of her tongue, which has gradually changed to a burning sensation which has persisted since then. The burning is 10/10 in severity and constant. Chewing 24 pieces of gum a day reduces the pain. Movement of the tongue including anterior-posterior protrusion and retraction, side to side movements without contacting surrounding oral mucosa, converted pain from 9/10 to 5/10, which lasted approximately 1 minute.
Case 3: Eight years prior to presentation, this 60 year old woman developed BMS, after dental extraction. The pain involves the tongue (right and center of palate) accompanied by a gritty sandpaper-like sensation. The burning is a level 5/10 in intensity and progressively worsens throughout the day. Burning mouth pain is made less intense with chewing gum and using dental wax. Baseline burning mouth severity is at level 5/10 however, with protrusion, retraction, and side-to-side movement of the tongue, the intensity dropped to 3/10.
Case 4: Three years prior to presentation, a 59 year old female patient suffered severe allergies with onset of burning mouth and absent taste. The burning is in the middle of her tongue, rarely, her palate, but never on her lips. Severity is 2/10 and is worse in the morning, with drinking red wine, and hot drinks. It is better with cold drinks and ice cream. Movement of her tongue side-to-side eliminates the burning severity from 2/10 to 0/10, lasting one minute.
Like the patients described by Stuginski & Barbosa 2008, these four patients showed reduced pain in response to tongue kinesia (Stuginski-Barbosa, 2008). Their mandibulation of gum as an analgesic maneuver may have been due, not to the taste of the gum, but rather to the associated tongue movement that mastication induces. Through moving, large nerve fibers of proprioception are stimulated, which may act through the Gate Controlled Theory of Pain of Melzac and Wall, to reduce unrestricted small nerve fiber discharge, thus inhibiting pain. Query regarding movement or gum chewing inhibition of BMS is warranted.
Nutritional interventions are now recommended as strategies to delay Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. The present study evaluated the neuroprotective effect (anti-inflammation) of lactic acid bacteria (either Lactobacillus fermentum LAB9 or L. casei LABPC) fermented cow's milk (CM) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglial BV2 cells in vitro. The ability of CM-LAB in attenuating memory deficit in LPS-induced mice was also investigated. ICR mice were orally administered with CM-LAB for 28 d before induction of neuroinflammation by LPS. Learning and memory behaviour were assessed using the Morris Water Maze Test. Brain tissues were homogenised for measurement of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), antioxidative, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA)) and nitrosative stress (NO) parameters. Serum was collected for cytokine analysis. CM-LAB9 and CM-LABPC significantly (P < 0·05) decreased NO level but did not affect CD40 expression in vitro. CM-LAB attenuated LPS-induced memory deficit in mice. This was accompanied by significant (P < 0·05) increment of antioxidants (SOD, GSH, GPx) and reduction of MDA, AChE and also pro-inflammatory cytokines. Unfermented cow's milk (UCM) yielded greater cytokine lowering effect than CM-LAB. The present findings suggest that attenuation of LPS-induced neuroinflamation and memory deficit by CM-LAB could be mediated via anti-inflammation through inhibition of AChE and antioxidative activities.
Al Wahbah Crater, located in a remote area in western Saudi Arabia as part of The Harrat extinct volcanic chain, is 2 km wide with a depth of 250 m. It is registered by the General Commission for Tourism and National Heritage as an ancient and archaeological site. The crater is subjected to extreme environmental conditions as its bottom is rarely subjected to rainfall and mudflows. Because of high temperature, high evaporation rates and extremely limited rainfall, the crater leaves behind dried thick white sodium phosphate crystals. Here, we studied the chemical composition and the microbial community composition using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing in different vertical layers (2, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 cm) of the crater sediment. Total sodium concentrations were 28 000– 46 700 ppm and calcium levels were 31 400– 56 500 ppm. In addition, samples were very sulphuric, with sulphate and sulphite levels exceeding 2157 ppm and 5.54 ppm, respectively. Ferric ions concentrations were <0.2 ppm, while nitrate, ammonium and nitrite levels were <2 ppm, 1.5 ppm and 0.05 ppm, respectively. Archaea dominated the surface and the bottom, while bacteria were most common at 20–60 cm. Extremely halophilic archaea and bacteria including Halorhabdus spp. Halorubrum spp., Salinibacter iranicus and Halorhodospira halophila were identified in all samples. Moreover, the relative abundance of Halanaerobiaceae accounted for 22% of the species in the top of the crater. S. iranicus and species belonging to Halorhabdus and Halorubrum that were identified between 60 and 100 cm could be considered as extreme organisms.
On 3 June 1947, the British government announced its plan to divide India into two sovereign dominions, India and Pakistan. The plan included termination of British suzerainty over about five hundred ‘princely states’ in the Indian subcontinent, with effect from 15 August 1947, and recognized the right of states to accede to either dominion. It was implicit in the provisions of transfer of power that with the lapse of paramountcy, princely states would become independent and under no compulsion to sign a new treaty with the successor states of India or Pakistan. Of all the princely states, only Hyderabad Deccan made use of this provision (or a preferred legal reading of it) to become independent before it was annexed by India in September 1948.
The Princely States were a product of a process of British expansion in the region during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. As the British annexed lands from various regional dynasties, which had emerged to replace the Mughal regime, they directly administered most of these territories but allowed their loyal collaborators among the local aristocracy to rule over territories either granted to them or left in their hands. In this way, a distinction was made between British India under direct British rule and princely states that paid homage to the Crown. So even though princely states fell outside the direct preview of the colonial state's administration and a set of rules, the British were able to exercise considerable influence through their resident officer and their power to depose rulers considered inefficient and tyrannical. These princely states maintained many of the royal rituals of the Mughal period. These were expressed from time to time on such occasions as the imperial assemblage of 1877 and the durbars of 1903 and 1911, which brought together the princely cadre in paying homage to their new overlord, much in the way of the old Mughal emperors.
Following the partition of India, the rulers of Bahawalpur, Khairpur, Chitral, Dir, Swat and Amb decided to accede to Pakistan. Kalat, the largest princely state to become part of Pakistan, only acceded in March 1948, seven months after partition.
The increase in natural and man-made disasters occurring worldwide places Emergency Medicine (EM) physicians at the forefront of responding to these crises. Despite the growing interest in Disaster Medicine, it is unclear if resident training has been able to include these educational goals.
This study surveys EM residencies in the United States to assess the level of education in Disaster Medicine, to identify competencies least and most addressed, and to highlight effective educational models already in place.
The authors distributed an online survey of multiple-choice and free-response questions to EM residency Program Directors in the United States between February 7 and September 24, 2014. Questions assessed residency background and details on specific Disaster Medicine competencies addressed during training.
Out of 183 programs, 75 (41%) responded to the survey and completed all required questions. Almost all programs reported having some level of Disaster Medicine training in their residency. The most common Disaster Medicine educational competencies taught were patient triage and decontamination. The least commonly taught competencies were volunteer management, working with response teams, and special needs populations. The most commonly identified methods to teach Disaster Medicine were drills and lectures/seminars.
There are a variety of educational tools used to teach Disaster Medicine in EM residencies today, with a larger focus on the use of lectures and hospital drills. There is no indication of a uniform educational approach across all residencies. The results of this survey demonstrate an opportunity for the creation of a standardized model for resident education in Disaster Medicine.
SarinRR, CattamanchiS, AlqahtaniA, AljohaniM, KeimM, CiottoneGR. Disaster Education: A Survey Study to Analyze Disaster Medicine Training in Emergency Medicine Residency Programs in the United States. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):368–373.
Objective: To determine the referral rate to radiation oncologist (RO), use of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) and the impact of a clinical practice guideline (CPG) on patients with atypical meningioma (AM). Methods: A retrospective review of meningioma patients (n=526) treated between 2003 and 2013 was undertaken. Patients’ characteristics, extent of surgical resection (EOR), RO referral, PORT, date and treatment of first recurrence were collected for all patients >18 years with a new diagnosis of AM after surgical resection (n=83). Progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) according to EOR were assessed by the Log-Rank test of Kaplan-Meier survival. Results: Median age was 57 years. EOR was gross total (GTR) in 44 patients, subtotal (STR) in 36 patients and 3 patients had unknown EOR. RO referral rate was 26.5% (n=22); 5 patients initially had GTR and 17 had STR. Only 7 patients received PORT. At a median follow up time of 29 months, recurrences occurred in 28 patients, 4 had GTR, 21 had STR and 3 had an unknown EOR. With PORT, 2 patients developed recurrence. 5-year PFS was 62% after GTR and 33% after STR (P=0.002). 5-year OS was 92% after GTR and 83% after STR (P=0.45). Conclusion: In this cohort with AM, RO referral rate was low and was not influenced by the CPG. Use of PORT was also low. Given the lack of conclusive evidence supporting PORT in such patients, a multidisciplinary approach, including RO consultation, is needed to provide patients with optimal and individualised care.
David Lewis argues for Ramseyan humility, the thesis that we can’t identify the fundamental properties that occupy the nomological roles at our world. Lewis, however, remarks that there is a potential exception to this, which involves assuming two views concerning qualia (i) panphenomenalism (contemporary panpsychism): all instantiated fundamental properties are qualia and (ii) the identification thesis (revelation): we can know the identities of our qualia simply by being acquainted with them. This paper aims to provide an exposition, as well as an assessment, of this response to the humility thesis.
Zombie art, or salvage art, are artworks that are damaged beyond repair, deemed ‘no-longer-art’ by insurance companies, and removed from the market and stored at claims inventories due to their purported loss of value. This paper aims to make sense of the notion of zombie art. It then aims to determine whether artefacts that fall under this concept retain any aesthetic value, and whether they can genuinely cease being artworks, i.e. be dead art.
In this paper a high gain aperture-coupled membrane antenna with a frequency selective surface (FSS) on a superstrate layer has been investigated. The base membrane antenna consists of a microstrip patch on the top of Roger RT-5580 substrate, supported by FR4 and is excited through an aperture fed by substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW). The CST Microwave Studio simulation results show that the proposed membrane structure has an impedance bandwidth (BW) of 8.85% from 75.97 to 82.96 GHz with a gain of 6.29 dBi at 79 GHz. To improve the gain, a superstrate layer is loaded above the membrane antenna, which increases the gain by 9.11 dB at 79 GHz. Furthermore by using FSS under superstrate layer, the gain is again increased by 2.5 dB. The total antenna structure provides a gain of 17.9 dBi at 79 GHz by keeping the same BW. The measured results are provided for the input matching (S11) only, the simulated results for the antenna gain and radiation patterns are obtained with the use of CST and are validated by using HFSS. The measured S11 BW of the total antenna is from 75.57 to 84.18 GHz (10.89%), which is in agreement with the simulated results.